Wednesday, February 29, 2012

G26: 47277600 Avesnes


47277600. James of Avesnes & 47277601. Matilda de Roche

1171, Jaime, Lord of Avesnes, Conde and Leuze [in northern France.]

1175-6, James of Avesnes in a revolt against his overlord Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders. (S) Writing War, Saunders, 2004, P30.

9/18/1180, Philip Augustus succeeded as King of France.

1185, James of Avesnes died homage to Philip Augustus. (S) Kingdoms and Communities, Reynolds, 1984, P54.

5/18/1189, James went on crusade to the holy land; leaving in a fleet of 60 ships from Cologne.

2/1189, James of Avesnes and his army of crusaders were driven ashore in Portugal by a storm. James helped Sancho I reconquer some of his lands taken by Moslems. (S) Orders of the Knighthood, Tagore, 1884, P79.

9/6/1189, James and Sancho captured the town of Silves.

1189, James’ forces reached the Holy land.

By 10/12/1190, The crusaders were besieging Acre; more as a individual units than a coordinated army. James forces were between those of Guy of Lusignan to his north, and the Germans to his south.

6/5/1191, English forces under command of King Richard I arrived at Acre.

7/1191, Acre fell to the crusaders.

7/31/1191, Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders had died. King Philip returned to France leaving 10,000 French crusaders under the command of Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy.

9/5/1191, Jacques, hero of the 3rd crusade, killed at the battle of Arsuf. (S) Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood, V2, 1988, P34.

(S) History of the Crusades, V2, Setton, 2006.

Child of James and Matilda:

i. Bouchard IV (23638800), born 1182 in Flanders.

Monday, February 27, 2012

G26: 47277590 King Andrew II of Hungary


47277590. King Andrew II of Hungary & 47277591. Yolande de Courtenay & 94555256. Gertrude of Meran

~1177, Andrew born in Hungary, 2nd s/o §King Bela III of Hungary.

Gertrude born in Merania, d/o Berthold IV, duke of Merania.

1182, King Bela had his 1st son Emeric crowned to insure succession.

1188, King Bela gave Andrew the principality of Halych; which had rebelled against their ruler Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich. [King Bela had imprisoned Vladimir.]

1189, Prince Andrew’s forces supressed a rebellion of boars in Halych. Soon after, Vladimir escaped prison and took back control of Halych.

4/23/1196, Andrew’s father died leaving Andrew a large amount of money to fulfill his [the father’s] crusader’s oath.

12/1197, Andrew, with the help of Leopold V, duke of Austria, defeated his brother in battle near Macsek. Andrew forced his brother Emeric to grant him the duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia. (S) Pope Innocent III, Moore, 2003, P73.

1198, Pope Innocent III asked duke Andrew to fullfill his crusade promise in the Holy Land. [Instead, Andrew attacked Zahumlje and Rama.] (S) Pope Innocent III, Moore, 2003, P31.

1198, Andrew succeeded in having Croatia, Dalmatia and other smaller territories declared semi-independent, creating a new power center in Hungary. (S) A History of Hungary, Sugar, 1994, P23.

~1198, Yolande born in France, d/o 94555182. Peter II de Courtenay & 94555183. Yolanda of Flanders.

Andrew married Gertrude.

1199, King Emeric defeated Andrew in battle; Andrew escaped to Austria. Through papal mediation, Andrew and Emeric made peace and Andrew was restored to Croatia and Dalmatia.

1200, Emeric and Andrew were again at war. Andrew was imprisoned in Croatia. Andrew escaped again.

Aft. 1200, The Andechs along the Croatian and Hungarian border built a strong allicance with Andrew. (S) Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, Curta, 2006, P399.

8/12/1204, Gertrude’s father died.

Aft. 8/26/1204, King Emeric, in ill health, named Andrew to govern the kingdom during his son’s minority.

10/1204, Andrew’s brother died leaving a son Ladislas born in 1199. Emeric’s wife Constance of Aragon escaped with her son to Austria.

5/7/1205, Andrew succeed his nephew on his death in Austria.

5/29/1205, Andrew crowned King of Hungary.

1205, Andrew attacked his neighbors and became King of Galicia and Lodomeria.

1208, Andrew invaded Halych.

1209, King Andrew II confirmed by a Golden Bull all the freedoms and estates that had been acquired by the Knights Templars.

1210, King Andrew invited the Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Herman Salza to wage war against the Cumans, a nomadic Turkish tribe. (S) Ecclesiastical Review, V56, 1917, P39.

1211, Andrew gave Burzenland in Siebenbürgen [Transylvania] in the south to the Teutonic Knights to be a buffer against the Kumans. (S) History Teacher’s Magazine, V9, 1918, P365.

1212, Andrew again invaded Halych.

1213, King Andrew put his son Koloman on the Galician throne and tried to replace Orthodox bishops with his own Latin priests. (S) Prince, Saint, and Apostle, Korpela, 2001, P160.

9/24/1213, Queen Gertrude murdered by nobles who resented privileges accorded to her German barons and her lavish spending. [Only the leader of the conspirators was executed.] (S) Women and Gender in Medieval Europe, Schaus, 2006, P236.

1214, Andrew began to finance his crusade by selling and mortgaging property and debasing his coinage.

1214, Andrew and Leszek, duke of Poland, divided Halych between Hungary and Poland. [Andrew did not live up to his end of the agreement and he was eventually driven from Halych. By another agreement part of Halych was given to his son Coloman.]

2/1215, Andrew married Yolanda [niece of Henry I, Emperor of Constantinople, who arranged the marriage]. (S) The Late Medieval Balkans, Fine, 1994, P101.

4/1215, Pope Innocent III proclaimed the 5th crusade in a papal bull. King Andrew was escused from immediate participation by the Pope because of civil war in Hungary. (S) A History of the Crusades, Runciman, 1987, P146.

7/11/1216, Yolanda’s uncle died and Andrew attempted [unsuccessfully] to have himself crowned Emperor of Constantinople.

7/16/1216, Pope Honorious III succeeded Pope Innocent III.

1217, Andrew issued multiple charters witnessed by Master Garin of Montaigu. (S) Central Convent of Hospitaller and Templars, Burgtorf, 2008, P521.

8/23/1217, King Andrew arrived at Spalato with 10,000 horsemen and a “host” of crusaders. Andrew had arranged with Venetians to transport his forces; but they did not have enough ships for the size of the army. [Duke Leopold VI of Austria was also on crusade, traveling by a different route with multiple brothers-in-law of King Andrew.]

9/1217, After a delay to get more ships, King Andrew embarked from Spalato on crusade. (S) The Oxford History of the Crusades, Riley-Smith, 2002, P149. [Both Clissa and Spalato were held by the Kinghts Templars in the name of King Andrew.]

10/9/1217, Andrew landed his forces at Cyprus; then they proceeded to Acre, where they met up with the forces of Duke Leopold of Austria.

11/10/1217, Andrew’s forces defeated the forces of Al-Adil I, brother of Saladin, sultan of Egypt, at the battle of Bethsaida; but the forces retreated to fortresses of Mount Tabor which Andrew could not capture.

1/18/1218, Andrew left for his return to Hungary.  Duke Leopold remained in the Holy Land. [Andrew returned with a large number of Jews and Mulsims to whom he entrusted the collection of taxes.] (S) The Biographical Dictionary, V2, Pt2, 1843, 659.

1218, King Andrew returned via Tripoli and Antioch, stopping at Krak des Chevaliers and Margat to help the Hospitallers with construction of their facilities. [On a stop in Nicaea there was an attempt on his life.]

1219, King Andrew’s son had been sent to Armenia, and Andrew and made a request of the Pope to commission the Hospitallers and Templars to guard his son. (S) The Hospitallers, Borchardt, 2007, P193.

1220, Andrew handed over the administration of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia to his son Bela.

1221, The recently establish Order of Dominicans sent members into Hungary. 32 of the monks were drowned in one day by the Bosnians. (S) London Quarterly Review, V4, 1855, P38.

1222, Andrew issued the “Magna Charta of Hungary” [Golden Bull] confirming privileges. Nobles and the church were to be exempted from taxes. No noble was obliged to follow the king into a foreign war. No foreigner to hold office without consent of the council of the realm. … (S) Select Documents Illustrating Medieval and Modern History, Reich, 1905, P637. [Similarities indicate the framers of the Bull had knowledge of the Magna Carta of England. The Primate of Hungary visited Stephen Langton, who drafted the Magna Carta, at Canterbury in 1220.]


6/6/1224, Andrew made a peace agreement with Leopold, duke of Austria.


1224, The Teutonic Knights established in Siebenbürgen sent a petition to Pope Honorius III asking to be placed under direct papal authority. [Independence from King Andrew.] (S) Oath of Fealty, Scott, 2009, P105.

1224, King Andrew issued the “Andreaneum”, giving special rights to the Germans living on the royal land around Sibiu in Transylvania. (S) Contens and Addresses of Hungarian Archives, 2009, P65.

1225, Pope Honorius III instructed Ugrinus, archbishop of Kalocsa to warn King Andrew II of Hungary to stop giving Jews and pagans preference in appointments to public office. [Andrew likely sold these offices because he had found his country bankrupt when returning from crusade.] (S) The Apostolic See and the Jews, V7, Simonshohn, 1991, P150.

1225, Andrew issued a charter, to Master Garin of Montaigu. (S) Central Convent of Hospitaller and Templars, Burgtorf, 2008, P523.

1225, King Andrew expelled the Teutonic Knights by force from Burzenland because they were expanding their territory. (S) History Teacher’s Magazine, V9, 1918, P365.

1226, King Andrew, needing money, farmed the royal revenues to Jews. (S) The Jewish Encyclopedia, V6, 1912, P494.

1228, King Andrew granted to his chief treasurer Denys an estate near Cluj.

1230, Frederick II, duke of Austria, attacked the western borders of Andrew; defeating the Hungarians in Halych.

1231, Andrew led forces into Halych to secure his youngest son’s rule.

12/1232, Pope Gregory IX admonished King Andrew II to correct the wrongs in Hungary including the oppression of Christian poor by Jews and Moslems in public office. Through Robert, archbishop of Gran, King Andrew [alone] was placed under an interdict [excommunicated.] (S) The Apostolic See and the Jews, V7, Simonshohn, 1991, P151.

8/20/1233, Andrew negotiated the rights of the clergy with a papal legate called the Agreement of Bereg.

1233, Yolanda died; buried in the abbey of Igris.

5/14/1234, Andrew married Beatrice D’Este.

1234, Andrew excommunicated for violating the Agreement of Bereg.

1235, Andrew invaded Austria and forced Federick II into a peace agreement.

1235, Andrew’s excommunication lifted by the Pope.

5/28/1235, Andrew’s daughter Elisabeth [born 1207, died 11/10/1231] canonized [for her Christian charity following the ideals of Francis of Assisi.]

9/21/1235, Andrew died, his son Bela IV succeeding.

(S) The Crusades and the Military Orders, Runciman, 2001. (S) History of the Latin Christianity, Milman, 1889.

Child of Andrew and Yolande:

i. Bela IV (47277628), born 1206 in Hungary.

ii. Yolande of Hungary (23638795), born 1216 in Hungary.

G26: 47277588 King Pedro II of Aragon


47277588. King Pedro II of Aragon & 47277589. Marie of Montpellier

1176, Pedro born in Aragon, s/o 94555144. King Alfonso II of Aragon & 94555145. Sanchia of Castile.

1182, Marie born in Montiellier, d/o §William VIII of Montpellier & Eudocia of Constantinople.

1194, Marie’s stepmother, Agnes of Castile, arranged her marriage to Barral, vicomte de Marseille [who soon died.]

4/25/1196, Pedro succeeded his father.

1197, Pedro II put in law that heretics were to burned at the stake [specifically addressed at the Waldenses].

8/1197, Pedro visited Huerta and took the monastery under his protection.

12/1197, Marie was married to elderly Bernard, comte de Comminges; her dowery 200 marks of silver; Marie receiving the chateau of Murel.

2/1198, Archbishop Berenguer [Peter’s half-uncle] and Count Bernard brought Peter and Raymond of Toulouse together to reaffirm the peace agreement of 1190.

5/20/1198, Pedro II of Aragon allied with Alfonso VIII by the Treaty of Calatayud.

1198, King Pedro and King Alfonso attacked Sancho VII of Navarre. In suing for peace, Sancho offered the hand of his sister to Pedro.

2/11/1199, Pedro’s marriage to Sancho’s sister was forbidden by Pope Innocent III. [Alfonso VII being the common grandfather of the bride and groom.]

9/1200, Pedro held court at Ariza.

9/1201, at Bagneres-de-Luchon, Count Bernard did homage to Peter for Comminges, in return for cession of Val d’Aran.

1201, Bernard died. Bernard’s vassals did homage to Marie and her two daughters: Mathilde and Pertonilla.

1201, Pedro fortified the town of Tiermas. (S) Pilgrimage Road to Santiago, Gititz, 2000, P31. [Which Pedro later gave to the king of Navarre.]

1202, Pedro promulgated constitutions relative to the Peace and Truce of God; extending his peace and protection to public assemblies, courts, markets, churches, … violators were subject to fines.

1204, Marie’s father died; Marie by consent of the inhabitants of Montpellier becoming their soverign [to the exclusion of her half-brothers.]

4/1204 at Millau, Pedro II, Alfonso of Provence [Pdero’s brother], and Raymond VI signed a pact of mutual assistance in case of war.

5/1204, Alfonso’s brother Pedro II mediated a dispute between Alfonso and William II of Forcalquier over rights in Forcalquier.

6/15/1204, Pedro married Maria, Comtesse de Comminges.

11/1204, King Pedro went to Rome to receive the crown [made of unleavened bread] of Aragon by Pope Innocent III. [Pedro’s ancestor Sancho I had placed Aragon under special protection of the pope, for which they rendered 500 mancuses yearly.] At this coronation, the Pope authorized the Queens of Aragon to be crowned at Zaragoza.

1/1205, Pedro ransomed his brother Alfonso who had been captured by William II of Forcalquier.

6/1205, Pedro of Aragon offered all lands that he could acquire from heretics [and a year later all their goods.] Pedro seized the castle of Escure, which had been occupied by Cathars.

1205, Pedro instituted a tribute tax to help pay for defending the kingdom.

7/1206, Pedro II, aiding his brother Alfonso in renewed hostilities with the count of Forcalquier, received a loan of 100,000 sous from the consulate of Montpellier, pledging the castle of the same town.

1207, Peter entered into a support pact with the lords of the Languedoc against heretics and mercenaries.

1208, Countess Elvira donated the county of Urgell to Peter, saving the rights of her daughter who was betrothed to Peters infant son.

1208, Pope Innocent III launched the Albigensian crusade against the Cathars [heretics at Lunguedoc – which were vassals of Pedro.]

1/1209, Raymond-Roger became a vassal of Peter for castles in Cerdanya, Conflent and Barida.

1209, Pedro began proceedings to repudiate Queen Marie; addressing her previous marriage and a distant relationship. Marie pointed out that her previous marriage had been compelled, not a marriage of choice. Marie appealed the decision to the Pope and went to Rome to give her personal defense.

6/4/1209, By the Treaty of Mallen, Pedro II named his brother Alfonso as his heir. [Alfonso died the same year.]

12/1210 at Narbonne, Pedro of Aragon and Simon de Montfort met with Raymond of Toulouse.

1211, In an agreement with Simon de Montfort, leading French crusaders, Pedro arranged for his son Jaime to marry the daughter of the Count of Toulouse, with Simon de Montfort retaining custody of the child prince.

7/16/1212, Alfonso VIII of Castile lead a coalition of Castillian forces as crusaders defeating the Almohads at the battle of Navas de Tolosa; the beginning of the restoration of the Iberian peninsula to Christanity. The coalition included King Sancho VII, “the Strong”, of Navarre, and Pedro II of Aragon [Alfonso’s grandson]. Alfonso, in a letter to the Pope, estimated 100,000 Moors were killed, while he lost 25,000.  Pedro, by common consent of the nobles presenty, was the greatest knight at the battle. (S) The Spanish People, Hume, 1917, P149.

1/1213, The Pope denied the divorce request of James.

2/1213, Pedro sent a letter to the Council of Lavaur denying that his vassals were supporting heretics and requested land taken from them be returned [concerned specifically the city of Toulouse which had been excommunicated].

1213, Maria died in Rome, buried in St. Peters, having never returned to Aragon. Pedro gave her half-brother Guillaume the land of Montpellier.

Pedro joined the Count of Toulouse in the city; then the two marched their forces on Muret.

9/12/1213, Pedro, “el Catolico”, killed at the battle of Muret in the Albigensian crusade. [According to one chronicle Pedro spent the night before the battle in amorous pursuits and did not make it to morning mass before the battle.] (S) Queer Iberia, Blackmore, 1999, P125.

(S) History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, V1, Lea, 1922. (S) Queens of Aragon, Miron, 1913. (S) Cantar de Mio Cid, Duggan, 2008. (S) History of Medieval Spain, O’Callaghan, 1983. (S) Rise of the Spanish Empire, V1, Merriman, 1918. (S) Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon, Smith, 2004. (S) Crusade, Heresy and Inquisition, Smith, 2010.

Family notes:

·         Pedro was well known as a troubadour and poet.

·         James wrote of his mother: “As regards the Queen, our mother, suffice it to say that, if ever there was a good woman in the world, it was she. … within and without Rome, she merited to be called the Sainted Queen.”

Children of Pedro and Marie:

i. James I of Aragon (23638794), born 2/1/1208 in Aragon.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

G26: 47277582 Montgomeri-Capet


47277582. Count William de Montgomerie & 47277583. Alais de Capet

10/4/1160, Alais born in Paris, France, d/o 189110370. King Louis VII & 94555167. Constance of Castile.

1/1169, Alais betrothed to [future King] Richard I. [Her older sister Margaret was married to Richard’s older brother, Henry the Young King.]

5/1174, Alys, living in the royal academy of the court with Queen Eleanor of England, that the Queen had established in Poitiers, France, was seized with all the other members and taken to England by King Henry II. [Alys became the lover of King Henry.]

1179, William born in France, s/o 94555164. Count John de Montgomerie & 94555165. Beatrice of Anselme.

9/18/1180, Philip Augustus succeeded as King of France.

1186, Jean comte de Ponthieu, Guillaume son fils, et Beatrix son épouse granted revenues to Baudin et Simon son frère … . (S) FMG.

7/1189, Alys, the lover of King Henry II, imprisoned by Queen Eleanor on the death of Henry.

11/3/1189, Richard I crowned king of England.

1190, William’s father died on crusade.

3/1191, King Richard I repudiated Alais on the grounds that she had borne a child by his father.

1191, William succeeded his father.

1195, Queen Eleanor of England, now living in France, sent disgraced Alais back to France; where her half-brother, King Philip Augustus, arranged her marriage. (S) Aristocratic Life in Medieval France, Baldwin, 2002, P58.

8/20/1195, William, age 16 and Count of Ponthieu, married Alais, age 34.

1196, King Philip gave his sister in marriage Alice with a new dowery to William of Ponthieu.

1196, William of Ponthieu given control of Gamaches by King Richard I.

1197, A charter granted to the inhabitants of Marquenterre by William de Ponthieu.

5/27/1199, John crowned king of England.

1201, King John of England ordered payment of pensions, arrears, … to William, count of Ponthieu.

6/1202, With the consent of the princess, William of Ponthieu made a grant to the citizens of Doullens. (S) Comptes de la Ville de Doulens, Weerenbeck, 1932, P7.

8/1205, William, count of Pointieu and Montreuil, made a pact with Thomas of Saint-Valery against all men except the kings of France and England.

1210, William of Ponthieu went with Philip of Dreux, bishop of Beauvais, Renaud, bishop of Chartres, and Robert III, Count of Dreux for the crusade against the Albigensians. (S) Histoire d’Abbeville et du Comte de Ponthieu Jusqu’en 1789, Louandre, 1883, P131.

1211, Guillaume de Ponthieu baron of Doullens.

7/27/1214, Guillaume de Ponthieu, Count of Ponthieu, fought on the side of King Philip Augustus, the winning side at the battle of Bouvines. (S) Aristocratic Life in Medieval France, Baldwin, 2002, P64.

Aft. 7/28/1218, Alais died.

10/4/1221, William died; daughter Marie the hier of Ponthieu.

(S) A Genealogical History of the Family of Montgomery, Montgomery, 1863, P35. (S) Memories de la Societe des Antiquaries de Picardie, V4, 1878. (S) The Loss of Normandy, Powicke, 2003.

Children of William and Alice:

i. Marie de Ponthieu (23638791), born 4/17/1199 in France.

Saturday, February 25, 2012

G26: 47277576 King Ferdinand II of Leon


47277576. King Ferdinand II of Leon & 47277577. Urraca of Portugal

1137, Ferdinand born in Spain, 2nd s/o 189110312. Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain & 189110313. Berenguela of Barcelona.
1139, Urraca’s father declared himself King of Portugal by winning independence from Leon.
12/25/1147 at Toledo, Charter of Alfonso VII, Berengaria, and sons Sancho and Fernando to the monastery of Sar.
Aft. 1149, Fernando’s mother died.
~1150, Urraca born in Portugal, d/o 94555154. Count Alfonso Henriques I of Portugal & 94555155. Mafalda of Savoy.
5/14/1151 at Toledo, Charter of Alfonso VII and sons Sancho and Fernando [who confirm as kings] to the monastery of San Miguel de Caneles.
11/25/1152 at Carrion, Charter of Alfonso VII, Rica [step-mother], and sons Sancho and Fernando
10/12/1153 at Sahagun, Alfonso VII, Rica, and Sancho and Fernando, sons, issued a charter to the monastery of Sahagun.
1/7/1154 at Salamanca, Alfonso VII, Rica [stepmother], Sancho and Fernando, kings, and Regina Sancha, issued a charter to the monasterio of Ayo de Nogales.
1/28/1155, ‘Adefonsus Imperator Hispaniæ . ..cum uxore mea Imperatrice Domina Rica et cum filiis meis Sancio et Ferrando Regibus’ donated property to the bishop of Segovia. (S) FMG.
12/28/1155 at Palencia, Alfonso VII, Rica, and Sancho and Fernando, kings, issued a charter to the monastery of Stant Maria de Varzana.
1156, Alfonso VII, Rica, and Sancho and Fernando, kings, issued a charter to Pedro Garcia, alcalde de Baeza.
8/21/1157, Ferdinand’s father died; leaving him as King of Leon and Galacia.
1157, Count Ponce de Cabrera exiled by King Fernando.
5/1158, Brothers Sancho III and Fernando II met at Sahagun and decided that when Portugal was conquered Fernando would divide the lands in half and Sancho would get to choose the half he wanted.
7/1158, Fernands’ older brother Sancho III died leaving a 4 year old Alfonso VIII as his heir.
9/1158, Fernando II compensated Pelayo Curvo for devastation caused by the King of Portugal.
1160, At the battle of Lobregal in the Tierra de Campos, the contending sides of the family King Alfonso VIII of Castile, a minor, fought with the Castro side victorius over the Lara side. By invitation of the Castro’s, Fernando II of Leon garrisoned troops in Toledo and collected its revenues until 1166.
1160, Fernando founded the city of Ciudad Rodrigo on the Portuguese border.
12/1160 at Celanova, Fernando met with Alfonso Henriques and sealed a marriage agreement of Fernando and Alfonso’s daughter Urraca.
1162, Fernando suppressed uprising in the cities of Salamanca and Avila.
9/1162, Fernando II of Leon arranged for Alfonso II of Aragon to marry his sister Sanchia, and declared himself tutor and defender of his body and honour. (S) Spain, 1157-1300, Lineham, 2011.
1162-63, Fernando occupied a large part of the kingdom of Castile.
1163, Fernando had Manrique Perez de Lara bring his nephew Alfonso to him at Soria.
3/14/1164, Fernando granted the monastery of Deomundi in Galicia to Fernando Odoariz.
1165, Fernando II made a pact with Sanc VI of Navarre.
10/30/1165, Fernando granted a house in Zamora to his knight Ponce Rodriquez in recognition of his loyal service.
1167, Fernando confirmed his father’s grants to the bishop of Salamanca of a third of the money coined in the city.
1167, Fernando and Alfonso Henriques in battle over the city of Ciudad Rodrigo. Alfonso’s son Sancho led the attack on the city. Fernando’s forces won the battle. Fernando captured many of Alfonso’s men, but later freed them.
11/23/1167 at Benavente, Fernando issued a charter granting his vassal Count Armengol VII of Urgel the town of Alcantara.
1168, Fernando held his court at Lugo where a dispute was settled between the monastery of Sobrado and Don Pedro Munoz about lands and inhabitants.
5/1169, Ferdinand, at the battle of Badajoz, took the King of Portugal prisoner [Alfonso I, father of Urraca] and recoved all lands lost in the intervening years of war.
1170, Fernando II attempted to move the city of Tuy away from the Portuguese frontier.
1170, Fernando granted the possession of the captured Almohades city of Caceres to the Order of St. James.
10/1174, Fernando exempted all the lands and vassals of Count Ponce de Minerva from taxation. (S) Aristocracy in 12th Century Leon and Castile, Barton, 2002, P106.
1175, Pope Alexander II approved Fernando’s establishment of the Order of Knights of Santiago. (S) Spain, 1157-1300, Linehan, 2011.
1177, The kings of Castile, Leon, and Aragon agreed by the treaty of Tarazona to cooperate in campaigns against the Moors.
9/1178, Fernando held the Council of Salamance in which laws were passed.
Urraca repudiated by Ferdinand.
8/1179, Ferdinand married 2nd Theresa de Traba.
1179, The knights of the Order of St. James supported Fernando in his border war with Alfonso I of Portugal. (S) Rule of the Spanish Order of St. James, Blanco, 1971, P7.
1180, Fernando gave estates in the Orbigo valley to his falconer Estaban.
4/28/1181 at Benavente, Fernando granted his vassal Count Armengol VII of Urgel estates at Almenarilla and Santa Cruz.
1182, Fernando held a curia at Astorga to resolve an issue of Bishop Manrique of Leon.
1183, Fernando II and Alfonso VIII [his nephew] met and ratified the Treaty of Fresno-Lavandera.
12/8/1185, Urraca’s father died [having doubled the size of Portugal in wars against the Moors].
1186, Fernando granted Bishop Vidal of Salamanca of a third of the money coined in the city.
5/1187, Ferdinand married 3rd Urraca Lopez de Haro.             
1/22/1188, Ferdinand died. (S) Spain and Her Colonies, Wilberforce, 1898, P357.
(S) Medieval Iberia, Gerli, 2003. (S) Aristocracy in 12th Century Leon and Castile, Barton, 2002. (S) Curia and Cortes in Leon and Castile, Procter, 2010. (S) A History of Portugal, 1937. (S) The Kingdom of Leon-Castilla Under King Alfonso VII, Reilly, 1998.

Child of Ferdinand and Urraca:
i. Alphonso IX of Leon (23638788), born 8/15/1171 in Spain.

G26: 47277574 Tommaso, Count of Savoy


47277574. Tommaso, Count of Savoy & 47277575. Margaret of Geneva

3/20/1177, Thomas born in Savoy, s/o 94555148. Humbert III of Savoy & 94555149. Beatrice of Viennois.
Margaret born in Geneva, d/o §Count William I of Geneva & Béatrix de Faucigny.
3/4/1189, Tommaso succeeded his father as a minor; left in the wardship of Boniface, marquis of Montferrat.
6/10/1190, Emperor Frederick I died; succeeded by his son Henry VI.
6/12/1189, ‘Thomas … Mauriannensis comes et marchio Italiæ’ confirmed the donations made by ‘pater meus … [et] domini comitis Humberti … abavi mei’ to the canons of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, with the advice of ‘B. matris mee et … tutore meo Bonifacio marchione Montisferrati.’ (S) FMG.
8/1191, Tommaso of age.
1192, Thomas drove back the invading forces of Asti [a town in Piedmont.]
1195, Tommaso kidnapped Margaret of Geneva while she was traveling to Paris to become the wife of King Philip II of France. He married Margaret himself. [King Philip was already married, but wanted to repudiate the marriage.]
1196, Tommaso married Margaret [aka Beatrix in Savoi].
5/1197, Count Thomas of Savoy in residence at Rivalta.
9/28/1197, Emperor Henry VI died [his son Frederick II was only 4]; succeeded by Philip of Swabia [brother of Henry], who was opposed in succession [until 1206] by Otto IV [who succeeded after Philip’s death, but was replaced by Frederick II by instance of Pope Innocent III].
1197, On the death of Emperor Henry, Thomas allied himself with a north-western group against Boniface, bishop of Turin [his prevouis guardian.]
1/1198, Thomas in residence at Susa [where he confirmed his grandfather’s charters to the town.]
2/25/1198, Thomæ comitis et marchionis … et … Nichola filia comitis Gebennarum’ granted privileges to the citizen of Susa. (S) FMG.
3/1198, Thomas in residence at Miradolo [where he granted a fixed tax instead of tallage].
1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded Celestine III. [The Savoys were aligned with the papal interests.]
10/1198, Thomas was in residence in the Commune of Ivrea.
3/5/1200, Thomas was in the Alps where he issued a document dealing with lands in Burgundy: ‘Thomas comes Sabaud. et Amedeus eius filius’ granted rights to the abbey of San Marco. (S) FMG.
6/1200, Thomas marched an army south against Saluzzo, reaching S. Ambrogio in the Val de Susa. [Thomas’ father had compelled Manfred, marquis of Saluzzo to acknowledge himself as a vassal of Savoy.]
1200, Thomas marched on the Stura di Demonte, but retreated after a concession of money.
1203, Berthold V of Zahringen invaded Geneva taking Thomas’ castle of Blonay. Count Thomas defeated Berthold at Chillon in a battle between the mountains and a lake; capturing Berthold. Thomas then invaded Berthold’s lands to the north capturing the town of Moudon in Vaud. The bishop of Lausanne, who had supported Berthold, lost two castles.
By 1/1205, Thomas had made peace agreements with Berthold and the bishop.
5/28/1207, Thomas, count of Savoy, attending King Philip of Swabia [King of the Romans] at Basel, witnessed 2nd after Berthold V a document of King Philip.
6/1/1207, Thomas comes Sabaudiae, attending King Philip of Swabia at Basel, received large land grants [restoration of former lands] in Piedmont, and the towns of Moudon in Vaud, and Chieri and Testona in Lombardy.
1208, Thomas decided to join the Albigensian crusade with his brother-in-law William of Geneva.
6/1208, King Philip of Swabia was murdered; succeeded by Otto IV [who secretly gave authority to the archbishop of Turin to attack the Vaudois valley of Thomas.]
1208, Thomas returned from crusading because of the outbreak of war after the death of Philip.
1210, Count Thomas joined Emperor Otto IV at Ferrara and accompanied him to Turin.
1211, Thomas I of Savoy entered into a pact with the bishop of Geneva. Thomas raised an army and marched against the count of Geneva, capturing towns and castles. Thomas advanced to the walls of Geneva, demanding money to compensate his costs. [Eventually the citizens re-aligned themselves with the count of Geneva.] The count of Geneva, attacking Thomas, lost to Thomas in battle; who then captured Geneva, killing many of the citizens. (S) Eight Volumes of Letters, Marana, 1754, P181.
1211, Berthold V of Zahringen again invaded Geneva. Count Thomas defeated Berthold at Ulrichen, near the Grimsel Pass.
10/19/1211, At Hautcret abbey, Count Thomas and Berthold V made a peace treaty; Berthold ceding Moudon and Romont to Thomas.
1212, The town of Pinerolo voluntarily transferred their allegiance to Thomas [because of his charters with his towns giving popular liberties.]
1215, Count Thomas marched forces south into Italy in support of Otto IV. He attacked the territories of the Ghibeline marquises of Montferrat and Saluzzo, destroying St. Evasio. [During this war Manfred II of Saluzzo died and his wife Alasia attempted unsuccessfully to carry on the war.]
12/30/1216, Alasia of Saluzzo acknowledged Saluzzo as a vassal state of Thomas, count of Savoy.
1216, Pope Honorius III succeeded Innocent III.
11/8/1217, ‘Thomas Maurianensis comes et marchio’ donated property to the abbey of Saint-Maurice, with the consent of ‘filiis suis Amedeo et Humberto.’ (S) FMG.
5/19/1218, Emperor Otto IV died; succeeded by his son Frederick II.
1218, On the death of Berthold, duke of Zahringen, Frederick II divided up his lands, some going to the Count of Savoy. (S) History of Frederick II, Kington-Oliphant, 1862, P167.
1220, All of Piedmont ceded to Thomas, count of Savoy.
1220, Thomas rewarded the town of Pinerolo with a free charter of liberties.
1220, Thomas, count of Savoy, threatened anyone showing hospitality to the Waldenses [considered heretics because they translated the bible into common language and lived outside of the Catholic church] with fines. (S) History of the Christian Church, V5, Pt1, 1907, P499.
1222, Monfred II’s son, Manfred III of Saluzzo, allied himself with Turin and went to war with Thomas, count of Savoy.
1222, To end the wars with Saluzzo, Thomas arranged for two daughters of his eldest son Amadeus to marry. Beatrice was to marry Manfred III of Saluzzo, and Margaret was to marry Boniface IV of Montferrat [married 3/4/1223].
1224, An agreement between ‘Thomæ com. Sabaud’ and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by ‘ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici … Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius.’ (S) FMG.
1225, Thomas sent 120 Burgundian [Savoyard] lances to aid Genoa in war against Vercelli.
1226, Thomas, count of Savoy, granted by treaty of Emperor Frederick to the commonalty of Marseilles, the privilege of establishing consuls at Acre, Syria, Sicily and Pouille, and given jurisdiction over those lands. Thomas also named Vicar of Lombardy and the March of Treviso [Turin]. (S) Origin, Nature, Progress and Influence of Consular Establishments, Warden, 1813, P56. [Turin refused allegiance.]
12/1227, ‘M. comitissa Maurian. uxor Thomæ comitis Maurianensis et marchionis Italiæ’ donated property, with the consent of ‘Thomas com. Maurianæ et filii mei Amedeus et Aymo’. (S) FMG.
7/13/1228, By a pact, Turin, Testona, and Pinerolo alligned themselves with Andrew, dauphin of Vienne, against Thomas, count of Savoy.
1230, Milan and Guelph allies attacked Monfterrat, Asti, and Saluzzo, and then entered Savoy. They were defeated in battle by Thomas and their leader Uberto de Osino was killed.
2/26/1231, ‘M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et … Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia’ confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey. (S) FMG.
1231, Milian again attacked Savoy and was again defeated by Thomas and their leader Ardighetto Marcellino was killed.
1231, Honorius III began the Inquisition in Italy.
1232, Thomas captured Moncaliere, and unsuccessfully laid seige to Turin, during which time he became ill.
1232, Thomas bought Chambery [now in France, 46 miles southwest of Geneva] for 32,000 sols of Susa. (S) Encyclopedia Britannica, V5, 1902, P381. [Which eventually replaced Aiguebelle as the family residence.]
1232, ‘Beatrix uxor comitis Thomæ, Amadeus primogenitus et Aymo filii eius’ confirmed the purchase of Chambéry by ‘Thoma comite’, with the seal of ‘Beatricis comitisse Sabaudie’.  (S) FMG.
1/22/1233, Thomas, count of Savoy & marquis of Italy, died; buried at the abbey of St. Michael della Chiusa.
2/24/1240, ‘Amedeus comes Sabaudie et in Italie marchio’  granted "villam S. Mauritii de Chablaisio’  to ‘soror illorum Margareta comitissa de Kiborch’. (S) FMG.
1/4/1244, ‘Contessa Margarita di Savoia Marchesa in Italia’ donated property to ‘Tomaso suo figlio Conte di Fiandra e d'Hainaut’ with the consent of ‘Conte Amedeo di Savoia suo figlio Primogenito’. (S) FMG.
4/8/1257, Margaret of Geneva died, leaving her daughter all her possessions in the Alps. She founded a hospital at Les Echelles for the knights of St. John of Jerusalem to care for the poor and left money to almshouses and hospitals and for the repair of roads and bridges as well as to retainers and relatives.
(S) Early History of the House of Savoy. (S) History of Piedmont, V2, Gallenga, 1855.
Family notes:
·         The sons were influential as uncles of the daughters of Beatrice, all four of whom became queens of England, France, Germany, and Sicily.
Children of Thomas and Margaret:

i. Amadeus IV de Savoia, born 1197 in Savoy.

1226, Amadeus sent by his father to govern the cities of Albenga and Savona, which had withdrawn themselves from Genoa.
1233, Amadeus succeeded his father.
1253, Amadeus died.

ii. William de Savoia, born 1201 in Savoy.

1236, William went to England with his neice who was to marry King Henry III.
1238, William elected bishop of Liege.
1239, William died.

iii. Boniface de Savoia, born ? in Savoy.

1241, Boniface elected as archbishop of Canterbury.
7/18/1270, Boniface died. (S) Major Saints Ancestry, Starr, 2010, P204.
[1839, Boniface beatified.]

v. Thomas de Savoia, born 1203 in Savoy.

1237, Thomas married Joan of Flanders and Hainault, becoming count of Flanders.
Thomas, count of Piedmont.
1259, Thomas died.

vi. Beatrice de Savoia (23638787), born 1206-7 in France.
vii. Peter de Savoia, born 1208 in Savoy.

2/1234, Peter married his cousin Agnes, heiress & d/o Aymon, count of Faucigny.
1237, Peter captured in battle by William, count of Geneva.
1240, Peter, count of Romont, went to England [and served King Henry III for many years].
1263, Peter, count of Savoy on the death of his nephew Boniface.
1268, Peter died.

viii. Philip de Savoia, born aft. 1209 in Savoy.

Philip, bishop of Valence [succeeding his brother.]
Philip, archbishop of Lyon.
1268, Philip, count of Savoy [succeeding his brother Peter.]
1285, Philip died, succeeded by Amadeus V, s/o his brother Thomas.

Friday, February 24, 2012

G26: 47277572 Alfonso II of Provence


47277572. Alfonso II of Provence & 47277573. Garsenda of Sabran

~1178, Alfonso born in Barcelona, Spain, s/o 94555144. King Alfonso II of Aragon & 94555145. Sanchia of Castile.

Gersenda born in Spain, d/o §Rainou, Count of Forcalquier & Gersend of Forcalquier.

1185, Alfonso received the county of Provence after the death of his uncle Sancho.

1193, Alfonso [the father] turned over administration of Provence to his 2nd son Alfonso.

1193, Alfonso married Garsenda, heiress of Forcalquier.

1196, On the death of his father, Alfonso inherited Provence and some smaller territories under the feudal suzerainty of his brother Pedro.

4/1204 at Millau, Pedro, Alfonso of Provence, and Raymond VI signed a pact of mutual assistance in case of war.

5/1204, Alfonso’s brother Pedro mediated a dispute between Alfonso and William II of Forcalquier over rights in Forcalquier.

1204, Alfonso captured in battle by William II of Forcalquier.

1/1205, Pedro ransomed his brother Alfonso.

7/1206, Pedro, aiding his brother Alfonso in renewed hostilities with the count of Forcalquier, received a loan of 100,000 sous from the consulate of Montpellier, pledging the castle of the same town.

6/4/1209, By the Treaty of Mallen, Pedro named his brother Alfonso as his heir.

1209, Alfonso of Provence led a contingent of 500 knights to aid Emperor Frederick in Sicily. [Alfonso was also accompanying his sister Constance to her wedding with Frederick II Hohenstaufen.]

8/15/1209, Alfonso attended the wedding of his sister Constance with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.

In Palermo, disease struck many of the knights including Alfonso.

9/11/1209, At the abbey of Monreale, Sicily, Alfonso made his will.

1209, Alphonso died.

(S) Rise of the Spanish Empire, V1, Merriman, 1918. (S) Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon, Smith, 2004.


Family notes:

·         After the death of Alfonso, poems were written by a “joglar” that had been in the service of Alfonso about Countess Carsenda, whom he loved. (S) Women in the Middle Ages, Wilson, 2004, P354.

Child of Alfonso and Garsenda:

i. Raymond Berengar IV (23638786), born 1195 in France.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

G26: 47277570 Vicount Audemar of Angouleme


47277570. Vicount Audemar of Angouleme & 47277571. Alice of Courtenay

Audemar born in France, s/o §William VI de Taillefer & Marguerite of Turenne.

~1165, Alice born in France, d/o 94555142. Peter of Courtenay & 94555143. Elizabeth de Courtenay.

1171, Vuillelmus Talafers comes Engolismensis, Vulgrini filius et Margarita uxor mea et filii nostri Vulgrinus scilicet primogenitus noster, Vuillelmus Talafers, Ademarus, …, transferred rights to Saint-Amant-de-Boixe.

8/7/1179, Audemar’s father William died on a pilgrimage to the Holy Lands at Messina.

1181, Audemar’s older brother Vulgrin [Wlgrimi] died; his brother William succeeding.

9/18/1180, Philip Augustus succeeded as King of France.

Bef. 1184, Alice 1st married Count William of Joigny. [1 son Peter de Joigny.]

1186, Audemar succeeded his brother William as Count.

1186-91, Ademarus Engolismensis comes, donated property to Saint-Amant-de-Boixe naming ‘fratres quidam mei Vulgrinus et Vuillelmus Talafers’ as counts before him.

11/3/1189, Richard I crowned king of England.

1194, King Richard of England captured Taillebourg and Angouleme.

1195, Charte d'Audemar, comte d'Angoulême. (S) Le Cabinet Historique, Paris, 1874, P146.

3/1199, Audemar, Vicount of Angouleme, King Philip Augustus of France, and Hugh X de Lusignan signed a pact over the county of La Marche. Hugh was betrothed to Isabel, d/o Audemar as part of the agreement. [La Marche would eventually fall to the Lusignan family under this agreement.]

3/26/1199, King Richard I, attacking Audemar and Aymer at Chalus-Chabrol, wound by an arrow. [Richard would died a week later.]

4/1199, Notification by Audemar count of Angouleme that the terms of agreement between him and his lord Philip king of France are that, on account of the wrongs doen by Richard, late king of England to himself and his brothr Aimard vicomte of Limoges, his has come to the king an agreed with him to assist him, as his lord, to the utmost of his power … (S) Calendar of Documents Preserved in France, V1, 1899, P471.

5/27/1199, John crowned king of England.

6/1200, King John sent emissaries to Audemar to start formal negotiations.

8/24/1200, King John of England married Audemar’s daughter Isabel, who had been pledged to Hugh IX de Lusignan; with Audemar to receive the county of La Marche. [Isabella pledged to the archbishop of Bordeaux that she had given no promise to Hugh de Lusignan, and preferred King John.] (S) Lives of the Queens of England, Strickland, 1881, P78.

1201, King John confiscated La Marche and gave it to Audemar.

Bef. 1201, Ademarus comes Engolismensis, filius Wi Cædentis Ferrum et frater Wlgrini comitis, issued a charter concerning the abbey of La Couronne.

2/1202, King John visited Angouleme. Audemar gave King John a tour of the abbey church of La Couronne.

6/16/1202, Audemar died; Alice became regent for her absent daughter, Ctss d’Angoulême, who inherited.

3/1203, King John offered Alice a monthly grant of 50 livres in return for her dower rights. Alice returned to her estate at La Ferte-Gauche.

1204, Alix Engolismensis comitissa, swore homage to Philippe II King of France.

11/1206, Alice formerly resigned her administrative duties in Angouleme as her daughter is recognized as countess.

7/1215, Alice, countess of Angouleme, issued a charter at Provins.

(S) Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II, Eyton, 1878. (S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.

Family notes:

·         Marguerite of Turenne d/o Raymond I, vicomte de Turenne & Mathilde du Perche.

·         William VI de Taillefer s/o Vulgrin II, comte d’Angouleme & Pontia de la Marche.

·         1140, William succeeded his father.

·         1147, William attended the crusades.

·         2/26/1167, Comte of Angouleme, in rebellion against King Henry II.

·         3/1169, King Henry II suppresses the rebellion of William IV, Comte of Angouleme, and the Comte of La Marche.

·         1178, Guillermus filius Wlgrimi Comes Engolismensis, and Ademarus Vicecomes Lemovicensis [not this Audemar] both left for Jerusalem.

·         5/20/1179, The Vulgrin, Comte de Angouleme, submitted to Prince Richard.

·         1/23/1186, King Richard of England subdued a revolt of the Count of Anguleme and Geoffrey de Lusignan at the battle of Barbezieux. William, count of Angouleme, was captured and sought mercy from King Henry II.

 (S) The Feudal Monarchy in France and England, Petit-Dutallis, 1986, P217.

Children of Audemar and Alice:

i. Isabella of Angouleme (23638785), born 1188 in France.

1224, Ugo de Leziniaco comes Marchiæ et Engolismæ et Ysabella uxor eius … regina Angliæ, confirmed rights granted by “bonæ memoriæ Ademaro comite Engolismæ patre eiusdem dominæ Ysabellæ” to Vindelle. (S) FMG.

G26: 47277568iii King Richard I


47277568iii. King Richard I


9/8/1157, Richard born in Oxford, England, s/o 47277568.  King Henry II & 47277569. Eleanor of Aquitaine.
5/1/1165, Prince Richard and his sister Princess Matilda are with their parents at Argentan in Normandy.
9/1166, Siblings Richard, Matilda, Geoffrey, Eleanor and Johanna are with their mother the Queen at Angers where she is acting as regent of Maine and Anjou.
4/7/1168, A marriage of Prince Richard with, Alice, a daughter of King Louis VII of France is proposed. Alice became a ward of King Henry in England.
1/7/1169, Princes Henry and Richard did homage to King Louis for lands allocated under a treaty by King Henry and King Louis ratified the precious day. [Prince Richard holding Poitou and Guienne ‘sine medio’ of King Louis.]
11/16/1169, King Henry agreed by the Treaty of St. Denys to send Prince Richard to be educated in the French court.
5/31/1170 in the church of St. Hilary at Poictiers, Prince Richard installed with ‘lance and standard’ as Comte of Poitevin by the Bishop of Bordeaux. Then, at Limoges, Richard decorated with the ring of St. Valerie and proclaimed Duke. [Richard’s mother Queen Eleanor attended.]
6/14/1170, King Henry had his 15 year old son Henry crowned King, thus the name Henry the Young King. [While this was a common practice in France, it had never been done in England, and was opposed by many nobles and the Pope.]
2/21/1173, Young King Henry and Richard with their parents attend the Council of Limoges. At this time King Henry proposed giving Chinon, Mirabeay and Loudon to Prince John, which was strongly opposed by Henry the Young.
4/1173, The 3 eldest sons of King Henry begin a revolt in Normandy, supported by their mother the Queen.
7/6/1173, Young King Henry, Richard and Geoffrey with the Comtes of Flanders and Boulogne [who was killed] lay siege to Driencourt. [The castle surrendered on 7/21.]
1173, Prince Richard, age 16, knighted by King Louis VII of France as his Suzerain of Acquitaine and Poitou.
9/25/1173, King Henry and King Louis VII meet near Gisors. King Louis was escourted by King Henry’s sons Henry, Richard and Geoffrey. [The negotiations were unsuccessful.]
9/8/1174, King Henry and King Louis agree to a peace treaty that ends King Louis’ support of Henry’s sons in rebellion.
9/23/1174, King Henry forces Prince Richard, age 17, into submission in Poitou.
9/30/1174, King Henry meets with his sons Henry, Richard and Geoffrey at Mont Louis [near Tours], and they come to terms over land and succession issues.
2/2/1175, at Le Mans in Normandy, Princes Richard and Geoffrey renew their oaths of fealty to King Henry.
1175, Prince Richard goes to Poitou to restore castles and fortifications to the same as they were before the rebellion.
6/24/1175, Prince Richard begins a 2-month siege of the castle of Chatillion in Guienne.
4/2/1176, Princes Richard and Geoffrey return to England, landing at Southampton; and then proceed to Winchester to meet their father and brother Henry. They all spend Easter together. After Easter, Prince Richard, ‘Ricardus filius Regis’, returned to Normandy, for which a fee of 7£ 10s was charged to King Henry for his transportation.
5/1176, Prince Richard wins the battle of Buteville in Saintonge.
7/1/1176, Henry the Young King joins Prince Richard in his campaign in Poitou.
8/1176, Prince Richard completes the submission of the rebels of Angouleme.
9/1176, Prince Richard ensures the safe conduct of her sister Joan through Poitou on her way to her wedding in Sicily.
7/1177, On suspicion that his bride Princess Alice of France had become a lover of his father, Prince Richard refused to consumate his wedding vows.
1177-78, Prince Richard was in Poitou.
5/10/1179, Prince Richard captured the fortified castle of Taillebourg in 9 days. Richard accused of “putting out eyes and cutting off hands” of some of those captured.
6/1179, Prince Richard crossed to England, and then back to France within a few months.
9/18/1180, Philip Augustus succeeded as King of France.
12/25/1182, Prince Richard joined his brothers and parents at Christmas court at Caen, France.
1/1183, Prince Richard refuses to do homage to his older brother Henry. Richard returns to Poitou and fortifies the castle of Clairvaux against a potential siege. [Clairvaux was an encroachment on Young King Henry’s lands.] Richard’s brother Geoffrey, having done homage to his brother Henry, joined in opposition to Richard.
4/1183, Henry the Young King, with Geoffrey, again rebel against their father in Aquitaine. Richard joins his father and offers him the castle of Clairvaux.
6/1183, Older brother Prince Henry died; Richard should have been named heir, but was not. Richard went to Paris to enlist the aid of the young French King, Philip II Augustus.
7/3/1183, at Angiers, King Henry and Prince Richard are reconciled with Geoffrey. Prince Richard, age 25, and now the heir, agrees to give Aquitaine to Prince John.
11/25/1184, Princes Geoffrey and John, with Philip, count of Flanders, league themselves against Prince Richard.
12/25/1184, Princes Richard and John attend Christmas court with their parents at Windsor.
12/31/1184, Prince Richard sails from Dover back to Normandy.
4/1185, Prince Richard attacked his brother Geoffrey’s territories in Bretagne.
5/1185, King Henry recalls Prince Richard to his court in England.
2/26/1186, King Henry agrees with King Philip of France to the consumation of the marriage of Prince Richard and Adelais of France.
7/1186, Prince Richard [‘Ricardo Comiti Pictau’], in conflict with the Comte of St. Giles, is sent money by King Henry to hire mercenaries.
8/19/1186, Prince Geoffrey died in a tournament in Paris, France. [He was in Paris to solicit King Philip’s help against his brother Richard.]
3/1187, Princes Richard and John meet with their father at Aumale in Normandy. [King Henry is preparing for war with King Philip.] Richard and John are each given command of a fourth of King Henry’s forces.
5/20/1187, Princes Richard and John are besieged at Chatearuoux by King Philip. King Henry arrived in relief of the siege. The two Kings agree on a 2-year truce. Prince Richard joins King Philip in Paris.
9/1187, Prince Richard seizes his father’s treasury at Chinon and fortifies the castles in Poitou and Guienne. King Henry calls for Richard and they reconcile at Angers.
11/1187 in Paris, Richard “the Lionheart” took the vow of a crusader.
1/1188, Prince Richard went into Guienne and subdued the rebellion of Aymer, comte of Antouleme. Prince Richard then marched against Raimond, comte of Toulouse. Richard captured 18 castles, the won of Cahors, and subdued the whole of the provence of Quercy. King Philip then attacked King Henry’s lands in retaliation [actually Prince Richard and King Philip were in allegiance in a plan of conquest.]
8/1188, King Henry, supported by Welsh troops, invades France. Prince Richard, while promising to do fealty to his father, invades Berri.
11/18/1188, Prince Richard met with his father Henry II, and King Philip of France, at Bonmoulins. He again demanded the consumation his marriage to Alys, sister of Philip, and to be declared heir to Henry. King Henry refused. Prince Richard then did homage to King Philip for Normandy and all other provinces held of the French crown. The Pope, seeing Prince Richard as the cause of the conflicts, excommunicates him. [The Pope wanted the conflicts ended so that he could organize a crusade.]
6/1189, at La Ferte near Le Mans, King Henry, King Philip and Prince Richard again cannot reach a peace agreement. Prince Richard threatened the Cardinal sent by the Pope to perform the negotiations.
6/1189 at Le Mans, King Henry was defeated by Richard. [Henry escaped when Richard’s horse was killed by William Marshall, who did not want to kill Richard.]
7/3/1189, Prince Richard captures Tours.
7/4/1189, King Henry, very ill, agreed to peace and to deliver Adelais to Prince Richard.
7/6/1189 in France, Richard became King of England on the death of his father. Richard sent [pardoned] William Marshall to free his mother from her confinement. [She had been ‘imprisoned’ since 1173.] King Henry’s death also ended the marriage of Richard with King Philip’s sister Alice.
8/13/1189, Richard sailed from Barfleur to Portsmouth. Two days later he was received at Winchester.
9/3/1189, Richard crowned King Richard I of England. [The coronation was mared by the deaths of Jews that had assembled for the event.]
Richard began fundraising for the next crusade: the Saladin tithe, selling of manors … including an arrangement with the pope to allow exemption from the crusade for a hefty fee. This activity also led to the widespread creation of self-governing towns, for which a fee was paid. London even became self-governing, electing it 1st mayor, Henry FitzAilwin.
12/12/1189, Richard departed on the 3rd Crusade. Richard commandeered ships and ordered them to Dover to move some of his forces to France. The fleet was then to move to Marsailles to meet up with the combined English and French troops.
7/1190, The English and French armies met at Lyons; where they learned that the German Emperor, leading his forces to the crusade, had died in an accident.
1191, Richard captured the city of Messina, Sicily, after they had refused to let the English ships land. Richard was reunited with his sister Joanna. Queen Eleanor arrived with Richard’s future bride.
4/1191, 24 ships sank in a storm on the way to Cyprus, and the ship carrying Berengaria and Joanna was separated from the rest.
5/12/1191 at Limassol on Cyprus, in the chapel of St George, Richard married Berengaria, d/o King Sancho VI of Navarre. Berengaria was also crowned Queen. [No children.] Richard captured Cyprus, which he would use as a supply base for his forces.
6/5/1191, Richard set sail for Acre on the galley Trenchmere. [The French forces were already besieging the city. Seige engines were launching objects at walls, troops were trying to fill in the moat, and other troops were tunneling under the walls; but the various national groups were acting independently. Both Richard and Philip developed a disease that caused their hair and nails to fall out. Richard had his bed moved to the front where he could fire a crossbow at the city.]
7/1191, Richard captured Acre. Saladin’s city commander agreed to surrender for a ransom of 200,000 gold pieces, the release of 1500 christians, and the Muslim garrison to be given safe conduct.
Many of the forces, especially the Germans, returned home. Duke Leopold V of Austria, their leader, had been insulted by Richard over the flying of Leopold’s flag.
7/31/1191, due to the death of Count of Flanders, Philip of Alsace and Philip’s own illness, Philip left his 10,000 men under the control of Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, and returned to France.
8/20/1191, Richard ordered the slaughter of the Muslim prisoners, about 2600, outside the city in view of Saladin’s army. [Their stomach’s were cut open incase they had swallowed precious stones, then their bodies were burned.]
9/5/1191, Richard defeated Saladin at the battle of Arsuf. Richard led two charges of knights “carving a wide path for himself, cutting them down like a reaper with a sickle.” Richard suffered a non-serious wound.
9/8/1191, Richard’s forces arrived a Jaffa to find it’s fortifications destroyed. [Richard spent 3 months repairing the fortifications at Jaffa and along the road back to Acre.]
Richard and Saladin, at the suggestion of Richard, began to exchange gifts through emissaries. Richard became friends with Saladin’s brother.
11/8/1191, Richard was entertained at the tent of al-Adil, Saladin’s brother.
12/1191, Richard arrived at Beit Nuba, 12 miles from Jerusalem.
1/1192, Richard decided to return to Jaffa when they decided they could not begin a siege.
Richard moved to Ascalon, on the coast south of Acre, and spent 4 months rebuilding its fortifications.
4/1192, Richard held an election for King of Jerusalem – won by Conrad de Montferrat. [Conrad was murdered soon afterwards in Tyre by members of the original Muslim “Assassins”, who had also attempted to kill Saladin.] Richard also named Guy de Lusignan as Lord of Cyprus.
8/1/1192, Richard conducted a sea assault on Jaffa, which had been recaptured by Saladin. An emir wrote, “We did out best to sieze him, but in vain, for no one escaped his sword.”
8/4/1192, Saladin’s army attacked Richard’s 80 knights, 400 archers, and a small force of lancers, camped outside the city walls. Richard lost his horse at the height of the battle. Saladin, watching from a hill, sent Richard 2 fresh horses.
9/2/1192, Richard made a 3-year truce with Saladin when he agreed to let Christians have access to the holy places. Richard agreed to raze the fortifications built at Ascalon.
9/9/1192, Richard turned over command of the crusaders to Henry of Champagne.
9/29/1192, Joanna and Berengaria set sail for Rome with Admiral Stephen de Turnham.
10/9/1192, Richard secretly left by ship for home in the dead of night, expecting to be protected as a crusader. He stopped initially in Cyprus, then at Rhodes. From there they traveled up the western coast of Greece.
11/11/1192, Richard sailed from Corfu, a time when almost all ships were in port for the rest of the winter. Because of fears of landing in France, Richard turned his ship back towards Hungary. Richard met up with two galleys, Rumanian pirates, who he hired to escort them through unknown waters. Richard, his ship driven by a storm, landed in Ragusa. Leaving again by ship, Richard’s ship began to sink off the coast of Istria, and landed in German territory. [Richard planned to travel to Saxony and his sister Matilda’s husband, Henry the Lion. Henry’s son Otto was ruling Aquitaine in Richard’s absence.]
12/21/1192, Richard was captured near Vienna [the most likely story] by Leopold V, Duke of Austria. Richard was carrying the Great Seal of England with him. [This was stolen when he was captured, but later returned when the thief was found drowned in Cyprus.] Richard was initially imprisoned in the small town of Durnstein. He was welcomed by the locals under an agreement that, as part of any release agreement, they would absolved by the pope of imprisoning a crusader. Richard’s captor, Hadmar II, had been with Richard at the siege of Acre. Queen Berengaria was still in Rome where whe learned of Richard’s capture because she saw his belt for sale in a market.
Bef. 1/8/1193, Leopold V moved Richard to Gegensburg where he met Richard to Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI [King of Germany.] Leopold then sent Richard back to Durnstein. [This is where the legend of how Jean Blondel, singing a song Richard would recognize (or hearing Richard singing) under the towers of castles around Vienne, discovered where Richard was. There is some basis for the legend given that soon after multiple English emissaries were able to meet up with Richard when he was being moved to Germany.]
2/14/1193, Leopold and Henry met in Wurzburg and decided on a ransom of 100,000 silver marks, which they would split. To a avoid the use of “ransom”, they decided to call it a dowery for the marriage of Richard’s niece Eleanor of Brittany to one of Leopold’s sons. In addition, Richard was to help Henry invade Sicily.
2/1193, Saladin, Richard’s nemesis in the holy lands, died, leaving 17 sons to fight over his legacy.
3/19/1193, Richard was in custody in Oschenfurt, Germany, where he was seen by 2 English abbots searching for him. William Longchamp, who had met up with Richard earlier, was also there.
3/20/1193, Richard was brought to Speyer, where he met Henry VI a second time. [Apparently Richard refused Henry’s demands.]
3/21/1193, Richard’s trial began in Speyer. Richard was charged with betrayal of the Holy Land by making peace with Saladin. Also charged with conspiracy to kill Conrad de Montferrat, demolishing the defenses of Ascalon, and breaking agreements with his allies. Richard defended himself with the story of the crusade, the fact that he was only guilty of being more successful than others, and the if had wanted to kill Conrad, he would have done it with a sword in his hand. Richard defended himself so well that the German princes were shifting to his favor. Richard ended by kneeling before the Emperor. Moved by the speech, Henry gave Richard the Kiss of Peace, in effect a dismissal of the accusations. Henry accepted Richard as a prisoner, and the “ransom” was changed to a payment for reconciliation between Emperor Henry IV and Richard’s brother-in-law Henry of Saxony. Richard was imprisoned in the castle of Trifels, in the mountains to the west of the city – very secure – the place where the crown jewels were kept.
1193, The pope responded to Richard’s arrest by excommunicating Leopold, and threatening Philip II of France with a country-wide interdict if he attacked Richard’s lands. The pope also arranged for Berengaria and Joanna to travel by ship to Marseilles, where they were then escorted to Poitiers. In Poitiers, Berengaria began raising money for the ransom.
3/30/1193, King Richard wrote from captivity expressing his gratitude to his mother Eleanor for her loyal and effective regency and requesting her action in the naming of his candidate as archbishop of Canterbury. He also announced an agreed proposal of a truce for 6 months.
4/1/1193, William Longchamp arranged for Richard to be moved to Hagenau, where he was free to have visitors and send messages to England.
1193, Richard was allowed to receive items from England including his hunting hawks. [Beginning the legends, Richard was competing in exchanging blows when he killed Ardour, s/o Modred. As punishment he had to face a lion in his cell. Richard killed it with his bear hand’s – and hence the title Coeur de Lion – because he is said to have eaten the lions heart after pulling it from its body.]
6/1193, in Worms, Germany, at Richard’s request, a 2nd court was convened. Richard would now be freed when the emperor had received 100,000 silver marks of Cologne [35 tons] plus hostages [60 for the emperor, 7 for Leopold] for another 50,000. [The additional 50,000 was to be waved if Richard was to achieve something that never was revealed.] At this time a sheep cost a penny. The amount was about 3 times the money raised in England in any previous year. 
7/9/1193, William Brewer and William Longchamp arrived in Paris to negotiate a truce between King Philip and King Richard. Richard agreed to pay Philip 20,000 silver marks in 4 installments after his release.
9/1193, German representatives were in London to receive the intial payment of ransom.
12/1193, Richard’s release date was announced; and the fact that he would be crowned King of Provence.
1/1194, Emperor Henry received a letter from King Philip and Prince John offering £1000 a month, and £80,000 if he would keep Richard in captivity until autumn. Henry showed the letter to Richard – any decision had to involved the German princes who had set the original ransom. Richard’s release date was postponed.
1/17/1194, After traveling down the Rhine, Queen Eleanor and her contingent arrived at the imperial court in Germany with the 67 hostages and the rest of the intial 100,000 silver marks.
2/2/1194, Richard’s 3rd court convened  in Mainz.
2/3/1194, Richard, under pressure from his mother Eleanor, gave all his lands to the Holy Roman Empire and took the vow of a vassal to Henry with payments to be made each year of £5000.
2/4/1194 at 9 AM, Richard released from custody. Richard left immediately for England  via Cologne, Antwerp, then by ship to Zwin [now in Belgium].
3/12/1194, Eleanor and Richard, having once more evaded capture, landed at Sandwich, England. Richard set out on foot for the tomb of Thomas Becket.
It only took Richard 2 weeks to recover his lands and castles, the last to fall being Nottingham castle, after a short siege. [Where, after the siege, he supposedly meets Robin Hood in Sherwood forest.].
4/1194, Richard, meeting with the Great Council, imposed a 3rd tax to raise the ransom money for the hostages.
5/12/1194, Richard sailed from Portsmouth with his army and siege engines for Barfleur, from which they traveled to Caen, then Bayeux, then Lisieux; where Prince John arrived from Paris. Richard forgave his brother John as having had poor advisers.
1194-1198, Richard, with the support of John against and Philip II, would skirmish, Philip slowly retreating back from Normandy.
7/1194, Richard nearly captured Philip at Freteval, capturing his wagon train, which had treasure, and a document identifying Angevin subjects prepared to swap sides.
12/31/1194, Richard’s captor, Lepold V, died, renouncing the last 4000 marks of ransom and promising to release his hostages.
4/1195, Richard’s brother-in-law and key ally Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, died in Brunswick castle.
1195, Berengaria was living on her lands in Le Mans, spending her time helping the poor. Richard developed his military tactics, including incorporating 300 Saracen soldiers.
1195, Emperor Henry renounced the remaining 17,000 marks to support Richard’s war with Philip.
1195, By the Treaty of Louviers, Richard gave up Vexin, but regained other contested territories in Berri.
1196, Richard built the Chateau Gaillard castle on the Seine river.
10/1196 at Rouen Cathedral, Richard and Berengaria at the marriage of his sister Joanna to Raymond of St Giles, s/o Raymond V of Toulouse – Richard’s southern nemesis in France. [A year later Raymod V would die and peace would come between the antagonist regions.]
1197, Richard received the news that Philip, Bishop of Beauvais, had been captured. Upon hearing the news, Richard said it was done by “Dieu et Mont Droit” – “God and my right”, the motto of the British royal family to this day.
1197, When the pope sent Cardinal Peter of Capua to seek his release, Richard refused saying that Philip had been in full armor fighting as a knight.
9/28/1197, Emperor Henry VI died at age 31 in Messina. On his deathbed Henry released King Richard of his vow as a vassal to the Holy Roman Empire.
1197, Richard raided Ponthieu at the mouth of the Somme.
1197-8, Richard defeated Philip II near Gisors, 20 miles northwest of Paris.
1/1199, during a truce arranged by Cardinal Peter of Capua, Philip and Richard met; Richard in a boat on the Seine, Philip on horseback on the bank.
3/1199, under a truce with Philip, Richard turned south to deal with problems in his lands, specifically with Aimar, Viscount of Limoges.
3/26/1199, Richard wounded at Chalus-Chabrol by a crossbowman shooting from the castle tower.
Richard, showing signs of gangrene, wrote his mother Eleanor and urged her to come.
After the capture of the castle, Richard had the bowman brought to him, forgave him, and set him free.
4/6/1199 at 7 PM, Richard, age 41, died attended by his mother; buried at Fontevrault Abbey, France.
1212, Berengaria wrote a letter to her sister Queen Blanche of Castile about the war in Spain against the Muslims.
2/10/1220, King Henry III sent letters of protection to Queen Berengaria, wife of his deceased uncle King Richard, in Spain for any messengers she desired to send to England.
10/26/1225, Berengaria, Queen of King Richard I, sent a letter to King Henry III asking payment of 1000 marks stirling which had been promised as dower by his father King John in 1215 and agreed to by him in 1220.
1230, Berengaria, self-titled “most humble former Queen of the English”, buried at L’Epau Abbey. [Her remains were discovered there in 1960.]
(S) The Troubadours Song, David Boyle, 2005.

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