Friday, December 28, 2012
G28: 189110274 King Henry-Matilda-Isabel
9/1068, Henry “Beauclerk” born in Selby, Yorkshire, England, s/o 378220548. William the Conqueror & 378220549. Matilda of Flanders.
Henry was educated in Paris and Cambridge; an accomplished scholar, he was nicknamed “Beauclerk”.
1080, Maud [English name – Scot name Edith] d/o 378220550. King Malcom III & 378220551. Saint Margaret.
1080, Robert of Normandy [eldest brother of future King Henry] on an embassy to Scotland, became the godfather to Matilda.
Matilda educated in England by the nuns at Wilton. (S) King Stephen, King, 2010, P103.
11/2/1083, Henry’s mother Queen Matilda died.
3/1084, Henry was at Abingdon abbey for Easter while his father and brothers were in Normandy.
5/1086, Henry knighted at Westminster by his father.
9/9/1087, Henry’s father died; his oldest brother Robert getting Normandy, and his older brother William Rufus receiving England.
10/1087 in Normandy, Henry witnessed a charter of his brother Robert confirming grants of their father to St. Stephens of Caen.
1088, Robert gave his brother Henry ‘the Cotentin’ [the peninsula with Cherbough at the tip] in exchange for part of his inheritance. [Robert needed money to fund his planned invasion of England – which failed.]
6/1088, “Henry, the king’s brother” attended King William’s court in the south of England.
7/1088, Robert returned to Normandy with Henry, the brother of King William. On landing, they were captured by Robert, duke of Normandy, and imprisoned with Odo of Bayeux.
11/1090, Having been released from prison by his brother Robert, Henry supported Robert in suppressing a rebellion in the city of Rouen. Henry with Robert fought the armed rebels in the streets. Conan, the leader of the rebellion was handed over to Henry, who tossed him from a tower to his death.
4/1091, Henry’s brothers King William and Duke Robert, now allied, besieged Henry at the island abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel on the Cotentin. [The abbey was a good fortress, but lacked a freshwater source.] Henry negotiated terms whereby he was exiled to Brittany and removed from Anglo-Norman succession.
1091-92, While Henry’s brothers were in England, Robert de Beleme’s castle of Domfront was occupied by Henry, brother of King William. [This did not involve a conflict between Robert and Henry.] From Domfront, Henry began “unjustly taking foot-tolls from Quetthou and all of the Cotentin”, and using forced labor to fortify Domfront with new walls.
8/1093, Maud and her brother [eventual King David I of Scotland] sent to the court of King William II. [Where she would meet her husband future Henry Beauclerc (Henry I), “to whom he had long been attached” – Orderic.]
1094, Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, expressed concern that Matilda had left the cloister [was no longer a nun – meaning he though she had become a nun, and left.] Matilda named in a letter of Anselm to Osmund, bishop of Salisbury.
1094-95, King William, having little success in his invasion in Normandy, sent for Henry, who joined him in England.
1095, King William sent Henry back to Normandy with a treasury of money to keep pressure on Duke Robert.
~1096, Isabel born in England, d/o 318232092. Earl Robert de Beaumont & 318232093. Isabel de Vermandois.
9/1096, To raise money for a crusade older brother Robert mortgaged his duchy for 10,000 marks to his brother King William. [Which eventually was a basis for Henry’s claim to Normandy.]
1096, Henry’s eldest brother Robert left on crusade.
3/1099, Henry attended King William’s court in England; the first court held in the Great Hall at Westminster.
1099, Henry’s brother Robert returned gloriously from crusade with a new wife. [Who might give Robert and heir.]
8/2/1100, Henry possibly complicit in the death of his brother King William II on a hunting trip in New Forest. Henry seized the English crown while his older brother Robert was returning from crusade to Normandy. [Henry’s brother William had been a very unpopular king. Henry left his body with servants and rode overnight to London.]
8/5/1100, At his coronation Henry announced the “Charter of Liberties”. Those present included brothers Robert and Henry Beaumont; Simon, earl of Northampton; Walter Giffard, Robert de Montfort, Robert Malet, Eudo dapifer, Roger Bigot, and Robert fitz Hamon.
1100-01, Henry made many quick appointments to vacant Sees, losing the income but obtaining many knights services.
1100, Matilda’s selection as the wife of King Henry met with debate because some believed she had once been a nun [which she denied.] (S) King Stephen, King, 2010, P103.
1100, Maud met Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, at Salisbury before her marriage. Anselm had just returned from exile [in 1097] on the continent. Maud told Anselm that she had lived in the monastery only for education. She said she had never taken vows, and that her father and mother had never intended for her to take the vows. Anselm called an ecclesiastical council to her the case, which ended in favor of Maud.
[–––Henry & Maud–––]
11/11/1100 in London, Henry married Maud. Henry I gave David, brother of Maud, the honor of Huntingdon [manors in 11 counties], made him Prince of Cumbria, and married him to a widowed heiress of Northumberland.
6/2/1101, King Henry assembled his forces at Wartling, from which he had roads that could take him to the coastal cities of Pevensey or Hastings.
7/20/1101, Henry’s brother Robert Curthose invaded England, landing at Portsmouth, claiming his right to the throne. Duke Robert then marched towards Winchester, but stopped short at Alton and waited for King Henry. [As to why Duke Robert, in a superior position, decided to negotiate: Robert was 50 years old, like many of the returned crusaders (and modern military men), his world view of what he wanted to accomplish likely had changed; and he likely did not want to face excommunication for toppling a king that had been anointed.]
8/1101, Henry and Robert ceased warfare by the Treaty of Alton. Henry recognized as King of England, and in exchange, renounced his claim to all lands in Normandy, and agreed to pay Robert 3000 silver marks annually.
12/25/1101, King Louis VI of France [“rex designatus” by his father] at King Henry’s court in London.
1102, Robert de Beleme summoned to the king to answer 45 offenses, which included the construction of Bridgenorth castel, put his castles on defense. Robert got support of his Welsh vassals by promising them freedom. [Over the next 5 months King Henry captured Robert’s castles, along with those of his brothers, and expelled Robert and his brother Arnold from England.]
1102-06, Matilda exchanges a series of letters with Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury.
1103, Robert, count of Flanders, was given a feif by Henry of £500 annually when he agreed to support Henry while still giving fealty to King Philip. [Robert would help King Henry take Normandy from Duke Robert.]
4/21/1103, King Henry sent Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Rome on embassy to the Pope. Upon arriving, his escort gave the Pope a letter exiling Anselm from England. King Henry then had the income from Canterbury as a vacant See.
1103, Queen Matilda, at Exeter, made a grant witnessed by Michael of Hanslope.
1103, Henry’s brother Robert forgave Henry’s debt of 3000 marks annually required by the Treaty of Alton; agreeing to remand the debt to Queen Matilda.
12/1103, King Henry held Christmas court at Westminster [Then Easter court at Winchester.]
8/1104, Henry invaded Normandy and convinced William, count of Evreux to switch allegiance.
8/1104, Queen Matilda, traveling around England, was in Oxfordshire visiting the abbey at Abindgon, to which she donated property.
1104, in London, Robert Malet attested a writ of Queen Matilda.
12/1104, King Henry held Christmas court at Windsor.
1105, Henry invaded Normandy, landing at Barfleur, in response to his brother Robert’s claim on England, and the capture of Robert fitz Hamon, one of his closest advisors [and father of his son Robert of Caen’s wife]. Henry torched Bayeux in freeing Robert fitz Hamon. Henry then captured Caen, which surrendered, giving him possession of the Norman treasury.
4/1105, At the Easter court, Queen Matilda invited her brother David to watch her wash the feet of lepers ‘imitatio Christi’ [which David refused.] (S) Power of the Weak, Carpenter, 1995, P132.4/1105, Henry laid siege to Falaise. Robert fitz Hamon was injured in the siege and never recovered.
5/1105, King Henry ended his campaign and agreed to meet with his brother Duke Robert Curthose.
1105, Queen Matilda held an itinerant court at York, where a document was witnessed by Robert Malet.
12/1105, Queen Matilda granted the tithes of Laughton to the canons of St. Peter’s, York. [Confirmed by King Henry on Christmas day.]
12/1105, King Henry’s Christmas court at Westminster. Robert de Belesme departed from King Henry in enmity, and left England for Normandy.
1105-06, Queen Matilda wrote to Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, telling him she had filled the vacant abbacy at Malmesbury, appointing Aedulf, the sacristan at Winchester. Matilda wrote that she had reserved the bestowing of the ring and staff for Anselm. [Anselm opposed the appointment, but it was maintained until her death.]
1/1106, King Henry in England where Duke Robert visited him.
1106, Queen Matilda received a letter from German Emperor Henry V in which he thanked her for her previous favors and asked for held in dealing with a count in Normandy that was intercepting his messengers.
8/1106, King Henry, preparing to return to Normandy, appointed Queen Maud as regent while he was gone.
8/15/1106, King Henry was back in Normandy where he met Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, and agreed to terms over investiture of clerics [formally implemented in 1107.]
8/1106, King Henry captured the abbey of Saint-Pierre-sur-Dives.
9/1106, Queen Matilda waited at Dover to meet Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, here good friend, on his arrival.
9/1106, King Henry joined some of his forces he had sent to Tinchebray to lay siege to William, count of Mortain. Duke Robert arrived and ordered King Henry to end the siege as William was his vassal in legitimate possession of the castle.
9/28/1106, Henry captured his brother Robert, Duke of Normandy, at the battle of Tichebrai. [Henry imprisoned Robert for the rest of his life, about 25 years]. Henry then took Duke Robert to order the surrender of Falaise, then on to Rouen.
10/15/1106 at Lisieux, King Henry, now Duke of Normandy, held a council of magnates.
12/1106, King Henry held Christmas court in Normandy.
1/8/1107, Matilda’s brother Edgar died, her brother David became king of Southern Scotland. Their older brother Alexander I became king of the North. [With King Henry’s consent.]
5/1107, King Henry returned to England.
6/1107, The Concordat of London settles a dispute between King Henry and Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, that no one should be invested as a bishop or abbot in England by the king or any lay authority.
1107, Queen Matila, from Normandy, issued a writ ordering the monks of Blyth not to interfer with the tithes of the church, which were donated to St. Peter’s.
1107-08, Queen Matilda, with extensive holdings in the west end of the city of London, used the land to endow a new house of Austin canons, which included the tithes of 7 churches in the area.
1108, King Henry decreed that pence should be round.
8/3/1108, Louis VI crowned King of France.
By 8/1108, King Henry went to Normandy for the beginning of many conflicts with the new King of France.
12/1108, King Henry held Christmas court in Normandy.
Bef. 1109, Letter of Emperor Henry V [who married Matilda’s daughter Matilda in 1110], thanks the queen for her good will and help and asks her to maintain them.
5/1109, King Henry returned to England.
6/1109, King Henry held court at Westminster where the conditions for the marriage of his daughter with the King of the Germans were finalized.
10/17/1109, Queen Matilda present at the King’s council at Nottingham. At the council, King Henry changed the abbey of Ely into an episcopal See.
1110, King Henry gave his daughter Matilda in marriage to Henry, king of the Germans.
1110, Henry renewed his arrangement with Robert, count of Flanders.
1111, King Henry summoned Geoffrey Brito to his court in England [Geoffrey eventuall became archbishop of Rouen later in the year and a personal diplomat for King Henry.]
By 8/1111, King Henry left England for Normandy.
8/11/1111, Queen Matilda attested a charter confirming rights and privileges to the city of Bath and its Bishop.
8/1111-5-1112, Queen Matilda confirmed the gifts of Bishop Samson to the church of Worcester.
9/1111,Queen Matilda, acting as regent, administered the court of the Exchequer.
1111-12, Queen Matilda, at Winchester with 2 bishops and 5 abbots, witnessed the translation of the relics of St. Aethelwold.
1112, King Henry [spending the year in Normandy] imprisoned earl Robert de Belesme at Keresburch.
1112, Queen Matilda at St. Peter’s of Gloucester when Robert Gernon gave 2 churches to the monastic chapter.
7/1113, King Henry returned to England.
1113, King Henry arranged the marriage of King David of Scotland and Matilda of Huntingdon. (S) King John, Warren, 1978, P177. [King Henry ‘persuaded by the arguments and petitions of the queen to agree to the alliance.’]
12/1113, King Henry held his Christmas court at Windsor. [The only court for a year.]
1114, Queen Matilda and her son William visited the new site for Merton priory.
7/1114, King Henry I led his first invasion in Wales against Gruffydd and Owain of Powys. Gruffydd came to terms with the king.
1114, The Thames river became so low that it could be crossed by wading in some parts; and a comet was visible for many nights.
9/1114, King Henry went to Normandy, leaving Queen Matilda as regent.
12/1114, King Henry held Christmas court in Normandy, where he had the Norman barons swear allegiance to his son William Adelin.
7/1115, King Henry returned to England, where the winter had been severe.
9/1115, Queen Matilda an intermediary between Ralph, archbiship of Canterbury, and Robert, count of Meulan.
12/1115, King Henry held Christmas court at St. Albans.
5/1115, King Henry went to Normandy where he captured several castles, and aided his nephew Theobald of Blois against the King of France.
12/25/1115, King Henry present at the dedication of the church of St Albans, which Robert, the bishop of Lincoln, dedicated for Richard, the famous abbot. (S) American Intellectual Tradition, V1, Huntingdon, 1996, P461.
1115-16, Queen Matilda, after the death of her sister Mary, issued a charter in favor of the monks of Durham; naming the members of her family as the spiritual beneficiaries.
3/19/1116 at Salisbury, King Henry had his magnates swear homage to his son William Adelin.
4/1116, King Henry left for Normandy, leaving Queen Matilda as regent.
1116, Pope Paschal granted permission to King Henry to act as his representative in England.
4-5/1116 in London, Queen Matilda involved in the freeing of a prisoner of Ralph Basset, the justiciar, who had imprisoned the person on charges of usury and concealment of the king’s treasure.
1117, King Henry in Normandy heavily taxed the residents to raise an army against the French King.
7/1117, The King of France, supported by the earl of Flanders entered Normandy; but retreated after one night.
5/1/1118, Maud died at Westminster; buried in the abbey.
1118, King Henry sent an embassy to Constantinople to procure relics of the saints.
10-11/1118, King Henry at Rouen held a council to discuss the peace of the realm and met with Geoffry, bishop of Rouen to discuss affairs of the church.
1118-19, Hugh de Gournay fortified his castles of Gournay, La Ferte, and Gaillefontaine in Normandy and made forays into Pays de Caux. He took many persons, including women and children, captive for ransoms. King Henry countered with an attack into Pays de Brai with a thousand men, and unsuccessfully layed siege to la Ferte.
2/1119, Juliane, d/o King Henry, married to Eustace de Breteuil of Pacy, attempted to kill her father with a crossbow during the assault of the castle of Breteuil. [Henry had allowed her hostaged daughters to be blinded.]
6/1119, King Henry, with Stephen of Blois, attacked Amaury de Montfort at Evreux. They burnt the city, but Amaury was able to hold out in the citadel.
1119, The organization of the Templars was founded to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000, P181.
8/20/1119, At the battle of Bremule, France, Henry defeated an alliance of French forces. Between the two sides a thousand knights were engaged. This battle solidified Henry’s claim to Normandy. Henry I suffered a blow to the head, but was saved by his chain mail. King Louis lost his horse and his banner. Henry returned to Rouen; Louis went on to burn Ivry and Chartres. (S) Dictionary of Battles, Eggenberger, 1967, P61.
11/1119, Pope Calixtus II condemned Henry for imprisoning Robert Curthose and arresting Robert of Belleme.
12/25/1119, King Henry holds his Christmas court at Bayeux.
2/15/1120, King Henry met with Pope Calixtux II at Gisors near Vienne. (S) Calixtus II, Stroll, 2004, P43.
By 4/1120, Amaury de Montfort and Hugh de Gournay made peace with King Henry.
11/25/1120, Henry’s son and only male heir died at sea returning to England after giving homage to King Louis for the duchy of Normandy [known as the White Ship disaster – many sons of nobles died].
12/25/1120, King Henry was at Brampton near Huntingdon for Christmas. Theobald, count of Blois, was with him.
[–––Henry & Adeliza–––]
1/29/1121 at Windsor castle, King Henry married Adeliza de Louvain as part of a truce with Anjou. [Adeliza d/o Godfrey, duke of Louvain.]
4/1121, Henry spent Easter at Berkeley. [The castle would be constructed by Henry II.]
12/1121, King Henry was at Windsor.
1122, King Henry spent Easter at Northampton, Pentecost at Windsor, then traveled to London, Kent, and Durham in Northumbria.
1122 at Worms, An agreement between the papacy and the empires that clergy would elect the bishops, the church consecrate the bishops, and the king give the regalia.
1122, Henry attacked Waleran IV Bellemonte and Amaury de Montfort in Normandy. Waleran retreated to his castle of Brionne. Henry laid siege.
12/1122, King Henry was at Dunstable, and then proceeded to Berkhampstead.
1/10/1123, Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, riding with King Henry in the deer park at Woodstock, suffered a fatal stroke. (S) Henry I, Hollister, 2003, P333.
10/1123, Henry captured the castle of Brionne.
1124, King Henry spent the year in Normandy in battle with the Louis, king of France.
1124, Waleran de Beaumont, earl of Mellent, revolted against King Henry.
1124, Emperor Henry V, King Henry’s son-in-law, mobilized an army to intervene in the affairs of northern France [the Lorraine] in support of King Henry. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P197. [The Emperor was easily repelled by King Louis VI.]
1124, King Henry and Queen Adeliza viewed the body of St. Romanus at Rouen. (S) Haskins Society Journal, Patterson, 2003, P131.
4/16/1125, Returning from Vatteville, Amaury de Montfort and Waleran de Beaumont ambushed; Waleran was captured. Waleran surrendered his castles to King Henry.
Aft. 5/23/1125, King Henry’s daughter Matilda recalled to court after the death of her 1st husband.
1125, King Henry founded an abbey at Reading in Berkshire and gave it a mint and one moneyer. (S) Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, V1, Ruding, 1840, P165.
1126, King Henry in Normandy most of the year.
1126, Henry de Blois recovered multiple manors for his abbey of Glaston from his uncle, King Henry. (S) History of the Abbey of Glaston, Warner, 1826, P16.
12/1126, King Henry held his Christmas court at Windsor. David, king of the Scots, was in attendance. (S) An Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Swanton, 1998, P256.
1/1/1127 at Woodstock, King Henry arranged for his barons to swear an oath to his daughter Matilda.
1127, Robert earl of Gloucester, and Henry, king of the English and duke of the Normans, attested a grant by Stephen, count of Boulogne and Mortain, to St. Mary of Furness of his forest of Furness and Walney. (S) Monasticon Anglicanum, Dugdale, 1846, P244.
1128, King Henry invaded France to draw the forces of the French king away from conflicts in Flanders between William Clito and Thierry of Alsace.
7/28/1128, William Clito died of a hand wound at the siege of Alost in Flanders. Before he died, William wrote to his uncle, King Henry, and asked for pardons for his supporters.
1129, King Henry grants the city of Liverpool its first charter. (S) The Stranger in Liverpool, 1839, P54.
Bef. 12/15/1129, King Henry made his nephew Henry de Blois, son of his sister Adela [and brother of future King Stephen], Bishop of Glastonbury. [Date of consecration by the Archbishop of Canterbury.] (S) Roman Catholic Bishops, Cassan, 1827, P147.
3/30/1130, King Henry was at Woodstock for Easter; at which court Geoffrey de Clinton was accused of treason against the king. (S) American Intellectual Tradition, V1, Huntingdon, 1996, P487.
9/8/1130, King Henry called a great assembly at Northampton. He had his daughter Matilda with him.
9/29/1130, King Henry crossed to Normandy.
10/1130, King Henry met Bernard of Clairvaux to solicit support for Innocent II as the new Pope. [Innocent II had fled Rome after two competing popes had been elected.]
1/1131, at Chartres, King Henry met with Pope Innocent II and declared his support. (S) The Jews in Medieval Normandy, Golb, 1998, P199.
1131, King Henry had a 3-part vision documented by John of Worcester. (S) Three Studies in Medieval Religious and Social Thought, Constable, 1998, P315.
1132, King Henry forced Abbot Henry [King Henry’s nephew] from Petersborough.
8/1132, King Henry crossed to the sea to Normandy, never to return to England. (S) Chronicle of John of Worcester, 1998, P211.
3/1133, in Le Mans, France, King Henry at the baptism of his grandson [future King Henry II.] (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P200.
5/1133, Most of London including the church of St. Paul the Apostle was destroyed by fire.
1133, King Henry made Carlisle into a bishop’s see; giving it jurisdiction of part of Cumberland and Westmorland, in the province of York. (S) Winkle’s Architectural …, Moule, 1836, P18.
1133, Inquisitions at Bayeux show the bishop of King Henry, as duke of Normandy, 10 knights for service to the king of France. (S) Henry II, Harper-Bill, 2007, P75.
8/3/1134, Robert, the king’s older brother, in the 28th year of imprisonment, died in Cardiff.
11/1135, King Henry went hunting at Lyons-la-Foret, east of Rouen.
12/1/1135, King Henry I died in Rouen, Normandy, after over-eating lampreys. King Henry was attended by Hugh, archbishop of Rouen; who wrote the Pope of King Henry’s death.
(S) Epistolæ. (S) Conqueror’s Son, Lack, 2007. (S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007. (S) King William the Conqueror, Evans, 1956. (S) Annals of Roger de Hovenden, V1, 1853. (S) Church Historians of England, Pt1, 1856. (S) Matilda of Scotland, Huneycutt, 2003.
· Henry I was popular as the 1st Prince born in England.
· Henry had many “illegitimate” children.
Children of Henry and Maud:
2/1113, William’s marriage to Matilda, d/o Fulk of Anjou, arranged.
6/1119 at Lisieux, William married Matilda.
1115, William received the homage of the barons of Normandy.
3/1116, William received the homage of the barons of England.
1118, After the death of his mother, William acted as regent when his father was not in England.
11/25/1120, William [and a lot of other nobility] died in a ship wreck while returning from Normandy.