Saturday, December 29, 2012

G28: 189110276 Duke Guillaume IX


189110276. Duke Guillaume IX, the Troubador & 189110277. Countess Philippa of Toulouse

10/22/1071, Guillaume born in Aquitaine, France, s/o §Guillaume VIII of Aquitaine & Audearde of Burgundy [Guillaume’s 3rd wife.]

Philippa born in Toulouse, d/o §William IV of Toulouse.

Philippa 1st married Sancho Ramirez I, King of Aragon [3rd wife, no children.].

1086, Guillaume’s father died.

1087, Guillaume 1st married Ermengarde, d/o 378220544. Fulk IV of Anjou. [No children. Guillaume’s father made a trip to Rome to receival papal approval of the marriage and birth due to consanguinity of his parents.]

1088, Guillaume succeeded his father.

1089, Legate Amatus held a council in Bordeaux in which he obtained his own election to the archbishopric of the city, against the will of Duke William. (S) France in the Making, Dunbabin, 2000, P159.

1091, Guillaume’s marriage to Ermengarde dissolved.

6/4/1094, Philippa’s husband died [at the battle of Huesca.]

1094, Guillaume married Philippa.

12/25/1095, Pope Urban II spent Christmas at Guillaume’s court, when the Pope urged Guillaume to take up the cross of a crusader. (S) Medieval France, Kibler, 1995, P56.

1096, Pope Urban II threatened Duke William with the interdiction of all his lands if he did not force his vassal, Eble, to restore the Island of Oleron to the monastery of the Trinity of Vendome. (S) Cultures of Power, Bisson, 1995, P273.

1098, Guillaume, with the support of its Bishop, captured Toulouse. [Philippa’s uncle was away on crusade.]

1098, A charter of St. Sernin de Toulouse: William of Acquitaine, count of Poitiers and ‘Pictavensis et Tolose … nomine Philippa … filia W. comitis’. (S) England and Her Neighbors, Jones, 2003, P36.

1100, William Rufus, king of England, in negotiations with Duke William about conquering France. (S) History of the Norman Conquest of England, V5, Freeman, 1876, P-XI. [The 2 Williams were 3rd cousins.]

8/2/1100, Henry I crowned King of England.

10/1100, William of Aquitaine, an ally of excommunicated King Philip of France, took the cross at Limoges.

1101, Fontevraud abbey founded.

3/1101, Guillaume a leader of the crusade to the holy land. [William would meet up with Welf of Bavaria who left a month later.]

6/1101, William of Aqutaine and Welf of Bavaria reached Constantinople.

7/1101, William of Aqutaine and Welf of Bavaria crossed the Bosphorus.

9/1101, Guillaume’s army defeated by the Turks at Heraclea, Guillaume barely escaping and reaching Antioch with only 6 surviving companions.

1101-2, William accompanied the prince of Antioch to Jerusalem.

1102, William was back in Poitiu.

1107, William, count of Poitou, used a seal on his documents. (S) Queens in Stone and Silver, Nolan, 2009, P79.

8/3/1108, Louis VI crowned King of France. William refused to do homage to the new king.

1108, Bertrand of Saint-Gilles took Toulouse with support of the Bishop who no longer supported William.

1113, William again attacked Toulouse when Count Bertrand was in Tripoli.

4/1112, Count Bertrand died in the Holy Lands.

1114, Guilluame excommunicated for an infringement of the Church’s tax privileges. [William imprisoned the Bishop that had excommunicated him.]

1114-15, Guillaume took up with the wife of one of his vassals, Maubergeonne de L’Isle Bouchard, mother of his son’s future wife.

1114-15, William excommunicated by Gerard, bishop of Angouleme, a papal legate, for abandoning his legitimate wife.  Philippa had raised the issue at the council of Reims, declaring the woman named Malberge, wife of viscount Chatellerault, had replaced her in his bed. (S) Crime and Punishment, Classen, 2012, P50. [This negated William’s claim to Toulouse.]

1116, Philippa retired to the abbey of Fontrevault [also the home of Guillaume’s 1st wife].

11/28/1118, Philippa died at the abbey. Ermengarde, upon the death of Philippa, left Fontevrault for the Poitevin court, demanding to be reinstated as the Duchess of Aquitaine.

1119, William, during and illness, composed his lament ‘Pos de chantar me’es pres talenz.’ (S) Eleanor of Aquitaine, Courtly Love, … Swabey, 2004, P115.

10/1119, Ermengarde appeared at the Council of Reims being held by Pope Calixtus II and demanded that the Pope excommunicate William, oust his mistress from the ducal palace, and restore herself to her rightful place [denied.]

5/1120, William began a crusade against the North African Almoravids in Spain with the King of Aragon.

1120-23, Guillaume with Castile and Leon tried to take Cordoba, Spain.

1121, Guillaume arranged for his son and heir to marry a daughter of his mistress.

1123, Guillaume lost control of Toulouse to Count Raymond of Toulouse.

1124, Guillaume supported King Louis VI of France against the invasion of the Lorraine by German Emperor Henry V.

1125, Guillaume invaded Spain, reaching Grenada.

2/10/1126, Guillaume, count of Poitiers and duke of Aquitaine, died of an illness.

(S) Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare, Bradbury, 2004, P104. (S) 1st Crusade, Riley-Smith, 2009, P162. (S) Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, V10, 1907, P526. (S) Heresy in Medieval France, Taylor, 2005, P41.

Family notes:

·         Guillaume had his mistress’s portrait painted on his shield. (S) She-Wolves, Castor, 2011, P136.

·         During William’s reign, Poitiers, the capital of the duchy, became one of the leading towns in western Europe.

·         Guillaume was the first known troubadour, or lyric poet, employing the Romance vernacular called Proven├žal or Occitan. 11 of his songs survive, printed in Mahn’s ‘Die Werke der Troubadours’, 1846. 13th Century anonymous writer: The Count of Poitiers was one of the most courtly men in the world and one of the greatest deceivers of women. He was a fine knight at arms, liberal in his womanizing, and a fine composer and singer of songs. He travelled much through the world, seducing women.

·         Guillaume had a sister Inez who married Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon in 1074; but was repudiated in 1077.

·         1064, Guillaume VIII of Aquitaine and Robert Crespin of Normandy joined forces with Ermegol III of Urgell to conquer Barbastro. (S) Possessing the Land, Stalls, 1995, P20.

Children of Guilaume and Philippa:

i. Guillaume X (94555138) born 1099 in France.

ii. Raymond of Antioch, born ? in France.

By 1148, Raymond the ruler of Antioch.

Child of Guilaume and Maubergeonne:

i. Agnes of Aquitaine (378220579) born ~1114  in France.

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