Monday, February 27, 2012

G26: 47277590 King Andrew II of Hungary


47277590. King Andrew II of Hungary & 47277591. Yolande de Courtenay & 94555256. Gertrude of Meran

~1177, Andrew born in Hungary, 2nd s/o §King Bela III of Hungary.

Gertrude born in Merania, d/o Berthold IV, duke of Merania.

1182, King Bela had his 1st son Emeric crowned to insure succession.

1188, King Bela gave Andrew the principality of Halych; which had rebelled against their ruler Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich. [King Bela had imprisoned Vladimir.]

1189, Prince Andrew’s forces supressed a rebellion of boars in Halych. Soon after, Vladimir escaped prison and took back control of Halych.

4/23/1196, Andrew’s father died leaving Andrew a large amount of money to fulfill his [the father’s] crusader’s oath.

12/1197, Andrew, with the help of Leopold V, duke of Austria, defeated his brother in battle near Macsek. Andrew forced his brother Emeric to grant him the duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia. (S) Pope Innocent III, Moore, 2003, P73.

1198, Pope Innocent III asked duke Andrew to fullfill his crusade promise in the Holy Land. [Instead, Andrew attacked Zahumlje and Rama.] (S) Pope Innocent III, Moore, 2003, P31.

1198, Andrew succeeded in having Croatia, Dalmatia and other smaller territories declared semi-independent, creating a new power center in Hungary. (S) A History of Hungary, Sugar, 1994, P23.

~1198, Yolande born in France, d/o 94555182. Peter II de Courtenay & 94555183. Yolanda of Flanders.

Andrew married Gertrude.

1199, King Emeric defeated Andrew in battle; Andrew escaped to Austria. Through papal mediation, Andrew and Emeric made peace and Andrew was restored to Croatia and Dalmatia.

1200, Emeric and Andrew were again at war. Andrew was imprisoned in Croatia. Andrew escaped again.

Aft. 1200, The Andechs along the Croatian and Hungarian border built a strong allicance with Andrew. (S) Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, Curta, 2006, P399.

8/12/1204, Gertrude’s father died.

Aft. 8/26/1204, King Emeric, in ill health, named Andrew to govern the kingdom during his son’s minority.

10/1204, Andrew’s brother died leaving a son Ladislas born in 1199. Emeric’s wife Constance of Aragon escaped with her son to Austria.

5/7/1205, Andrew succeed his nephew on his death in Austria.

5/29/1205, Andrew crowned King of Hungary.

1205, Andrew attacked his neighbors and became King of Galicia and Lodomeria.

1208, Andrew invaded Halych.

1209, King Andrew II confirmed by a Golden Bull all the freedoms and estates that had been acquired by the Knights Templars.

1210, King Andrew invited the Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Herman Salza to wage war against the Cumans, a nomadic Turkish tribe. (S) Ecclesiastical Review, V56, 1917, P39.

1211, Andrew gave Burzenland in Siebenb├╝rgen [Transylvania] in the south to the Teutonic Knights to be a buffer against the Kumans. (S) History Teacher’s Magazine, V9, 1918, P365.

1212, Andrew again invaded Halych.

1213, King Andrew put his son Koloman on the Galician throne and tried to replace Orthodox bishops with his own Latin priests. (S) Prince, Saint, and Apostle, Korpela, 2001, P160.

9/24/1213, Queen Gertrude murdered by nobles who resented privileges accorded to her German barons and her lavish spending. [Only the leader of the conspirators was executed.] (S) Women and Gender in Medieval Europe, Schaus, 2006, P236.

1214, Andrew began to finance his crusade by selling and mortgaging property and debasing his coinage.

1214, Andrew and Leszek, duke of Poland, divided Halych between Hungary and Poland. [Andrew did not live up to his end of the agreement and he was eventually driven from Halych. By another agreement part of Halych was given to his son Coloman.]

2/1215, Andrew married Yolanda [niece of Henry I, Emperor of Constantinople, who arranged the marriage]. (S) The Late Medieval Balkans, Fine, 1994, P101.

4/1215, Pope Innocent III proclaimed the 5th crusade in a papal bull. King Andrew was escused from immediate participation by the Pope because of civil war in Hungary. (S) A History of the Crusades, Runciman, 1987, P146.

7/11/1216, Yolanda’s uncle died and Andrew attempted [unsuccessfully] to have himself crowned Emperor of Constantinople.

7/16/1216, Pope Honorious III succeeded Pope Innocent III.

1217, Andrew issued multiple charters witnessed by Master Garin of Montaigu. (S) Central Convent of Hospitaller and Templars, Burgtorf, 2008, P521.

8/23/1217, King Andrew arrived at Spalato with 10,000 horsemen and a “host” of crusaders. Andrew had arranged with Venetians to transport his forces; but they did not have enough ships for the size of the army. [Duke Leopold VI of Austria was also on crusade, traveling by a different route with multiple brothers-in-law of King Andrew.]

9/1217, After a delay to get more ships, King Andrew embarked from Spalato on crusade. (S) The Oxford History of the Crusades, Riley-Smith, 2002, P149. [Both Clissa and Spalato were held by the Kinghts Templars in the name of King Andrew.]

10/9/1217, Andrew landed his forces at Cyprus; then they proceeded to Acre, where they met up with the forces of Duke Leopold of Austria.

11/10/1217, Andrew’s forces defeated the forces of Al-Adil I, brother of Saladin, sultan of Egypt, at the battle of Bethsaida; but the forces retreated to fortresses of Mount Tabor which Andrew could not capture.

1/18/1218, Andrew left for his return to Hungary.  Duke Leopold remained in the Holy Land. [Andrew returned with a large number of Jews and Mulsims to whom he entrusted the collection of taxes.] (S) The Biographical Dictionary, V2, Pt2, 1843, 659.

1218, King Andrew returned via Tripoli and Antioch, stopping at Krak des Chevaliers and Margat to help the Hospitallers with construction of their facilities. [On a stop in Nicaea there was an attempt on his life.]

1219, King Andrew’s son had been sent to Armenia, and Andrew and made a request of the Pope to commission the Hospitallers and Templars to guard his son. (S) The Hospitallers, Borchardt, 2007, P193.

1220, Andrew handed over the administration of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia to his son Bela.

1221, The recently establish Order of Dominicans sent members into Hungary. 32 of the monks were drowned in one day by the Bosnians. (S) London Quarterly Review, V4, 1855, P38.

1222, Andrew issued the “Magna Charta of Hungary” [Golden Bull] confirming privileges. Nobles and the church were to be exempted from taxes. No noble was obliged to follow the king into a foreign war. No foreigner to hold office without consent of the council of the realm. … (S) Select Documents Illustrating Medieval and Modern History, Reich, 1905, P637. [Similarities indicate the framers of the Bull had knowledge of the Magna Carta of England. The Primate of Hungary visited Stephen Langton, who drafted the Magna Carta, at Canterbury in 1220.]


6/6/1224, Andrew made a peace agreement with Leopold, duke of Austria.


1224, The Teutonic Knights established in Siebenb├╝rgen sent a petition to Pope Honorius III asking to be placed under direct papal authority. [Independence from King Andrew.] (S) Oath of Fealty, Scott, 2009, P105.

1224, King Andrew issued the “Andreaneum”, giving special rights to the Germans living on the royal land around Sibiu in Transylvania. (S) Contens and Addresses of Hungarian Archives, 2009, P65.

1225, Pope Honorius III instructed Ugrinus, archbishop of Kalocsa to warn King Andrew II of Hungary to stop giving Jews and pagans preference in appointments to public office. [Andrew likely sold these offices because he had found his country bankrupt when returning from crusade.] (S) The Apostolic See and the Jews, V7, Simonshohn, 1991, P150.

1225, Andrew issued a charter, to Master Garin of Montaigu. (S) Central Convent of Hospitaller and Templars, Burgtorf, 2008, P523.

1225, King Andrew expelled the Teutonic Knights by force from Burzenland because they were expanding their territory. (S) History Teacher’s Magazine, V9, 1918, P365.

1226, King Andrew, needing money, farmed the royal revenues to Jews. (S) The Jewish Encyclopedia, V6, 1912, P494.

1228, King Andrew granted to his chief treasurer Denys an estate near Cluj.

1230, Frederick II, duke of Austria, attacked the western borders of Andrew; defeating the Hungarians in Halych.

1231, Andrew led forces into Halych to secure his youngest son’s rule.

12/1232, Pope Gregory IX admonished King Andrew II to correct the wrongs in Hungary including the oppression of Christian poor by Jews and Moslems in public office. Through Robert, archbishop of Gran, King Andrew [alone] was placed under an interdict [excommunicated.] (S) The Apostolic See and the Jews, V7, Simonshohn, 1991, P151.

8/20/1233, Andrew negotiated the rights of the clergy with a papal legate called the Agreement of Bereg.

1233, Yolanda died; buried in the abbey of Igris.

5/14/1234, Andrew married Beatrice D’Este.

1234, Andrew excommunicated for violating the Agreement of Bereg.

1235, Andrew invaded Austria and forced Federick II into a peace agreement.

1235, Andrew’s excommunication lifted by the Pope.

5/28/1235, Andrew’s daughter Elisabeth [born 1207, died 11/10/1231] canonized [for her Christian charity following the ideals of Francis of Assisi.]

9/21/1235, Andrew died, his son Bela IV succeeding.

(S) The Crusades and the Military Orders, Runciman, 2001. (S) History of the Latin Christianity, Milman, 1889.

Child of Andrew and Yolande:

i. Bela IV (47277628), born 1206 in Hungary.

ii. Yolande of Hungary (23638795), born 1216 in Hungary.

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