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Friday, June 22, 2012
79958920. Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd
79958920. King Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd
& 79958921. Gwladys verch Llywarch & 486788003. Christina verch Goronwy
~1100, Owain born in Gwynedd, northern Wales,
s/o 15991740. King Gruffydd ap Cynan & 15991741. Angharad verch Owain.
8/2/1100, Henry I crowned
King of England.
1118, The battle of Maies
Maen Cymro ended with two major chieftains of Wales, east of Gwynedd, being
killed. Owain and his older brother Cadwallon took control of the associated
1123, Cadwallon and Owain
invaded the cantref of Meirionydd in Powys, which they occupied.
~1125, Gwladys born
in Wales, d/o § Llywarch ap Trahaiarn, Lord of Arwystli
and Pembroke & Dyddgu verch Iorwerth.
1132, Owain’s older brother, Cadwallon, killed in battle
against forces of Powys leaving Owain as heir.
1135, Owain Gwunedd and Cadwalader, brothers, and a large
number of Welshmen attacked and destroyed the Norman castle of Ystradpeithill
near Aberystwith. [Soon after, Cadwalader married Alice, d/o Richard, earl of
Clare, and rebuilt the castle as his primary residence.]
12/2/1135, King Henry I of England died; providing an
opportunity for a Welsh uprising while there was internal strife in England.
12/22/1135, Stephen crowned king of England.
1/1/1136, In a sea battle, with the forces of the earl of
Warwick, the Welsh were victorius, killing over 500 Anglo-Normans.
4/15/1136, Richard, Earl of Hertford, and Lord of Ceredigion in
Wales, the most powerful magnate in Wales, slain in an ambush at Abergavenny by
men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain. This encouraged Owain to invade his
10/1136, Owain and Gruffydd ap Rhys, with and army of 6000
infantry and 2000 calvary, defeated Anglo-Norman forces at the battle of Crug
Mawr near Ceredigion. Owain was able to seize the castle of Mold, but not
1137, Owain succeeded his father; but shared the kingdom with
his younger brother Cadwaladr as was the custom in Wales.
1137, Owain and Cadwaladr invaded Ceredigion again, destroying
the castles of Ystrad, Meurig, Castell Hywel, and Lampeter. They then captured
Carmathen, taking possession of the whole of the valley of Towy.
1138, Owain enlisted the help of a Danish fleet of 15 ships to
lay siege to Cardigan castle, which still held out. Owain left his brother in
charge of Ceredigion and returned to Gwynedd. A truce was declared until
~1140, Christina born in Wales, d/o §Grown ab Owain ab Edwin.
[Owain’s 1st cousin.]
1140, Owain opposed the election of Meurug, a clerk, as bishop
in North Wales because he swore fealty to the King of England.
11/1140, Owain met with Anarawd ap Gruffudd and Bernard of St.
David’s at Aberdyfi.
2/2/1141, Owain’s brother Cadwaladr led a contingent of Welsh
men at the battle of Lincoln and the capture of King Stephen.
1143, Owain stripped his brother Cadwaladr of his lands after
Cadwaladr was implicated in a murder over land boundaries.
1144, Owain Gwynedd destroyed the castle of Mold. (S) Annals and
Antiquities, V1, Nicholas, 1872, P436.
1144, Owains’ brother, using hired mercenaries, compelled Owain
to restore his lands.
1144, Many Welsh pilgrims, mainly from Dyfed and Ceredigion,
drowned on their way to Jerusalem.
1144, Ranulf of Chester reconciled with Cadwaladr, brother of Owain
Gwynedd ap Gruffydd.
1145, Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd attacked the lands of Ranulf,
earl of Chester, who had reconciled with Owain’s brother Cadwaladr.
1146, Cooperating with Deheubarth, Owain captured the castle of
Mold from Robert Montault, steward of Chester.
1147, Owain and Cadwaladr’s peace agreement, lasting 3 years,
ended with attack by Owain’s forces on Meirionydd.
1148, Owain Gwynedd built a castle at Yale, close to the
English border. Both Randulf, earl of Chester, and Madog ap Maredudd opposed
the construction of the castle.
1148, Cynan and Howel, sons of Owain Gwynedd, by force snatched
Meironit from Cadwalader, brother of Owain.
1149, Madog ap Maredudd built a castle at Oswestry, part of the
lands of Englishman William fitz Alan. [The English were involved in a civil
war.] About the same time Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd built a castle at Buddugre,
in the cwmwd of Ial, commanding the pass from Dyffryn Clwyd.
1150, Ranulph, Earl of Chester, allied himself with Madog ap
Maredudd of Powys and marched against Owain. Owain, by ambush, defeated the combined
forces near Colehil.
1150, Owain captured the castle of Ruhddlan on the border with
the Powys of south Wales. Owain imprisoned his son Cynan.
1152, Owain’s brother Cadwaladr was driven from Aglesey by
southern Welshmen and took refuge in England.
1152, Owain blinded and castrated his nephew Cunedda son of his
older brother Cadwallon, to prevent an issue of succession.
1153, Ranulf of Chester died. Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth
reduced the Cantref of Penwedig, attacked the castle of Tenby, which they gave
to William fitz Gerald, lord of Pembroke, and destroyed the castle of Ystrad
10/25/1154, King Stephen died.
12/19/1154, Henry II crowned king of England. [King Henry’s
interests were focused in England and Normandy for the 1st few years.]
1155, Owain’s son Maredudd ap Gruffudd died. Three princes
dominated Wales: Owain Gwynedd, Madog of Powys, and Rhys ap Gruffudd of
1156, Owain started a campaign to recover Ceredigion, lost in
1153. Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth led an army opposing Owain. Owain declined
to do battle, and Rhys built a castle at Aberdyfi, and then returned to south
1156-7, Gwladus died; Owain married Christina; his 1st
7/17/1157, At the Council of Northampton, King Henry decided to
invade Wales against Owain.
1157, King Henry concentrated his forces in the plains of
Chester. Owain entrenched himself at Basingwerk.
1157, King Henry II invaded Gwynedd with support of Cadwaladr;
where his was nearly killed by the forces of Owain at the battle of Ewloe. Owain
still faced a formidable army, and retreated to St. Asaph. King Henry gathered
his forces at Rhuddlan. At the same time, King Henry’s invasion fleet was
defeated at the isle of Mon.
7/1157, After the intial battles of King Henry and Owain Gwynedd
ap Gruffydd, Madog ap Maredudd positioned his forces between the opposing groups.
In the peace agreement, Madog arranged for Owain’s castle built in Ial to be burned.
Owain’s peace agreement included his brother’s lands being restored, and resignation
all claim to Tegeingl, which included Rhuddlan castle. Owain also had to
provide 22 hostages, including two of his sons.
1158, Iowerth ab Owain appointed to govern Uch Coed in north
Wales by his father Owain.
1159, Eonion Clyd captured his brother Cadwallawn and delivered
him to Owain Gwynedd, who delivered him to King Henry.
1160, With the death of Madog ap Maredudd and his son,
supporters of King Henry II, Owain was able to seize Arwystli. The Council of
Woodstock attempted to convince the Welsh lords to accept being vassals to the
1161, Maurice, bishop of Bangor died. Owain kept the See of
Bangor vacant; despite the protests of Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, and Pope
1161-2, Owain was involved in the selection of a new bishop for
1162, Owain’s mother died; Owain took possession of Cyfeiliog
and its castle of Tafolwern. In battle against the invading forces of Howel ab
Ieuaf of Arwystli at Llandinam, Owain’s forces killed over 200 of Howel’s 300 men.
1162, Owain repulsed and attack by Hywel ab Ieuaf.
1163, King Henry invaded Wales.
7/1/1163, at Woodstock, Malcolm, King of Scotland, Owain
Gwynedd, Prince of N. Wales, and Rhys ap Gruffudd, Prince of S. Wales, did
fealty to King Henry and his son Henry.
1164, Owain Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gurffudd made an agreement to
oppose King Henry. Owain attacked the Norman lands on the north Welsh frontier.
1165, Owain wrote to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury [now in
exile], arguing that the Bishop of Bangor should be allowed to be consecrated
other than at Canterbury.
8/1165, King Henry II invaded Gwynedd again. The battle of
Crogen was a defeat for King Henry against much smaller Welsh forces. The
weather finally drove Henry’s forces back to England. Back in England, King
Henry II ordered the 22 Welsh hostages, including 2 of Owain’s sons [Cadwallon
and Cynfrig], blinded and mutilated. In south Powys, Rhys ap Gruffydd
retaliated by killing all Normans in his territory.
1166, Owain acknowledged himself a vassal of King Louis of
France, and promised to harrass King Henry in England if King Louis would do so
1166, Owain took the castle of Basingwerk in Tegeingl.
11/1167, After a siege of 3 months, Owain, with the help of
Rhys ap Gruffydd of Powys, again captured and destroyed Rhuddlan castle. Owain
then destroyed the castle of Prestatyn.
1168, Owain captured Basingwerk castle from the English.
1168, Owain, styling himself “Princeps Wallensium” – “the
Prince of the Welsh”, began negotiations with King Louis VII of France to gain
French recognition and support.
11/23/1170, Owain s/o Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd, Wales died at Caernarvonshire; buried
at Bangor Cathedral despite having been excommunicated.
(S) A History of Wales from the Earliest Times, V2, Lloyd,
1912. (S) The Age of Owain Gwynedd, Barbier, 1908. (S) Normal Outline of Welsh
History, Davies, 1905.
Child of Owain and Gwladys:
i. Iorwerth Drwyndwn ap Owain Gwynedd (39979460), born ~1130 in
Wales. ii. Anghard ap Owen Gwynedd (121696905), born ~1150 in Wales.
Child of Owain and Christina:
i. Gwenlian verch Owain-Gwynedd (243394001), born ~1158 in Wales.