Wednesday, June 9, 2010

G21: 1477424

1477424. King Edward III & 1477425. Queen Philippa of Hainault

Search for King Edward III

6/22/1311, Philippa born in Valenciennes, France, d/o 2954850. Count William of Hainaut & 2954851. Jeanne of Valois.

11/13/1312 at Windsor castle, Edward III, born s/o 2954848. King Edward II & 2954849. Queen Isabella.

Edward, his brother John, and sister Eleanor lived at Wallingford castle under the care of Joan de Bois.

Prince Edward married his maternal 2nd cousin, Philippa.

1320, Edward named Duke of Aquitaine.

1325, Edward Count of Ponthieu and Montreuil.

9/12/1325 sailing from Dover, Edward, age 12, sent by his father to do homage to King Charles IV for his French lands. [His mother Queen Isabel was already in France. King Charles was his uncle.]

9/24/1325, Edward did homage before King Charles at Vincennes.

Queen Isabel refused to allow Prince Edward to return to England. She arranged for his marriage to Philippa and used the dower money to finance her invasion of England.

1/7/1327, Parliament deposed Edward II.

1/13/1327, The lords mentioned came to the Guildhall, and in the presence of the Mayor, Aldermen and a great Commonality to the oath to safeguard Isabella, Queen of England, and Edward, eldest son of the king of England and heir-apparent, in their cause against Hugh le Despenser the younger and Master Robert de Baldock, … Earls: … Barons:, … knights and serjeants … (S) CPR&Ms.

2/1/1327 at Westminster, Edward, age 14, crowned.

2/28/1327, Envoys sent to the Pope by King Edward III to obtain the canonization of Thomas of Lancaster.

1327, Philippa arrived in England and was housed at Ely Place in London, home of the Bishop of Ely.

9/21/1327, Edward’s father, King Edward II [supposedly] murdered at Berkeley castle.

9/24/1327, Letters from Thomas de Berkeley to both 14-year-old King Edward III and his mother Queen Isabella arrived at Lincoln, where parliament was in session, informing them that King Edward II had died. That same day King Edward III wrote a letter to his cousin, John de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, informing him of the death.

1/24/1328 at York, Edward married Philippa.

2/1/1328, Edward’s mother Isabella’s brother King Charles IV of France died. His wife later gave birth to a daughter. A 12-year-old law in France prevented a daughter from succeeding, but did not disallow succession through a daughter – thus setting up the claim to the throne of Edward III, and the beginning of the hundred years war.

1328, King Edward III in an expedition against the Scots.

5/19/1329, King Edward about to cross over to the ports of France to do his homage gave a procalmation that peace was to be preserved throughout the city of London. King Edward agreed to do simple homage for Acquitaine, but refused to do liege homage. 

3/21/1330, Acknowlegment of the king’s indebtedness to … merchants of the society of the Bardi of Florenc, in 1,000£ paid by them at this request to Roger de Mortuo Mari, earl of March, in the aid of the marriage of his daughter with the eldest son of Thomas, earl of Norfolk and marshal of England; … (S) CPRs.

10/19/1330 at Nottingham castle, King Edward III, along with his courtiers, brothers John, Humphrey and William de Bohun, and others led by William de Montague captured his mother Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer [who was soon executed.]

12/1330, Edward had Queen Isabella escorted to Windsor where she was placed under house arrest.

4/4/1331, King Edward III on a secret visit to France.

7/1333, Edward defeated David II and the Scots at Hallidon Hill in Scotland; then captured Berwick-upon-Tweed. The Scots were led by Sir Archibald Douglas, regent for King David. The attacking Scots were felled by the English archers. The English men-at-arms then mounted their horses and completed the rout. [This would become a favorite tactic of the English forces.] Douglas died in the battle. King David fled to France. Edward de Baliol and other “disinherited” Scots did homage to Edward as rulers of Scotland.

11/25/1334, King Edward, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, again invaded Scotland, advancing as far as Roxburgh, where he repaired the castle for his use.

5/25/1335, King Edward held parliament at York and planned another excursion into Scotland.

6/24/1335, King Edward, leaving from Carlisle, ravaged towns throughout Scotland. Edward was supported by Edward Balliol of Scotland, launching a 2nd attack from Berwick.

8/15/1335, The Scots requested a peace meeting with King Edward.

3/17/1337, King Edward made his eldest son, Edward of Wodestok [the future Black Prince], duke of Cornwall.

4/1337, King Edward sent embassies to make strategic alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Louis VI of Bavaria [whom he promised 60,000£], and numerous vassals in Flanders and Holland, against King Philip VI of France.

11/1337, Edward, claiming the throne of France through his mother, began the 100 Years War with the battle of Cadzand, a Flemish island. With 600 men-at-arms and 2000 archers they embarked on the Thames from London. On the third tide they left Margate for Cadsant. The locals and soldiers saw them coming. The French attached the ships with archers. The English landed with battle axes, sword and lances. Wryneck, Earl of Derby, s/o Henry of Lancaster, was wounded. The English archers then decimated the French. More than 3000 French soldiers were killed. Edward III had the village burnt before returning to England. (S) Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and the adjoining countries …, Froissart, P31.

6/1338, From Pontefract, King Edward attacked the castle of Dunbar, held by Black Agnes, countess of March, who successfully defended the castle.

9/1338, A man calling himself “William the Welshman” met King Edward III near Koblenz in Germany. [The man referred to in the Wardrobe accounts as “William Galeys who calls himself king of England, father of the present king”]

12/1338, “William Galeys” again met with King Edward III in Antwerp.

Edward, unable to provoke a battle with Philip VI of France by his various invasions of France, decided to attack Flanders, which was economically tied to England through the wool market.

9/20/1339, King Edward, with a force of 12,000 attacked Cambresis, Tournai, Vermandois and Laon [in what is now far northern France.]

11/1339, King Edward and the forces of King Philip neared each other at Brabant; however, King Philip retreated without engaging in battle.

2/1340, Having wintered in Hainault, and the costs of the war, totalling nearly 276,000£, King Edward was forced to return to England, leaving hostages for some of the debts incurred.

6/24/1340, Edward, with a fleet of 200 ships, won the Battle of Sluys against the French. The French navy guarded an inlet used as an approach to the continent. In a 9-hour battle the English attacked 166 French ships at their moorings. From his flagship, the Thomas, Edward directed the attack making maximum use of his archers. Most of the French fleet and some Genoese ships were destroyed.

7-8/1340, Edward’s expeditionary force landed at Tournai and laid siege. The archers were ineffective against the stone walls, so Edward returned to England with mastery of the English channel.

1341, The special privileges of the peerage descend from an early period, but it was the quarrel of Edward III with Archbishop Stratford that first made the most valuable of them matters of record. In the course of that dispute the lords recorded that “on no account should peers …be brought to trial or lose their possessions, be arrested, imprisoned, outlawed or forfeited, or be bound to answer or to judge, except in full Parliament and before their peers.”

1342, King Edward participated as a knight bachelor at the Dunstable tournament. [He did not join a retinue – some knights participated in tournaments as a traveling group.] (S) The Tournament in England, Barker, P86.

1/1344, Edward hosted a King’s Round Table feast at Windsor. [The beginning of the Knights of the Garter.]

11/13/1344, Queen Isabella with Edward III at in Norwich for his birthday.

2/5/1345, Earl Richard Fitzalan married widow and 1st cousin Eleanor at Ditton church, Stoke Poges, Bucks with King Edward III present for the wedding.

7/12/1346, Edward landed an invasion force of 10000 in Normandy, which marched north plundering the countryside. King Philip VI, with 8000 horsemen and 4000 Genoese crossbowmen pursued.

7/26/1346 at Caen, capital of Normandy, Edward’s forces captured the city; and Raoul, Count of Eu, Constable of France, and Jean de Tancarville, Grand Chamberlain of France.

Edward stopped at Crecy and took up defensive positions.

8/26/1346, Edward won the Battle of Crecy in France. The French vanguard attacked without orders, commiting the whole army. The English longbowmen could fire much more quickly than the Genoese, with a killing range of 250 yards. A decisive victory, a third of the French forces lost [mainly to arrows] to less than 100 Englishmen, this started the decline in importance of the mounted knight, and the rise of England as a European power.

9/4/1346, Edward started the siege of Calais, France.

8/4/1347, Calais fell when King Philip failed to support their siege and retreated. Queen Philippa’s intervention saved the leaders of the city from being executed.

1348, King Edward participated in the group of knights of Sir Thomas de Bradstone at the Lichfield tournament.

1348, Edward instituted the Knights of the Garter.

1348, After giving birth to a son William, Queen Philippa, at her “churching”, wore a suit of blue velvet with 400 large pearls, 13 pounds of plate gold, and 11 pounds of gold thread.  

1348, the Black Plague began to spread in Europe. [England would lose about a third of its population, France about a fourth.]

4/23/1350, King Edward held a great feast at Windsor castle, founding a chantry, and establishing a hostel for impoverished knights. [Founding of the order of St. George of the Garter.]

8/29/1350, Edward’s naval forces defeated a Spanish fleet at the battle of Winchelsea, one of the Cinque Ports of southeastern England. Using grappling hooks and bording tactics, the English destroyed most of the Spanish vessels. Edward’s ship was rammed, and sinking, when he and his sons were rescued by Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Edward’s mastery of the English channel was still intact.

1351, King Edward instituted the Statute of Labourers to keep wages down [due to shortages caused by the plague], and preventing labourers from moving from manor to manor.

1352, King Edward paroled David, king of Scotland, to return home to negotiate his ransom. [David was not supported in his efforts and returned to London.]

1353, King Edward ordered that all cases in the London Sheriff’s court were to be conducted in English.

9/9/1355, King Edward and Henry, duke of Lancaster, sail for Normandy from Plymouth, with the Black Prince who had been appointed lieutenant in Gascony; to oppose raids by the count of Armagnac.

10/1/1355, Landing in Calais, King Edward proceeds on raids into Pas de Calais, Artois and Picady.

By 11/15/1355, Edward returns to England; leaving his son to attack other areas.

2/1356, King Edward started a campaign in southern Scotland.

1356, Edward sent his son Prince Edward, the Black Prince, on a raid into the heart of France.

9/26/1356, Prince Edward, the Black Prince, captured King John II of France at the battle of Poitiers.

1356, Philippa’s sister, Countess Margaret of Hainault, died.

10/1357-5/1358, Edward III visited his mother Queen Isabella 4 times.

4/23/1358, Edward III held a jousting tournament at Windsor.

8/1358, Edward III ordered the streets of London cleaned for his mother’s funeral.

2/1359, Edward III ordered the construction of a tomb for his mother’s body.

10/1359, Edward, sailing from Sandwich to Calais with 1,100 ships, again invaded France, eventually taking Saint-Florentin and Tonnerre. Edward reached Paris, setting the suburbs on fire, before turning back to Brittany [Edward decided a siege of Paris was not feasible.]

5/8/1360, Edward, at the Peace of Bretigny, relinquished his claim to the French crown in return for undisputed title to Aquitaine, Calais, and Ponthieu. King John’s ransom was set at 3,000,000 gold crowns [500,000 pounds sterling.]

7/4/1360, King Edward presented captured King John of France with a keyboard instrument.

1360, Queen Philippa in a riding accident [which would cause a decline in her health.]

1362, King Edward replaced French as the national language with English.

6/22/1362, King Edward made a treaty with King Peter I of Castile.

11/13/1362, for his 50th birthday, Edward created son John the Duke of Lancaster, son Lionel the Duke of Clarence, and son Edmund the Earl of Cambridge.

8/14/1369, Philippa died of the Black death at Windsor castle; buried at Westminster Abbey, London.  Froissart: “the good Queen, that so many good deeds had done in her time, and so many knights succoured, and ladies and damsels comforted.”

Edward fell under the influence of his mistress Alice Perrers who preferred John of Gaunt as advisor to the Black Prince, the heir apparent.

1373, King Edward allowed Bristol to become the 1st provencial city to be raised to the status of a county with its own sheriff.

1/1376, Edward summoned the “Good Parliament”.

6/8/1376, Edward’s son, the Black Prince, died.

10/7/1376 at Haveryngge atte Bower, Edward wrote his will: … to our future heir Richard … and entire bed, marked with the arms of France and England … to Johanna, late the wife of the aforesaid Edward, our eldest son, one thousand marks, … to Isabel, countess of Bedford, … (S) Testamenta Vetusta, V1, 1826, P11.

6/21/1377, King Edward died of a stroke; succeeded by his grandson King Richard II. Edward buried in Westminster Abbey.

(S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000.

Children of Edward and Philippa: [9 of 12 children surviving]

i. Prince Edward of Wales, born 6/30/1330 at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, England.
[See Joan of Kent (1477429).]

v. Lionel of Antwep (15210590), born 11/29/1338 in Antwerp, Belgium.

vi. Prince John of Gaunt (738712), born 3/1340 in Flanders.

vii. Edmund of Langley, born 6/5/1341 at Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England.
Edmund married Isabel of Castille and Leon. [Sister of Constanza married to his brother John.]
8/6/1385, Edmund created 1st Duke of York. [Ancestor of House of York.]
1392, Isabella died.
Edmund married Joan Holland. [No children.]
8/1/1402, Edmund died in Hertfordshire.

xii. Thomas of Woodstock (3802866), born 1/7/1355 at Woodstock, Oxfordshire.