Monday, October 3, 2011
G25: 19989510 King Alexander II
8/24/1198, Alexander II of Scotland, born at Haddington, Lothian, Scotland, s/o 19989906. King William of Scotland & 19989907. Ermengard de Beaumont.
Bef. 3/17/1199, Alexander named in an agreement between Sir Roger, bishop of St Andrews, and Abbot Henry and the convent of Arbroath.
1200, Alexander betrothed to Marie, d/o King Philip of France [not finalized.]
10/12/1201 at Musselburgh, the Scottish nobility swore fealty to Alexander II.
2/1212, Queen Ermengard acted as a negotiator when King William and King John met at Durham; resulting in a peace agreement, part of which stipulated that Prince Alexander would be given an English wife.
3/8/1212 at London, King John knighted Alexander at Clerkenwell priory.
10/28/1213, Pope Innocent III commands William, king of Scotland, and Alexander his son, now that peace is made between John, king of England, and the priesthood in England, to remain in fealty to the king and his heirs.
12/6/1213 at Edinburgh, Alexander put his seal on an agreement is formed between Muiredach (Mauricius) earl of Menteith and Muiredach his younger brother, due to a lawsuit that was between them over the earldom of Menteith, which Muiredach junior sought as his right and his inheritance.
12/4/1214, Alexander’s father died.
12/5/1214 at Scone, Alexander crowned King of the Scots, “with more pomp and ceremony than anyone before him.” All 7 Scottish earls were present.
1214, Richard de Montealto, justiciary of Scotland, witnessed a confirmation of King Alexander II.
1215, The barons of northern England renewed their homage to King Alexander for his English lands.
1215, Alexander’s forces defeated a revolt of the cals of Meic Uilleim and MacHeths.
1215, Alexander led forces in northern England as the barons revolted against King John. Alexander’s brother-in-law, Eustace de Vesci, lord of Alnwick in Northumberland, was a leading baron in the revolt.
6/1215, The signing of the Magna Carta by King John included a promise to answer grievances of Alexander’s vassals. [King John then arranged for all of the barons to be excommunicated – starting a war.]
7/7/1215 at Kelso, King Alexander II to John, king of England; informs him that he has appointed William, bishop of St Andrews, Philip de Mowbray, Robert de St Germain, Walter Lindsey, Ingram de Balliol and John Maxwell with full authority to negotiate concerning business he has against John to be transacted in John's court.
10/22/1215 at Felton, The rebel barons of Northumberland gave homage to Alexander as their rightful lord. Alexander attacked Norham with little success.
1/1216, King John led a successful counter attack against Alexander and the northern barons; burning 4 Scottish burghs and capturing Carlisle.
9/1216 at Dover, England, Alexander paid homage to invading Prince Louis of France for 3 shires in northern England.
10/28/1216, Henry III, age 9, crowned king of England.
Alexander conquered Cumberland and followed with incursions into Northumberland estates of English-supporting barons.
1/16/1217, Pope Honorius III writes to King Alexander II … The pope earnestly commands and urges him …, that having regard to the tender age of …, Henry the king of England, …, he return to the fealty of the said king, and his devotion to the apostolic see, notwithstanding his disloyal oaths made to Louis, the Dauphin.
5/1217, The forces of England defeated the barons and French at the battle of Lincoln.
9/12/1217, Prince Louis and Alexander siigned the Treaty of Kingston-Lambeth with the English. [Rejected by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Gwynedd in Wales.]
11/21/1218, Pope Honorius III grants to Alexander, king of Scots, and his successors, following the example of his predecessors Popes Celestine and Innocent and considering that the Scottish church, in which there are the following dioceses, St Andrews, Dunblane, Glasgow, Dunkeld, Brechin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross and Caithness, was subject immediately to the apostolic see, that no one except the pope or his legate a latere shall promulgate a sentence of interdict or excommunication.
1219, Because the restoration of lands between England and Scotland was not progressing, the papal Legate Randulph was assigned to negotiate a settlement.
10/3/1219 at Edinburgh, King Alexander II for Coupar Angus Abbey; with agreement of bishop of St Andrews, has given church of Airlie.
6/15/1220, King Alexander II makes known that he undertakes to marry Joan, eldest sister of Sir Henry, king of England, … and, if not, he swears that he will marry Isabel, younger sister of King Henry, within fifteen … The earl of Buchan [William Comyn], Alan of Galloway, constable, and other barons of the king, that is, Philip de Mowbray, Walter Olifant, Duncan of Carrick, Henry de Balliol, Thomas Durward, John of Maxwell, David Marshal, Walter Comyn …
8/2/1220 at York, A final settlement on the issue of lands between England and Scotland was signed between King Alexander and King Henry’s representative, Stephen de Segrave, knight.
1221, Alexander fought a naval engagement at Argyll against a Galwegian fleet led by Somerled, son of Gillecolum.
12/25/1221, King Henry III knighted Alexander and 20 of his nobles in the cathedral at York. (S) Historical and Scientific Survey of York, 1906, P45.
12/26/1221 at York, Alexander 1st married Joanna, age 11, eldest daughter of King John of England. [No children.]
2/6/1222, A. King of Scots has made fine with the king [Henry III] by £200 for having custody of the heirs of David de Lindes’, with their marriage, and with all lands that fall to the heirs by inheritance of the lands formerly of John de Limes’, their kinsman. (S) FRsHIII.
1222, Alexander marched north with an army after the murder of Adam, bishop of Caithness. Earl John of Orkeny was forced to surrender the murderers and had his lands taken [restored the next year.]
5/9/1223 at Ayr, King Alexander II has granted, and by his charter established, to his burgh and burgesses of Ayr all liberties and customs which his other burghs and burgesses have.
1223, Richard, son of King John, with King Alexander II of Scotland – his brother-in-law, made a pilgrimmmage to Canterbury.
1224, King Alexander imposed a tax ot 10,000£ as a subsidy for the marriage of his sisters.
7/5/1224 at Musselburgh, King Alexander II writes to Gilbert, bishop of Caithness, the abbot of Kinloss, and Henry, dean of Ross, noting that he desires to transfer see of Moray to site beside Elgin.
5/9/1225 at Glascow, King Alexander II for Glasgow Cathedral; has granted donation which Robert of London, his brother, made for its lighting of one stone of wax, to be received yearly from Roger de Sancta Fide and Robert of Newham and their heirs.
10/27/1225, By a fine that the king’s [Henry III] faithful and beloved brother Alexander, King of Scots, has made with the king, he has granted to the same king, until the full age of the heirs of H. Bigod, formerly earl of Norfolk, those 50 librates of land. (S) FRsHIII.
11/22/1225, Charter by King Alexander II confirming to Bishop Walters and his successors the right to have a Burgh at Glasgow. (S) Charters … City of Glasgow, V1, Pt2, P430.
1225-28, Roger le Bigod, a ward of his brother-in-law Alexander II of Scotland. [Roger married Alexander’s sister Isabella.]
3/11/1226, King Alexander grants to burgh, burgesses and inhabitants of Dumbarton an annual fair of 8 days duration with all customs and liberties of fairs of burghs of Roxburgh and Haddington.
2/26/1227 at Linlithgow, King Alexander II has built a burgh at Dingwall in Ross and to burgh and his burgesses there he has granted all liberties and free customs enjoyed by his burgesses of Inverness.
8/15/1227, There is a dispute between the [Alexander] King of Scots and R. earl of Chester. (S) FRsHIII.
4/22/1228, Inspeximus … charter of Roger le Bigod, son of Hugh le Bigod, … bound to lodge 1,000£ of silver at the New Temple on behalf of Alexander, king of Scots, and to thold the said king harmless, who was bound to deposit that sum there … 500 marks which the said king has given to Isabel, wife of the said Roger, … (S) CChRs.
6/30/1228 at Elgin, King Alexander II has given land of 'Robynfeld', by its right marches, to maintain bridge of Spey.
1228, Alexander traveled to Moray after the death of Thomas of Thirlestane; and began eliminating the MacWilliams, executing all of the klan, including a baby girl. This started the rise of the Comyns. William Comyn, justiciar of Scotia and warden of Moray, had captured the MacWilliams leaders. [Alexander’s father had also had to handle revolts of this clan.]
3/10/1229 at Edinburgh, King Alexander II for Margaret, his younger sister; has given, for her marriage, all his land of Tynedale, to be held for one hawk yearly at feast of St Michael, reserving to king the homages and services of William Comyn and William de Ros, and advowson of church of Simonburn.
12/1229, Alexander and King Henry III kept their Christmas feast together at York.
1230, Alexander made Walter Comyn lord of Badenoch, a large fife stretching from Lochaber to th eupper valley of Spey.
1230, A Norse fleet sailed into Clyde, landed on Bute, and stormed Alan of Galloway’s castle of Rothesay. King Alexander led an army in relief.
7/10/1230, King Alexander II for Dryburgh Abbey; has granted all donations, possessions and liberties which were granted and established to them from time of King David, his great-grandfather, and King Malcolm, his uncle, and Sir William, the king, his father. (S) POMS.
2/3/1231, King Alexander II announces that he has founded an abbey of Cistercian order at Balmerino in Fife.
4/27/1231, Pope Gregory IX writes … As the pope loves the English king, as a special son of the Apostolic See, and embraces Alexander as devoted to the Roman Church, and thus earnestly desires to see them in the bond of unity, and discord between them grieves and distracts him, he thinks it fitting to ask and exhort the king of Scots to study to observe more fully his obligations to Henry, …
1231, King Alexander made Walter, son of Alan of Galloway, Grand Justicary of Scotland, replacing Walter Comyn.
9/6/1231 at Linlighgow, King Alexander II for Absalon, son of Macbeth; has granted donation which Maldoven, earl of Lennox, made of island called Clairinsh (STL), with licence of common fishing in king's stank in Loch Lomond.
2/10/1232 at Selkirk, King Alexander II to his sheriffs; command to prosecute cases of monks of Balmerino Abbey against malefactors just as his own, and takes monks and their men under his protection.
2/7/1233, King Alexander II for Holyrood Abbey; has granted donation which Roger de Quincy made of teinds of his hay of Tranent.
10/12/1233, King Alexander II, for Arbroath Abbey; at petition of Alan Durward, has granted wood of Trustach, which Alan's father, Thomas Durward, had granted to monks, in free forest. No one may fell timber or hunt there without their licence, on pain of king's full forfeiture of £10.
7/18/1234, Charter of donation of King Alexander II to monks of Coupar Angus of £10 which king used to receive each year from abbot of Coupar Angus for land of Glenisla.
1/13/1235, Pope Gregory IX commands the bishop of Moray …, duplicate letters of credit were given … a debt of 1,060 marks; which, when the king paid, the clerk kept the duplicate letters, refusing to give them up. The pope orders that, if any further debt is contracted at any time by means of the letters withheld, the king [Alexander] is not to be molested in regard to it.
7/1235, Alexander led an army to suppressed a revolt in Galloway. Early in the campaign, Alexander’s forces were ambushed. Alexander was saved by the arrival of forces under Ferchar, earl of Ross. The next day a peace was arranged.
10/13/1235, Charter by King Alexander II granting to Bishop William of Glasgow his chancellor … should be exempted from paying toll through his whole kingdom, … . (S) Charters … City of Glasgow, V1, Pt2, P431.
7/23/1236, King Alexander II for Richard of Moray; has handed over at feu-ferme Meikle Kincorth … Witnesses … Alan Durward.
12/27/1236 at Stirling, King Alexander II for Dunfermline Abbey; in exchange for alms monks used to receive from his demesnes at Kinghorn and Crail in wheat, flour, oats, malt, meal and money, and for all their rights in kitchens of king and queen, has given his land of Dollar in feu of Clackmannan.
5/7/1237, Cardinal Legate Otho was sent from Rome to restore peace between Scotland and England. (S) Ecclesiastical Chronicle for Scotland, V1, Gordon, 1875, P152.
6/1237, Alexander’s cousin and potential successor, John of Scotland, earl of Huntingdon, died.
9/25/1237 at York, By treaty, Alexander II of Scotland asserted to King Henry of England that he was owed Northumberland as dowry of Joanna. King Henry acknowledge a grant of Tynedale in Northumberland, as well as the Earldom of Chester.
3/4/1238, Joan died in Essex, buried at Tarant Crawford Abbey, co. Dorset.
7/28/1238, King Alexander II for Maldoven, son of Alwin, earl of Lennox; he has given earldom of Lennox, which his father held, except castle of Dumbarton and land of Murroch.
2/23/1239, King Alexander II for Newbattle Abbey; he has granted donation David Lindsay made of land of Glengonnar and Glencaple in territory of Crawford.
5/15/1239, Alexander married Marie de Coucy.
4/30/1240 at Elgin, Andrew, bishop of Moray, … announce those things which prior and convent of Pluscarden have from grants … of Alexander, king of Scots, which they have caused to be read publicly in synod to avoid confusion.
8/1/1240 at Stirling, King Alexander II for Gillascop MacGilcrist; has given 5 pennylands of Finchairn …
8/28/1241 at Selkirk, King Alexander II to John de Vaux, sheriff of Edinburgh, Gilbert Fraser, sheriff of Traquair, … command to go in person to Leithen … to cause an extent to be made …, of pasture of Leithen Hopes.
10/31/1241, Alexander III, King of the Scots to the Provosts of Perth, greetings. … (S) Ancient Capital of Scotland, V2, Cowan, 1904, P387.
7/15/1242 at Scone, King Alexander II to his sheriff and bailies of Traquair; command to imprison all in their bailliary whom bishop of Glasgow, his archdeacon, official or dean shall present to them as having remained under sentence of excommunication for forty days, until excommunicates reconcile themselves to the Church.
912/1242 at Kirkton, King Alexander II for William, bishop of Glasgow, and his successors; he has granted that they may hold in free forest their lands around Glasgow.
1243, King Alexander made a charter and donation to the monks of Newbottle. (S) Scottish Notes and Queries, V11, Bulloch, 1898, P83.
6/9/1243 at Edinburgh, King Alexander II for Glasgow Cathedral; has granted donation John de Vaux made of 5 marks yearly.
7/1244, Alexander II of Scotland [King Henry’s brother-in-law, widower of Joanna] invaded north England.
1244, Alexander began efforts to buy the Western Isles from the king of Norway.
8/1244, King Henry, at Newcastle, negotiated a peace that involved the future marriage of their children, and gave Alexander custody of the disputed lands in Cumberland.
12/1244 at Newcastle, Concession and promise to keep the peace sent by Alexander II to King Henry III by the prior of Tynemouth. Witnesses: … Alan Durward, … Patrick, earl of Dunbar, … Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan, … Roger de Mowbray, … “our sworn man” Nicholas Soulis, lord of Liddesdale, …
5/5/1245, Pope Innocent IV grants the King of Scotland [Alexander] to be free from the greater excommunication if by chance he or his household should have dealings with those excommunicated for disobedience to ecclesiastical judges. The like to the Queen of Scotland; The like to Alexander, the king’s son.
7/27/1245, Pope Innocent IV, at the request of the king of Scotland, writes to the bishops of St Andrews, Dunkeld and Dunblane, that since the body of Margaret, queen of Scotland, of bright memory, may emit boundless miracles, he had her included in a list of saints. He thus commands them to examine diligently her life, merits and miracles and what they find they may narrate it to the pope in writing, under their seals, through a messenger.
11/12/1246, King Alexander II for Scone Abbey; has granted grants which Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester, made.
2/8/1247, King Alexander II for Melrose Abbey; has given fishery on River Tweed which is called fishery of Selkirk.
1247, The Galwegians revolted. Faced with a siege and little chance of relief, Roger le Bigod and a few men fought their way out and rode off to seek help from King Alexander II of Scotland, who raised forces to suppress the rebellion. (S) DNB, 1885, P263.
3/14/1248, Pope Innocent IV indulges to the king of Scotland, by advice of his confessor and physicians, to eat eggs, butter, cheese and flesh meat, during Lent.
11/20/1248, Nicholao de Sules, lord of Liddesdale, and sheriff of Roxburgh, accused by King Henry III of England and King Alexander II of Scotland of particular injury against the March laws and customs.
12/4/1248, Nicholas de Soulis witnessed a charter of King Alexander II at Edinburgh.
1/13/1249, King Alexander II for abbot and convent of Dunfermline; has granted that they may hold in free warren their feu of Musselburgh.
1249, Alexander led an army west to force submission of Ewen of Lorn.
Alexander raised a fleet to carry the war into the Isles.
7/8/1249, King Alexander II for mensa of bishopric of Argyll; has given church of St Bridget (of Kilbride) in Lorn.
7/8/1249, Alexander died of illness on the island of Kerrara; buried in Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire; his son Alexander succeeding.
Marie married 2nd Jean de Brienne [his 2nd].
(S) The Historians of Scotland, 1880. (S) Paradox of Medieval Scotland. (S) The Wars of Scotland, Brown, 2004.
Child of Alexander and a mistress:
12/26/1251, Alexander married Margaret, d/o King Henry III.
9/20/1252 at Roxburgh castle, King Henry dissolved the regents governing Scotland and named himself “principal counselor to the King of Scotland” [for the years until Alexander was of age.] Many Scots refused to sign the ordinance, but it was signed by Alexander.
9/20/1255, Announcement of change in Scottish council by King Alexander III to King Henry III; … Witnessed: … [4 bishops, 4 abbots] … [8 earls] … Alan Durward … Roger de Mowbray … John de Vaux … Alexander Comyn, earl of Buchan, … Robert of Roos, … Nicholas Soulis, … Margaret, daughter of Henry III, queen of Scots.
2/27/1274, Margaret died at Cupar castle, Fife, Scotland; buried at Dumfernline.
10/15/1285 at Jedburgh abbey, Alexander married Yolande de Dreux, d/o Count Robert IV & Beatrice of Montfort.
3/26/1286, Alexander died after suffering injuries from falling from a horse.
[Yolande married 2nd Arthur, duke of Brittany, whose mother was Beatrice, d/o King Henry III.]