Saturday, July 14, 2012
G27: 94555248 King Philip II Augustus
8/21/1165, Philip born in Gonesse in the Val-d’Oise, s/o 189110370. King Louis VII & 189110497. Adela of Champagne.
4/5/1170, Isabelle born in Hainaut, d/o 94555204. Baldwin V of Hainaut & 94555205. Margaret I, Countess of Flanders.
8/27/1172, Young King Henry of England married Philip’s sister Margaaret.
1177, King Louis [unsuccessfully] planned a marriage for Philip with Ida, daughter of Matthew of Boulogne.
1179, The Lateran Council declared those slain in tournaments were denied christian burial. (S) The Chronicle, Villehardouin, 1829, P3. [Philip supported this position when he became King.]
11/1/1179 at Rhiems, Philip crowned by his maternal uncle the archbishop [his father was in declining health. The ceremony was to have taken place on August 15th, but Philip had gotten lost during a hunting party, and subsequent events delayed the coronation.] Young King Henry of England carried the crown.
1180, Acting as King [his father very ill], Philip confiscated his mother Adela’s dower lands and was in conflict with her Champagnois relations. Adela took refuge with her brother Theobald of Blois [who had been a seneschal to King Louis in 1178.]
4/28/1180 at Bapaume, Philip, age 14, married Isabelle, who brought the county of Artois as dowery. [Isabelle, age 10, was described as tall and beautiful. The marriage had been arranged by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders, Isabelle’s uncle.]
5/1180, Another coronation ceremony was conducted for the couple.
6/28/1180 at Gisors, King Henry II, making peace with Philip, arbitrated an agreement between Adela and her son over her salary during her regency. Henry received the homage of Philip of Flanders, and Adela was to receive a daily pension of 7£ “paris”, and restoration of her dower lands upon the death of Louis.
9/18/1180, Philip, having already been crowned, succeeded his father as King of France.
9/29/1180, King Henry and King Philip meet near Gisors to confirm a treaty negotiated the previous June.
4/27/1181, King Henry and King Philip meet at the Ford of St. Remigy near Nonancourt. The kings promise to assist Pope Alexander in his crusade.
4/1181, A war with the Count of Flanders, Philip of Alsace, when the count invaded King Philip’s lands.
7/1181 at Gisors, King Henry II arbitrates a settlement between King Philip and the count of Flanders. William, King of the Scots was present.
11/29/1181, A coalition of the Count of Flanders, with William, archbishop of Rheims, and Count Theobald of Blois [both uncles of Philip] attacked King Philip’s lands. King Philip was supported by young King Henry.
4/1182, Philip expelled all Jews from his castles and towns and confiscated their property. [Philip later relented and recalled the Jews.]
1183, 13-year-old Isabelle sent to the monastery at Senlis. [Isabelle wandered around the monastery barefoot until Philip agreed to bring her back to Paris.]
6/11/1183, Young King Henry of England died. Philip demanded the return of his sister Margaret’s dowery – the Vexin and Gisors.
6/1183, Richard, s/o King Henry II, sought Philip’s help in getting his father to name him as heir. [More common in France than in England.] Richard and Philip became close friends.
6/5/1184 at Choisi, King Henry of England arbitrates betweeen King Philip and the Comte of Flanders over Vermandois, which the Comte had promised to King Philip.
1184, Philip waging war against Flanders, which was being supported by Isabelle’s family, called a council at Sens to repudiate the marriage.
5/1/1185, King Henry and King Philip meet with Heraclius at Vaudreuil. The both declaine to attend the crusade, but promise men and money. [Heraclius would reach Jerusalem by August.]
1185, King Philip laid siege to Boves, near Amiens.
7/1185, Philip by the Treaty of Boves confirmed King of Vermandois, Artois, and Amienois.
11/9/1185, King Philip visited King Henry II, who was ill, at Belvoir.
1186, King Philip invaded Burgundy and forced the Duke Hugh into submission.
1186, Philip recalled Isabelle from the monastery.
1186-88, Philip was at war with King Henry II of England; initially allied with Henry’s sons Henry and John.
4/5/1187, King Henry and King Philip confer at Gue St. Remi, but do not reach an accord and both prepare for war.
1187, King Philip invaded Berry and the Loire valley with the support of King Henry’s son Richard.
7/1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin when the Christian army of King Guy of Jerusalem was extinguished at the battle of the Horns of Hattin.
1/21/1888 in Normandy, King Henry II met with King Philip II and pledged to take the cross of crusaders. They agreed that French soldiers would wear red crosses, English white crosses, and Flemish green crosses.
1188, Philip had the Elm tree at Gisors where Kings of England and France would meet cut down.
Bef. 6/1189, Prince Richard met with his father Henry II, and King Philip of France, at Bonmoulins. He wanted to marry Alys, sister of Philip [and his father’s lover], and be declared heir to Henry.
6/12/1189 at Le Mans, King Henry, with 700 knights, was defeated by his son Richard, aligned with King Philip.
7/6/1189 at Chinon, King Henry II of England died; succeeded by his son Richard I.
11/3/1189, Richard I crowned king of England.
3/14/1190, Isabelle gave birth to twin sons and died of complications of the birth. The sons died a few days later. The county of Artois passed to her son Louis.
6/24/1190, King Philip received the scrip, staff and oriflame at St-Denis before departing on crusade.
1190, Philip left on the 3rd crusade expecting to join up with King Richard I of England and Frederick I of Barbarossa. [Philip and Richard had agreed to split equally the spoils of the war.]
7/2/1190, The English and French armies met at Lyons; where they learned that the German Emperor, leading his forces to the crusade, had died in an accident. Philip departed with his forces two days later.
9/16/1190, The French forces, traveling by ship from Genoa, stopped in Sicily. King Richard arrived 6 days later.
3/30/1191, King Philip arrived at Tyre.
4/20/1191, King Philip arrived at Acre and took command of the siege [multiple smaller and unorganized forces had arrived over the previous two years]. (S) Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare, V1, 2010, P475.
6/1191, The English forces under Richard I arrived. Philip wanted Richard to give him half of Cyprus [which was owed as part of the original arrangement], which Richard had captured on his way. Richard refused.
7/1191, Both Richard and Philip developed a disease that caused their hair and nails to fall out. [Philip remained bald.]
7/12/1191, Acre fell to the combined forces of the English, French, and Germans.
7/31/1191, Due to the death of Count of Flanders, Philip of Alsace and Philip’s own illness, Philip left his 10,000 men under the control of Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, and left for France.
1191, in Rome, Pope Celestine freed Philip from his crusader vow because of his obvious illness. Philip also met up with new Emperor Henry VI of Germany, both of whom had reasons to dislike and distrust Richard I of England.
12/27/1191, Philip arrived back in Paris.
1/20/1192, Philip met with William Fitzhugh, who held lands for King Richard I in France, and demanded he hand over his sister Alys, and disputed Norman territories including Gisors, Aumale, and Eu. William refused.
1/1192, Philip returned to Paris, started raising an army; and contacted Prince John of England – promising that he would be made lord of all Angevin lands in France, and marriage to his sister Alys, if he would support him over disputed lands. [John was prevented from joining Philip by his mother. Philip’s barons refused to take arms as Richard’s lands were protected while he was on crusade.]
12/8/1192, Philip received a letter from Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI informing him of Richard I’s capture and imprisonment near Vienna. Philip returned a letter urging Henry to keep Richard secure until they had a chance to consult. Philip wrote 2 other letters; one to Prince John at Cardiff telling him of Richard’s capture, and one to Richard himself declaring war.
4/12/1193, Philip captured Gisors, a vital frontier castle of King Richard.
1193, With Baldwin VII of Flanders, Philip laid siege to the Norman capital of Rouen with 23 siege engines. Robert, Earl of Leicester was in charge of defending the city. Philip demanded a surrender. Robert replied that the gates were open and Philip could enter any time he wanted. Fearing he could not win a close-quarters fight, Philip burnt his siege engines, emptied his wine into the Seine, and returned to Paris.
6/1193, Philip was supposed to meet with Emperor Henry VI about King Richard’s captivity. Instead, the emperor held a 2nd court in Germany which renegotiated Richard’s ransom terms. King Philip sent Prince John the message “Look to yourself, the Devil is loosed”, upon hearing the new terms for King Richard’s release from captivity.
Pope Celestine excommunicated both King Philip and Prince John for attacking a returning Crusader.
7/9/1193, William Brewer and William Longchamp arrived in Paris to negotiate a truce between King Philip and King Richard. Richard agreed to pay Philip 20,000 silver marks in 4 installments after his release.
8/14/1193 at Amiens, Philip married 18-year-old Ingebour of Denmark [his 4th cousin], who’s brother was King Cnut VI of Denmark. Cnut had a large naval fleet and a distant claim on the English throne. [Philip, who suffered sudden trembling during the wedding ceremony, refused to crown her Queen.] (S) Epistolæ.
11/1193, Philip had French prelates pronounce a divorce from Ingebour and had her imprisoned. [French nobles were imprisoned in Denmark by her brother.]
12/1193, After hearing of King Richard’s pending release, King Philip and Prince John sent a letter to Emperor Henry offering £1000 a month, and £80,000 if he would keep Richard in captivity until autumn. They also offered to match the English ransom if he handed Richard over to them.
1/1194, Prince John [brother of King Richard] ceded Vexin to King Philip [Accepted by King Richard the following July.]
2/4/1194, King Richard released in Mainz, Germany. Emperor Henry sent letters to King Philip and Prince John that the Holy Roman Empire demanded all lands having been taken from Richard be returned.
1194, Philip laid siege to Verneuil, property of King Richard. When Prince John received forgiveness from Richard and announced that he held the town of Evreux for Richard, Philip quit his siege of Verneuil, attacked Evreux, and burnt its churches.
1194, Philip’s marriage to Ingebour ended by an assembly of barons and bishops at Compiegne. [The divorce decree was appealed by Ingebour to Rome.]
1194-1198, King Richard, with the support of Prince John, would skirmish against Philip who slowly retreated back from Normandy.
7/1194, Richard nearly captured Philip at Freteval, capturing his wagon train, which had treasure, and a document identifying Angevin subjects prepared to swap sides.
1195, King Philip captured Dieppe, using Greek Fire.
12/1195, Philip and Richard agreed by the Treaty of Louviers on boundaries between Normandy, Turenne, Berry, Aubergne, Perigord, Angoumois and Toulouse. (S) War and Peace, Souza, 2008, P203.
5/7/1196, Philip married Agnes of Merania, a descendent of Charlemagne, from Dalmatia. [Then nullified by the Pope as his previous marriage was still recognized in Rome.]
1196, Philip agreed to the truce of Gaillon with King Richard.
1197, Philip captured Aumale. King Richard had to pay 3000 silver marks for the ransom of his knights. (S) Loss of Normandy, Powicke, 1999, P110.
1197-8, Richard defeated Philip II near Gisors, 20 miles northwest of Paris. (S) Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare, V1, Robergs, 2010, P65.
1198, Philip, in retreat near Gisors, fell into a river when a bridge collapsed. 40 of his knights drowned.
1/1199, During a truce arranged by Cardinal Peter of Capua, Philip and Richard met; Richard in a boat on the Seine, Philip on horseback on the bank.
4/6/1199, King Richard was wounded at the siege of Chalus-Chabrol by a crossbow. He died soon after.
5/27/1199, John crowned king of England.
1199, Many of the counts on the continent gave homage to King John of England.
1199, Philip captured Evreux.
1199, King Philip accepted Arthur, nephew of Prince John, as his vassal in Brittany.
7/1199 at Chartres, France, King John of England and King Philip II of France attended the wedding of Comte Thibaut III of Champagne & Blanche of Navarre.
5/1200, Philip signed the Treaty of le Goulet with King John, now Duke of Normandy, in which Philip recognized John as King of England and renounced the claim of Arthur of Brittany. [The treaty had been in negotiation for 5 months.]
1/1200, Pope Innocent III imposed an interdict on France because Philip had not taken back Ingebour as his wife. Philip refused and imprisoned Ingebour to Chateau d’Etamps. [The interdict lasted 8 months]
1/1200, By the Treaty of Peronne Philip received the support of Baldwin of Flanders. [Baldwin reaquired much of Artois.]
1200, Philip chartered the University of Paris.
1201 at Soissons, The interdict lifted when Philip fained a reconciliation with Ingebour.
1201, Agnes of Merania died at Chateau de Poissy in complications of childbirth of son Tristan. [Agnes’ 2 children were legitimized by Pope Innocent III.]
1201, Philip brought Ingebour back to Paris and acknowledge her as queen.
1201, Philip gained Champagne on the death of Thibaut III on crusade; Thibaut IV became Philip’s ward.
7/1201, Philip, laying siege to the castle of Arques, upon hearing of the capture of Arthur of Brittany, withdrew and captured Tours, burning the town. (S) Rigord’s Deeds of Phillip Augustus.
1202, Philip disposed King John’s lands in Aquitaine due to his refusal to answer charges brought against him. [This started the war in which almost all English lands in France were taken, ending in the victory at the battle of Bouvines in 1214.]
5/1203, Philip captured the castle of Falaise, Domfront [Caen], and their neighboring districts. Coutances, Bayeux, Lisieux, and Avranches voluntarily came under the protection of Philip.
7/1203, Philip then laid siege to the Castle of Ruil [Vaudreuil], which capitulated by agreement after receiving no relief from King John. Philip imprisoned the commanders Saher de Quency and Robert fitz Walter for ransoms.
3/6/1204, King Philip, after a 6-months siege, captured the fortress of Chateau Gaillard, built by Richard I.
6/24/1204, Philip captured Rouen after a month-long siege.
1204, King Philip conquered Poitiers and the region between it and the border of Touranine, including the viscounty of Chatellerault. (S) The Houses of Lusignan and Chatellerault, Medieval Academy of America, Painter, 1955.
1204, King John of England requested a truce with King Philip Augustus, who responded with a request for him to produce Authur of Brittany [likely murdered by King John.]
1205, Pope Innocent III addressed a letter of rebuke to King Philip dealing with Jewis ursury “… the Jews have become so insolent … they appropriate ecclesiastical goods and Christian possessions.” (S) The Jews, Chazan, 2006, P145.
1205, King Philip called a general assembly [a precursor to the Estates-General] at Chinon.
1205, King Philip attacked Cologne, Germany, but did not capture the city. (S) A History of Germany, Henderson, 1894, P328.
1206, Philip’s mother died.
1206, King Philip defeated Otto IV of Germany in battle near Wassenberg, and then captured Cologne.
10/26/1206, King Philip and King John agreed to a 2-year truce.
1207, King Philip had the service of 847 knights, 370 owed to him as overlord, and 477 drawn from lands in his hands. (S) Govt. of Philip Augustus, Baldwin, 1991, P291.
1208, Philip renewed attacks south of the Loire river; but retreated when sickness spread through his army. Philip claimed he was defending southern churches from barons.
1208, After receiving envoys from the Holy Land, Philip selected Jean de Brienne as husband for the heiress and ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1209, King Philip Augustus sent a letter to a Wales marcher lord suggesting the return of English lands in Normandy in return for rebellion and attacks in England and Ireland
1210, Philip confined Ingebour in the Chateau d’Etamps. [Philip wanted a divorce to marry a daughter of the Count of Thruingia.]
1210, Philip ordered the imprisonment of Jews.
10/3/1210 at Tyre, Jean de Brienne married Maria, d/o Conrad de Montferrat & Isabella of Jerusalem, becoming King of Jerusalem. King Philip II of France and Pope Innocent III each provided a dower of 40,000 silver pounds. (S) FMG.
8/1211, Philip loaned Friedrich Staufen 20,000 marks, and both agreed not to make peace with Emperor Otto IV or King John without the other’s consent; Friedrich II was elected King in of the Romans [Germany] a month later [but was not unopposed in the position until 1215.]
2/1212, King Philip, concerned about possible attacks by King John from his possessions in France, required sureties from many nobles including Amaury de Craon: Robert, count of Alencon, 1000 livres; Juhel de Mayenne, 1000; William des Roches, 1000; Bernard de la Ferte, 300; Ralph, viscount of Beaumont, 500; … (S) On the Increase of Royal Power, Wilker, 1888, P116.
1212, King Philip made a treaty with Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Wales.
1213, Philip finally recognized Ingebour as Queen.
4/1213, King Philip called a general assembly at Soissons.
5/1213, The French fleet was destroyed by a surprise attack at Damme, and Philip ordered the remaining ships burned. [Over 400 ships lost.]
1213, Philip attacked the Flemish resistance by taking over Ypres and Bruges while besieging Ghent. [King John was supporting Flanders.]
7/27/1214, a Sunday, An alliance of England, the Holy Roman Empire and rebellious French principalities supporting Otto IV of Germany against King Philip, at the battle of Bouvines, near Tournai in Flanders. King Philip’s forces defeated the alliance, which had a much larger force, in 3 hours. King Philip was dismounted and threatened, but was rescued by French knights. The French captured 130 knights and Ferdinand of Flanders.
1214, Philip and King John agreed to a 6-year truce at Chinon.
3/1215, King Philip made a formal agreement with the French episcopacy limiting the impact of fiscal, credit and legal issues. (S) God’s War, Tyerman, 2006, P622.
1215, Anglo-Norman barons, in revolt against King John, solicited the aid of King Philip. The Pope intervened to prevent Philip’s invasion. [At the time, King John was a vassal to the Pope.] (S) A Short History of France, P26.
1216, Philip’s son Louis invaded England.
Aft. 10/18/1216, King Philip called a general assembly at Melun after learning of the death of King John of England [who was succeeded by his 9-year-old son Henry III.]
10/28/1216, Henry III, age 9, crowned king of England.
1217, King Philip began construction of a new fleet of ships.
1218, King philip confirmed the privileges granted to Peronne. (S) Philip Augustus, Hutton, 1896, P147.
2/2/1219, King Philip ordinance for the Jews ‘postetatis suae’ of his domain against the acceptance of church ornaments as pawns, and forbids Jews to lend to certain clerics without the consent of their superiors. (S) Towards a Definition of Antisemitism, Langmuir, 1996, P145.
1220, Philip renewed his truce with England for 4 years.
1220, King Philip ordered the collection of inquest records.
1221, King Philip recognized an “ordinary” income of 194,898 livres parisis for the year. (S) Govt. of Philip Augustus, Baldwin, 19991, P247.
1222, King Philip sent a force of 200 knights to attack Toulouse, a center of Catharism.
9/1222, King Philip became ill. Philip made his will at St-Germaine-en-Laye; leaving money for crusades, hospitallers and Templars, as well as orphans the poor, … . [Philip left £600,000 in his will.]
7/14/1223, Philip died at Mantes-la-Jolie; buried at Saint Denis Basilica. [Ingebour was well treated by her stepson Louis VIII. She died at Corbeil in 1236.]
(S) Memoires of the Queens of France, V1, Bush, 1843. (S) Life of Philippe Auguste, Rigord, 1826. (S) King John, the Braoses, and the Celtic Fringe, Holden. (S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007. (S) Court, Household and Itinerary of King Henry II, Eyton, 1878.
· Philip was called “Augustus” because he was born in August. Gerald of Wales, a student in Paris at the time, recorded the excitement in the city when the birth was announced.
· Philip was responsible for some innovations in construction and education. He had the streets of Paris paved [1186-96]. He built a central market, Les Halles . He continued construction of the Gothic Notre-Dame du Paris Cathedral. He constructed the Louvre as a fortress . He also conducted the “Battle of the wines” which was judged by an English priest. Philip enacted a law against swearing in court.
· During Philip’s life there were 4 kings of England: Henry II [1154-89], Richard I [1189-99], John [1199-1216], Henry III [1216-1272.]
Child of Philip and Isabelle:
4/22/1213, Mary married Henry I, duke of Brabant.
Tristan, count of Clermont.