Wednesday, July 18, 2012

G27: 94559150 Philip of Swabia, King of Germany



94559150. Philip of Swabia, King of Germany & 94559151. Irene Angelina

8/1177, Philip born in Germany, youngest s/o 189118300. Emperor Frederick I & 189118301. Beatrice, Countess of Burgundy.

~1180, Irene born in Byzantium, d/o 189118302. Emperor Isaac II Angelus & 189118303. Eirene ?.

By 1185, Irene’s mother died.

6/10/1190, Philip’s father died; his brother Henry succeeding.

1191, Philip accompanied his brother Henry VI, King of Germany and Emperor of Rome, to Italy, and gave up his ecclestical vows.

1192-94, King Richard of England was held prisoner in various German cities after being captured while returning from the crusades. [3 trials were held during this time, attended by Henry VI, and any of which might have been attended by Philip.]

1193, Irene 1st married Roger III of Sicily.

12/24/1193, Irene’s husband Roger died.

1194, Philip [likely] attended his brother Henry’s 2nd Sicilian expedition. [In which Irene was captured.]

1195, Philip named duke of Tuscany.

4/8/1195, Irene’s father Isaac deposed, blinded, and imprisoned with his son Alexius; by his elder brother Alexius III.

8/15/1196, Philip became duke of Swabia on the death of his brother Conrad II at Durlach.

12/1196, Philip’s nephew Frederick, age 3, elected as successor to his father who was leaving for the crusades.

3/1197, Ships with German crusaders began to leave for the Holy Land, Philip’s brother King Henry one of the leaders.

5/25/1197, Philip married Irene, dowager Queen of Sicily.

1197, at Augsburg, Philip of Swabia knighted, and took the cross of a crusader. (S) Courtly Culture, Bumke, 1991, P243.

1197, Philip went to Sicily to get his nephew Frederick for his coronation [hearing of his brother’s death during the trip].

9/28/1197, Philip’s brother Emperor Henry died of a fever at Messina; Henry’s son Frederick, age 4, succeeding. [Most of the German nobles left the crusade to return to protect their interests back home.]

1197, Philip chosen as defender of the Empire during Frederick’s minority. [The kingship of a child was not popular.]

3/8/1198, Philip elected King of Germany [supported mainly by the south of the country.]

6/9/1198, Otto IV became anti-King of Germany [supported in the north, and supported by the Pope who wanted to prevent the unification of Sicily with Germany.] (S) Holy Roman Emperors.

7/12/1198 at Aachen, the coronation of Otto as King of Germany.

9/8/1198 at Mainz, Philip crowned King of Germany.

1199, Thibaut, comte de Bar, in right of his wife, bought the counties of Luxembourg, Durbuy and Laroche, with the approval of Philipp, King of Germany.

1199, King Philip of France wrote to Pope Innocent in favor of Philip as Holy Roman Emperor, and specifically against Otto IV. (S) Philip Autustus, Hutton, 1896, P166.

1199-1200, Germany essentially in a north-south civil war over who would rule.

1200, Philip and Irene gave two of Irene’s diadems to the cathedral of Bamberg. (S) Catalogue of the Byzantium Coins, V1, 1999, P166.

1200, Pope Innocent issued the Deliberation, giving arguments for against each of Frederick II, Philip of Swabia, and Otto IV as holding the title of Holy Roman Emperor. (S) Collected Works of Eric Voegelin, V20, 1997, P174.

3/1201, Pope Innocent turned his support to Otto, s/o Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, as King of Germany.

1201, Pope Innocent excommunicated King Philip. (S) Book of Concord, Kolb, 2000, P336.

12/25/1201 at Hagenau, Marquis Boniface of Montferrat, elected leader of the upcoming crusade, visited Philip at his Christmas court. (S) Pope Innocent III, Moore, 2003, P108. [At this time, Philip and Boniface agreed to divert the target of the crusade from Egypt to Constantinople. Philip’s nephew Alexis had escaped prison and attended the court.]

10/1/1202, Philip the leader of the Ghibellines, allied with the Venetians, sailed on crusade from Venice against Greece with 200-plus ships [the Pope wanted them to attack Egypt; but many wanted to attack Greece for their disobediance to the Latin church.]

11/10/1202, The crusaders reached, then captured Zara.

1/1/1203, Philip sent an embassy to Pope Innocent to tell him of the capture of Zara. (S) Cambridge Medieval History, Vs1-5.

4/1203, The crusades sailed from Zara [with Boniface remaining behind.]

1203, All the crusaders reached Durazzo, when Philip’s young nephew Alexis was received as their emperor.

1203, Meeting resistance, the crusaders devasted the island of Corfu. [About half the crusaders then separated, desiring to proceed to Syria rather than Constantinople. An agreement was reached guaranteeing later transport for the separatists to Palestine.]

5/24/1203, The fleet sailed from Corfu for Constatinople. They captured the island of Andros in the process.

6/24/1203, The crusader fleet anchored off the abbey of St. Stephen, 7 miles south of Constantinople. [After a brief skirmish, Alexius demanded the surrended of his uncle Alexius III as a traitor and usurper.]

7/5/1203, The siege of Constantinople began with the French attack on the Galata and its defensive tower.

7/17/1203, The Venetians, with a sea assault, captured 25 towers on the sea wall, and set fire to the buildings inside the walls. [That night Alexius III fled to Mosynopolis.]

1203, The Byzantine officials released imprisoned Isaac Angelus, restoring him to office.

8/1/1203, The young Alexius IV crowned co-emperor with his father. [Alexius agreed to pay the crusaders and the Doge of Venice 200,000 marks to put him on the throne of Constantinople. (S) Archimedes Codex, Netz, 2007.]

1203, Philip [apparently] returned to Germany at this time.

1/1204, Irene’s father died.

1204, Hermann of Thuringia submitted to Philip.

1/6/1205 at Aix-la-Chapelle, Philip crowned again by Adolf of Cologne.

5/1205, Philip, supported by the Archbishop of Cologne, began the siege of Cologne by blockading the Rhine above and below the city.

9/29/1205, Philip began a 5-day attack on Cologne, during which Otto IV was wounded.

10/1205, Failing to take Cologne, Philip captured Neuss and other castles and fortifications around Cologne before calling off the attack.

6/1206, Philip again attacked the lower Rhine.

7/27/1206, Philip defeated Otto IV at the battle of Wassenberg [west of Cologne.] Otto escaped to Cologne. The Archbishop of Cologne, now supporting Otto, was taken prisoner.

11/11/1206, Philip captured Cologne.

1207, The papal ban on King Philip removed.

6/21/1208, Philip assassinated at Bamberg by Otto VIII of Wittelsbach, who had been promised the marriage of one of Philip’s daughters, and then Philip recanted, and refused to support a different marriage. [Count Palatine of Bavaria, killed 3/1209, his head was thrown in the Danube, and his body remained unburied for 7 years.] (S) Courtly Literature, V25, 1990, P171.

(S) History of the Crusades, V-II, Setton, 2006. (S) Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare, V1, 2010, P409.

Children of Philip and Irene:

i. Beatrice of Hohenstaufen, born 1198 in Swabia.

Beatrice married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

1208, Beatric pleaded for vengence for her father.

ii. Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen, born 1200 in Swabia.

Cunigunde married King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia.

iii. Marie de Hohenstaufen (47279575), born 1201 in Swabia.

iv. Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen, born 1203 in Swabia.

Elizabeth married King Fernando III of Castile.

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