Thursday, July 5, 2012

G27: 94555136 GeoffreyPlantagenet & Empress Matilda


94555136. Geoffrey Plantagenet & 94555137. Empress Matilda

8/5/1100, King Henry 1st crowed King of England after the death of his older brother King William Rufus.


2/1102, Matilda born in Sutton Courtenay, Oxfordshsire, England, d/o 189110274. King Henry I & 189110275. Maud of Scotland.


1108, King Henry V of Germany sought Matilda’s marriage.


1109, Matilda betrothed to King Henry V of Germany,


2/1110, Matilda sent to Henry V’s court with 10,000 silver marks.


7/25/1110, at Mainz, the Archbishop of Cologne crowned Matilda as Queen of Germany. Matilda was taken to Trier for her education, and put in the care of Archbishop Bruno.


4/13/1111, Henry V crowned Holy Roman Emperor [after abducting Pope Paschal and 16 cardinals in Rome]. The Holy Roman Empire consisted of Germany, northern Italy, Burgundy, Austria, and Bohemia.


8/24/1113, Geoffrey born in Anjou, France, s/o 189110272. Fulk V & 189110273. Erembourg of Maine.


1/7/1114 at Mainz, Matilda, age 12, married Emperor Henry V.


2/1116, Leaving from Augsburg, Empress Matilda accompanied the Emperor on his invasion of northern Italy.


4/1117, Emperor Henry captured Rome, the Pope having fled the city. At St. Peters, Archbishop Bourdin crowned Matilda Queen of the Romans. [Although not official, she would be known as Mathilda Imperatrix.]


1118, Matilda, age 16, left in Italy as regent with an army while Henry V returned to Germany. Matilda held a court at Castrocaro.


1119, Matilda returned to Germany.


11/25/1120, Matilda’s brother William, heir to the throne, died at sea; along with many other nobles when the White Ship sank. Stephen, count of Mortain, was supposed to be on the ship, but got off before it left because he was feeling ill.


5/23/1125, Emperor Henry V, age 38, died. Matilda was recalled to England by her father. Matilda took with her the imperial crown jewels, and the Holy Lance, supposedly used to pierce the side of Christ. [800 years later Adolf Hitler, standing next to the lance in Vienna, had a vision of his future.] The Archbishop of Mainz persuaded Matilda to return many of the items, including the lance, but she kept a crown of gold and a crown of silver.


9/1126, Matilda returned to England with her father.


12/25/1126, King Henry presented Matilda at his Christmas court.


1/1/1127, Widow Matilda accepted by her father’s barons as the heir to the crown. Matilda’s uncle, King David of Scotland, and her cousin, Stephen, count of Mortain, were the 1st two to do homage.


5/22/1128 in Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou, Geoffrey “the Fair”, age 15, married Matilda, age 25, forced into the marriage by her father. [Geoffrey’s sister had married Matilda’s deceased brother.]


6/1128, at Rouen, King Henry knighted Geoffrey. Matilda and Geoffrey then traveled to Angers.


7/28/1128, William Clito, s/o King Henry’s eldest brother Robert, died; leaving Matilda best succession claim to England and Normandy.


1129, Matilda was living separated from Geoffrey in Rouen, Normandy.


9/8/1130, King Henry called a great assembly at Northampton. He had his daughter Matilda with him. (S) American Intellectual Tradition, V1, Huntingdon, 1996, P487. [It was decided that Matilda should return to her husband.]

1131, Geoffrey’s brother Elias, count of Maine, rebelled against him. Geoffrey captured Elias and imprisoned him in Tours. [He died soon after being released from a disease contracted in prison.]


9/8/1131 at Northampton, King Henry again had his barons swear allegiance to Matilda. Afterwards, Matilda returned to Geoffrey in Anjou.


1135, Geoffrey launched an invasion [unsuccessful] of Normandy against the lands of Roscelin de Beaumont, married to Matilda’s half-sister Constance.


12/1/1135, King Henry I died in Rouen, Normandy after over-eating lampreys. Geoffrey claimed the crown in right of his wife [but Matilda and Geoffrey were unpopular.]


12/1135, Robert de Sable revolted against Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Maine; was captured and imprisoned. (S) Falaise Roll, Crispin, 1994, P128.


12/26/1135, in a coup Matilda’s 1st cousin Stephen de Blois became King, violating his oath to Matilda and throwing the country into civil war.


1136, Matilda, pregnant, resided in her stronghold of Argentan, Normandy. [Matilda had her cousin stand in for her at her father’s burial in England.]


9/1136, Waleran de Beaumont repelled an invasion in Normandy by Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou. [Geoffrey ended the campaign when he received a foot wound.]


1137, Geoffrey again invaded Normandy with 400 knights, causing widespread damage. (S) King Stephen, King, 2010, P73.

6/1138, Matilda’s half-brother Robert, earl of Gloucester, renounced his allegiance to King Stephen.


1139, Richard de Lucy, Governor of Falaise, Normandy, defended it against attacks by Geoffrey Plantagenet. (S) Account of a Tour of Normandy, Turner, 1820, P272.


7/1139, As part of her invasion plans, Empress Matilda made agreements through her half-brother Robert, earl of Gloucester. At Domfront, before Elias Giffard and Humphrey fitz Odo, Robert arranged for the support of Miles of Gloucester; who was granted the forest of Dean. (S) King Stephen, King, 2011.


9/30/1139, Empress Matilda landing at Arundel in Sussex [her step-mother’s castle], invaded England, while Geoffrey continued to pressure on Normandy [a traditional enemy of Anjou.] King Stephen immediately proceeded to Arundel castle. [Matilda’s brother Robert had secretly advanced to Bristol to set up her court there.] Not wanting to be perceived as attacking Matilda and her stepmother, King Stephen arranged for her to be escourted to her brother at Bristol.


12/1139, Ranulph, earl of Chester, rose in support of Matilda and captured Lincoln castle.


2/2/1141 at Lincoln, King Stephen was captured by her half-brother Robert and brought to Matilda.


3/2/1141, Matilda met with Bishop Henry, the king’s brother, and the papal legate in England, near Winchester. Matilda promised to consult him on important legal matters, and Henry gave his allegiance to her.


4/7/1141 at Winchester, Empress Matilda acknowledged as “Lady of England and Normandy” by Bishop Henry.


1141, Matilda became quickly unpopular, especially in London where she pushed for donations to the depleted treasury. Bishop Henry turned against her when she would not give Stephen’s counties of Mortain and Boulogne to Stephen’s son Eustace.


6/24/1141, Matilda’s forces expelled from London by the citizens and an army of Queen Matilda, wife of King Stephen. Empress Matilda fled to her castle at Oxford.


9/1141, From Oxford, Empress Matilda marched an army on Winchester, to secure the treasury. Bishop Henry had left, but he left a garrison to defend aginst the forces commanded by Robert of Gloucester, Milo of Gloucester, and Brien fitz Count. What they did not know was that William of Ypres’ Flemish forces were surrounding London. Mathilde marched the Flemish forces from her lands in Kent.


9/14/1141, Empress Matilda’s forces defeated at the battle of Winchester by forces led by King Stephen’s wife Mathilde of Boulogne. They fled London to get Empress Matilda to safety. Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow Matilda to escape.


11/1/1141, Matilda exchanged King Stephen for Robert.


12/25/1141, Stephen again crowned King. [The civil war would continue for 12 more years.]


8/1142, King Stephen captured Wareham, Dorset, the port where Earl Robert had left from to go to Normandy. Stephen then marched on Empress Matilda at Oxford.


9/1142, Stephen beseiged Matilda at Oxford castle. During the siege Earl Robert returned and recaptured Wareham.


12/1142, Empress Matilda escaped Oxford castle at night with an escort of 3 knights, and took refuge at Brien fitz Count’s castle of Wallingford. Matilda then established her base at the castle of Devizes in Wiltshire.


1144, [Early in the year] Geoffrey completed subjugation Normandy by taking the city of Rouen.


6-7/1144, Geoffrey ceded Gisors to King Louis VII in order to receive the title Duke of Normandy.


1144, [End of the year] Geoffrey controlled every castle in Normandy.


1145, King Stephen defeated Matilda’s forces at the battle of Faringdon.


1145, Geoffrey finally conquered Normandy with the fall of Rouen and Arques, and the defeat of Robert de Beaumont, King Stephen’s lieutenant in Normandy. Geoffrey provided a civil charter to Rouen.


4–6/1147, Geoffrey with a great assembly of French nobility in Paris meeting with the Pope and King Louis VII.


6/1147, Geoffrey joined Louis VII on a crusade.


10/31/1147, Matilda’s half-brother and chief supporter Robert, Earl of Gloucester died.


12/25/1147, On Christmas day on the coast of modern-day Turkey, encamped by a river, a tremendous storm washed away much of the supplies of the French crusaders. They decided to take a route over the mountains to Antioch.


1/4/1148, The crusaders fought in a battle at Laodicea against the Turks.


1/7/1148, The crusaders in a night battle in the area of Mount Cadmus, where Turks ambush the main train of infantry and non-combatants well behind the main force.


1/20/1148, After additional battles, the crusaders reached Atalya. There was not enough money for ships for everyone, and 7000 infantry were left in Satalia, Greece.


3/19/1148, The crusaders reached Antioch.


6/24/1148 at Acre, at a High Court of Jerusalem, the Council decided that the best move would be to retake Damascus.


6/1148, Matilda returned to Normandy. [Matilda would never return to England.] Matilda settled at Rouen.


By 4/1149, Geoffrey with the French and other crusaders failed to retake Damascus. Most of the crusaders returned at this time.


1149, Geoffrey arrived back in France.


1150, Geoffrey ceded Normandy to his son Henry.


8/1151, Count Geoffrey Plantangenet of Anjou and his 18 year old son Henry arrived in Paris to pay homage to their King returning from the crusades, to get formal approval of Henry as Duke of Aquitane, and to accuse a favorite of the King of “depredations” against him. Some arrangement was made because all charges against the King’s favorite were dropped.


9/7/1151, Geoffrey, age 38, died of a fever; buried in St Julian’s church, Le Mans.


11/6/1153, after King Stephen’s only heir died; the Treaty of Wallingford named Matilda’s son as heir to Stephen.


10/25/1154, King Stephen died.


12/19/1154, Matilda’s son Henry crowned King Henry II of England.


9/29/1155, At Great Council at Winchester, where King Henry proposed to conquer Ireland and give it to his brother William. Empress Matilda was present and opposed the plan.


2/2/1156 at Rouen, France, My Lady the Empress [Matilda] attested a royal charter of King Henry; and presided over discussions with her son Geoffrey who was in rebellion.


2/1157 at Rouen, Empress Matilda granted a charter in favour of Silly abbey.


1/1160 in France, Empress Matilda, in declining health, makes many grants which are attested by her son the King.


1162, Matilda opposed King Henry’s appointment of Thomas Becket as Archbishop of Canterbury.


12/1164, Empress Matilda is mentioned in a letter of Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury.


4/15/1165, at Rouen, Empress Matilda refuses to see ambassadors of the Emperor Frederick [who wanted to negotiate marriages of King Henry’s daughters – King Henry accepted the ambassadors.]


8/22/1165, In a letter Empress Matilda is urged by Pope Alexander to persevere in trying to get archbishop Thomas Becket restored to his position in Canterbury. [Thomas had fled England in a dispute with King Henry.]


9/1165, Empress Matilda sent her son King Henry a carriage of fruit from Normandy.


11/1165 at Westminster, King Henry granted a charter to Sr. Catherine’s priory near Lincoln, ‘pro anima Matildae Imperatricis matris meae.’


8/1166, Empress Matilda sent the bishop of Man to her son King Henry who was in Normandy.


11/1166, King Henry arrested a boy was carrying falsified papers from the pope. Empress Matilda demanded the release of the boy, which King Henry refused.


8/1167, Empress Matilda  domiciled at Rouen, was visited by her son King Henry. Together they granted a charter to the abbey of Valasia at Cherbourg.


9/10/1167, Matilda died in Rouen, Normandy; buried in Frontevault abbey.


(S) Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II, Eyton, 1878. (S) She-Wolves, Castor, 2011.

Family notes:

·         The House of Plantagenet lasted 331 years [until 1485], supplying 14 English Kings.

·         Kings Henry II, Richard I, and John are also known as “Angevins” because they also held the title Count of Anjou. Kings Edward I, II, III are also known as “House of Lancaster”.

Child of Geoffrey and Maud:

i. Henry II (47277568), born 3/5/1133 in Le Mans, France.

ii. Geoffrey Plantagenet, born 6/1134 in Rouen, Normandy.

1156, Geoffrey revolted against his brother Henry, claiming their father wanted him to have Anjou. [Geoffrey capitulated within 6 months for a yearly annuity.]

1158, Geoffrey died.

iii. William Plantagenet, born 7/22/1136 in Argentan, Normandy.

1164, William died in Rouen with his mother present.

Children of Geoffrey and ?:

i. Hamelin Plantagenet (94559120), born ~1140 in France.

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