Friday, November 25, 2011
G25: 23640580 Richard, King of the Romans
1/5/1209, Richard born in England, s/o 23638784. King John & 23638785. Isabella of Angouleme.
10/28/1216, Henry III, age 9, crowned king of England.
1216, King Henry appointed his brother Richard as high sheriff of Berkshire.
1217, Richard was sent to Corfe Castle when his mother returned to her homeland. He was raised by a tutor. [His brother future King Henry III was sent to live with William Marshall, the regent.]
1223, Richard, with King Alexander II of Scotland – his brother-in-law, made a pilgrimage to Canterbury.
1/5/1225, Richard knighted by his brother King Henry III and made Earl of Cornwall – location of tin mines which made him very wealthy.
1226, Richard visited his sister Joanna, Queen of Scotland. While there he sought [but did not receive] the hand of the sister of Alexander II.
11/8/1226, Louis IX succeeded as king of France.
1227-43, Richard, Count of Poitou. Richard had taken a castle by force. King Henry had told him to give it back. Richard invoked the Charter of Liberties and demanded a judgement in front of his peers. King Henry ordered his arrest. Richard gathered young earls in support of his claim that King Henry was trampling on the Charter of Liberties. Henry, faced with a revolt, settled by giving Richard lands in Brittany and Boulonge, which originally belonged to their mother.
Joan coheir & 2nd d/o §Richard de Valletort.
Joan 1st married Sir Alex Oakeston.
1230, Richard, for 1000 marks, accompanied King Henry on an invasion of France.
3/30/1231, Richard married Isabella Marshall, widow of Gilbert de Clare. They lived at Wallingford castle, Berkshire [now Oxfordshire.]
12/17/1233, Pledges for the Bishop of Exeter having the custody of the land and heir of W. d’Avranches: Earl Roger Bigod for 100 m. … R. earl of Cornwall for 100 m. … Upon the barony of the same bishop, 300 m., by the king. (S) FRsHIII.
5/25/1234, Notification … restore to Ralph son and heir of Savary de Malo Leone … the king has caused these letters patent to be made, sealed with his seal ; and for the greater security … the seals of E. archbishop of Canterbury, … R. earl of Cornwall and Poitou, the king’s brother, W. earl of Warwick, H. earl of Hereford, Walter de Clifford, Philip de Albiniaco and William de Ferariis, son and heir of W. earl of Ferrars … (S) CPRs.
1/25/1235, Grant to Richard, count of Poitou and Cornwall, of the custody, during the minority of the heirs, of the lands and castles of Brembe and La Cnappe, late of John de Brausa, with the custody and marriage of the heirs. (S) CPRs.
10/26/1237, Grant, with the counsel of Earl Richard, the king’s brother, … to J. earl of Lincoln and constable of Chester, … (S) CPRs.
3/12/1238, Richard in Essex was with his sister Joanna, Queen of Scotland, when she died.
1/25/1238, To. R. earl of Cornwall and Poitou. The king is sending him … and William de Cantilupo, requesting … to give them credence to things which they will say from him and to do them. (S) CPRs.
1238, Richard, opposing King Henry in letting their widowed sister Eleanor marry Simon de Montfort, returned to Henry’s side after receiving 6,000 marks in his Paris account.
1/17/1240, Isabella died; buried at Beaulieu Abbey.
6/10/1240, Richard joined the 6th crusade. He stopped on the way in Paris and Provence [where he 1st met Sanchia.]
10/8/1240, Richard arrived at Acre; fighting no battles, but managing to negotiate for the release of prisoners, and the burial of Crusaders killed at a battle in Gaza in 1239. He also helped the Duke of Burgundy rebuild the defenses at Ascalon, and secured Jerusalem for the Church.
6/1241, Richard started his return trip home.
1241, On his return trip from the Holy Land, Richard visited his sister Isabella, the empress of Frederick II, in Sicily. [The last time a member of her family would see her alive.]
1241, King Louis IX invested his brother Alfonso as count of Poitou; beginning a protracted battle over the rights.
1/7/1242, Richard return to England; but his new reputation from his adventures had preceeded him. However, plans were already in place to secure Poitou for Richard, who did not know that Louis IX’s brother had been named Count of Poitou, which title Richard had held. Part of the plan included Richard’s marriage to Sanchia, sister of the Queen of England and Queen of France. Although Sanchia had been married by proxy to Raymond VII of Toulouse, the marriage had never been consummated, and Raymond’s previous marriage had never been annulled. Raymond also agreed to secure England’s support in the coming war with France.
1/29/1242, at the Great Council at called by King Henry III, Richard was unable to convince the barons to pay for another French war.
1242, Richard with his brother King Henry III invaded Poitou. The invasion was a failure. King Henry would have been captured if Richard had not recognized the knights he had freed from Arab prisons while on crusaded and convinced them to let the defeated English army escape.
8/8/1242 at Blaye, France, Charter to Giles de Cancellis, knight of R. count of Poitou and Cornwall, the king’s brother, … whole land of Kanewedon, late of Eudo the king’s brother, … co. Essex … Witnesses:- R. count of Poitou and Cornwall; S. de Monteforti, earl of Leicester; John son of Geoffrey; Hugh de Vivona; Nicholas de Molis; …
11/14/1243, Queen Eleanor, her sister Sanchia, and their mother Beatrice of Savoy arrived at Dover from Bordeaux.
11/23/1243, Richard married Sanchia of Provence, the sister of his brother Henry’s queen, Eleanor; and the sister of Margaret, queen of King Louis IX of France.
8/14/1244 at Newcastle on Tyne, Richard negotiated at truce between England and Scotland. (S) CPRs.
Fall/1246, Richard conducted a large celebration for the birth of his first son by Sanchia. [The child died a month later.]
1247, Richard, now the wealthiest man in England, financed the reform of the coinage. Richard established 17 mints where the peasantry had to bring their coins for replacement.
Fall/1247, King Henry sent Richard and Sanchia to Paris, just as King Louis was planning to leave on crusade, to revisit the return of English fiefs in Normandy.
4/1250, Richard, accompanied by Sanchia, 5 earls, 3 Bishops, and 40 armed knights visited in secret with Pope Innocent in Lyon, France.
1251, King Henry contracted with Richard to reform the coinage of Ireland. [With this and his previous contract Richard was likely the richest private individual living.]
1251, After Charles of Anjou declined the kingdom of Sicily [today the souther part of Italy], Richard was offered the crown by Pope Innocent.
1252, Richard refused the Pope’s offer of the Sicilian crown. [King Henry accepted for his son Edmund.]
7/3/1253, King Henry leaving England to deal with a rebellion: “Whereas the king has committed the governance of the realm of England and of the lands of Wales and Ireland to Queen Eleanor with the counsel of his brother Richard, earl of Cornwall, until his return from Gascony …”
8/10/1253, Commission … to make partitions between the heirs of Randolf, sometime earl of Chester, … Attested by Queen Eleanor and R. earl of Cornwall. (S) CPRs.
Richard took as a concubine Joan.
1254, Queen Eleanor and the king's brother, Richard, announce in a letter to King Henry III that they have convened the secular and religious magnates in order to procure their aid, military and financial, for the king in Gascony, if he is attacked by the King of Castile.
10/24/1255, Order … to assess … upon the Jews of England … Richard of Cornwall besought the king to send one of his men to Walingeford … to be present at the payment … (S) CPRs.
1/28/1256, William of Holland, who had ursuped the crown of Germany died. Richard started a campaign to be given the crown. He would have to be elected by 7 regional despots. The other candidate was Alphonso X of Castile. Because of Sanchia, Richard had the support of France, the most powerful country of the time.
1256, Richard loaned King Henry 4,000 marks.
12/26/1256, at the Christmas court in London, Richard heard he had been elected and accepted by the Pope. Richard had been elected by 3 German Electoral Princes known as the “English party” [Cologne, Mainz, the Palatinate and Bohemia], which had received at least 28,000 marks in bribes. Alfonso X of Castile had been supported by Trier, Saxony, and Brandenburg.
4/29/1257, Richard, Sanchia, sons Henry and Edmund, and a retinue of followers left from Yarmouth in 48 large ships and 2 smaller ones.
5/27/1257 at Aachen, Pope Alexander IV crowned Richard “King of the Romans”. In a letter to Prince Edward, Richard wrote that 3000 knights, 30 dukes and counts, 2 archbishops and 10 bishops were present.
1257-58, Richard and Sanchia traveled around the area of Mainz.
1/1259, Richard and Sanchia returned to England, landing at Dover, where they were met by King Henry and Queen Eleanor.
1/23/1259 at Canterbury, Richard took an oath before the baronage to uphold the Oxford Provisions imposed on his brother King Henry.
12/1259 in Paris, King Henry and King Louis signed an official peace treaty whereby Henry, for money, would keep only Gascony in France as a fief, for which he would do homage.
3/1260, Richard of Cornwall sent a message to King Henry III, who was in France, to return because of plots being made by the barons. When both lord Edward and the earl of Gloucester, who were in opposition, brought forces to London, Richard convinced the local authorities to let neither in. (S) Edward I, Prestwich, 1988.
4/1260, Richard of Cornwall with the archbishop of Canterbury helped King Henry and his son lord Edward reconcile.
6/1260, Richard with Sanchia returned to Germany, hoping to become Emperor. He was not well received. He decided it was best that her return to England.
By 10/24/1260, Richard was back in England.
12/1260, Sanchia, very ill, remained at Berkhamsted castle while Richard celebrated Christmas in London with the royal family.
10/1261, Richard visited Sanchia at Berkhamsted castle where he was told she was dying.
11/9/1261, Sanchia died; buried 6 days later at Hailes ; her uncles Peter and Boniface attending. Queen Eleanor had a mass read for her sister at the Tower of London, and held a memorial service in her honor at Westminster.
6/1262, Richard returned to Germany.
2/1263, Richard returned to England.
10/18/1263, Grant to Richard, king of the Romans, of the wardship of the lands late of Roger de Mowbray … saving to Dulcia late the wife of the said Roger her dower … Witnesses :- W. de Valence, the king’s brother; R. le Bigod, earl of Norfolk and marshal of England; Humphrey de Bohom, earl of Hereford and Essex; Robert de Bruys; roger de Mortuo Mari; Alan la Zouche; Robert Agulon, and others. (S) CPRs.
1264, Richard joined his brother King Henry against Simon de Monfort in the Barons Revolt.
5/14/1264, Richard was captured at the battle of Lewes. He was found hiding in a windmill.
Richard was imprisoned at Kenilworth by Simon’s son Simon.
9/1265, Richard released from captivity after Simon killed at the battle of Evesham.
10/29/1265, Whereas Richard, king of Almain, the king’s brother, was taken at the conflict at Lewes and imprisoned for a year and more … the king requests the tenants of the said Richard their lord to give him such an aid for the relief of his said goods, chattels, and debts, ... (S) CPRs.
12/1266, Richard had Christmas with Henry and Eleanor at Northampton. He presented Simon de Montfort, the son, to Henry and told how Simon had protected him from being killed by the locals after Simon, the father, was defeated at Evesham.
8/1268, Richard left England for Germany, residing at Worms.
6/16/1269 in Germany, Richard married Beatrice of Falkenburg, daughter of Dietrich I, Count of Falconburg.
8/1269, Richard returned to England.
4/1270, At parliament a request was made for aid to the crusaders. After discussion it was decided the Richard’s decision would be binding. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000, P104.
8/1270, Lord Edward left his three small children in the care of his uncle Richard as he and Eleanor went on crusade.
3/13/1271, A report by Charles of Anjou was sent from Sicily telling Richard of the murder of his son Henry.
12/12/1271, Richard suffered a stroke which paralyzed his right side and left him unable to speak.
4/2/1272, Richard died in Berkhamsted castle; buried at Hayles Abbey with Sanchia and son Henry. [7 months later his brother King Henry III would die.]
11/16/1272, King Edward I ascended to the throne while on crusade.
10/17/1277, Beatrice died, buried at the church of the Friars Minor, Oxford.
(S) Wadham College, Oxford, Jackson, 1893. (S) Four Queens, Goldstone, 2007. (S) The Dawn of Constitution, Ramsay, 1908.
· Following Richard’s death, and after a power struggle, the crown of Germany went to a little-known local family, the Hapsburgs.
Children of Richard and Isabella: [4 children, 1 surviving]
5/28/1257, Henry knighted by his father at Aachen.
Henry a constant companion of his cousin Prince Edward, even attending him on the 8th crusade.
3/13/1271, Henry assassinated in a church at Viterbo in Sicily by Guy de Montfort, s/o Simon de Montfort. [A priest, atempting to protect Henry was also killed.]
5/21/1271, Henry buried at Hailes next to Sanchia.
Children of Richard and Sanchia:
3/1271, Edmund became heir when his older brother Henry died.
4/2/1272, Edmund succeeded as Earl of Cornwall.
10/6/1272, Edmund married Margaret de Clare, d/o Earl Richard de Clare &. Maud de Lacy.
1290, Edmund excommunicated by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
1300, Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, died. [No children.]
Bef. 9/16/1312, Margaret died.
Richard married Joan St. Owen.
1296, Richard died at the siege of Berwick-upon-Tweed.