Tuesday, April 9, 2013
G29: 378220548 William the Conqueror
1027, William the Bastard born in Falaise, France, natural s/o 756441096. Robert I, Duke of Normandy & 756441097. Harleve of Falaise.
1030, William 1st named in documents of his father.
7/20/1031, Henry I became King of France on the death of his father.
~1033, Matilda born in Flanders, d/o 756441098. Baldwin V of Flanders & 756441099. Adela Capet.
1033, William acknowledged by his father as his heir.
1/1035, William’s father, leaving on pilgrimage, sent William to the court of King Henry I of France in Paris.
7/3/1035, William’s father, Robert the Magnificient, died.
1035, William, still in France, proclaimed Duke of Normandy by Alan, duke of Brittany, the regent of Normandy.
1035, An embassy of knights sent to get William in Paris was sent away by King Henry. Eventually King Henry relented and William was returned with an entourage of knights led by Theroulde, his tutor.
11/12/1035, King Canute of England died [great-grandfather of William], naming his son Hardicanute by Emma, William’s aunt, as his heir. Hardicanute remained in Denmark, and England split, the south loyal to Hardicanute, the north loyal to Harold, Hardicanute’s half brother.
3/16/1037, William’s granduncle, Robert, archbishop of Rouen, and a key supporter, died.
1039, King Henry summoned Duke William to Evreux to do homage, and forced to give up his fortress at Tellieres. William left the court and returned to Falaise.
1040, Alan of Brittany died; and William’s wardship given to Gilbert of Brionne. [A succession of guardians died – William is said to have been raised by William fitz Osbern, Roger de Beaumont, and Roger de Montgomery.]
1040, Hardicanute became king of both Denmark and England.
2/24/1041, Duke William confirmed to the abbey of Le Bec the grants of various donors on the day of the dedication of the monastery.
1042, Duke William, legislating in Normandy, declared there to be no fighting between the Rogation days and the Octave of Pentacost. (S) History of the Crusades, V1, Runciman, 1951, P86.
6/1042, Hardicanute died.
4/3/1043, William’s cousin, Edward the Confessor, became King of England.
1044, Guy of Burgundy organized a conspiracy against Duke William and nearly captured him at Valognes.
1046, King Henry of France vested William as a knight.
8/1047, William, duke of Normandy, age 20, with the help of King Henry I of France, suppressed a revolt of his vassals at the battle of Val-es-Dunes near Caen on the river Orne. The revolt was led by Guy de Brionne of Burgundy.
10/1047 near Caen, William at an ecclesiastical council, William implemented the “Truce of God”, a Catholic church movement began in 989 to prevent violence during communal gatherings. William in his declaration prohibited fighting Thursday–Sunday, and during Advent, Lent, Easter and Pentecost.
1048 at Senlis, Duke William and Count Baldwin attested a charter of King Henry of France.
1048, Duke William accompanied King Henry on a campaign against Count Geoffrey of Anjou. (S) William: King and Conqueror, Hagger, 2012, P182.
1049, William’s marriage to Matilda arranged.
1049, King Henry, with the support of Duke William, captured Mouliherne near Angers in Anjou against the forces of Geoffrey Martel, who was allied with the Belleme family in taking lands on the southern border of Normandy.
10/1049, Pope Leo IX forbade the marriage of William and Matilda.
1049-50, William’s half-brother Odo appointed the archbishop of Rouen.
1049-50 at Eu, William married to Matilda [supposedly when each agreed to the founding of a monastery in Caen]. William’s mother Herleva and his step-father Herluin de Conteville were in attendance.
1050, William besieged Guy de Brionne of Burgundy at his castle and forced him into exile [but soon pardoned.]
1050, Matilda witnessed a charter to the abbey of St.-Wandrille in Normandy.
1051, William, in England [supposedly in London], was made his heir by Edward the Confessor. [This is in conflict with English law of the time which require an assembly of nobles to select a King’s successor.]
1051, William began a siege of Domfront, held for Geoffrey Martel of Anjou.
1051, William left the siege of Domfront and captured the town of Alencon. [William had 32 townspeople’s hands and feet cut off.]
1051, William imprisoned Hakon, nephew of Harold Godwinson [future king of England.]
1052, William finally captured Domfront. (S) Rougledge Companion, Bradbury, 2004, P157.
1052, in England, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of Westminster abbey. [Consecrated 12/28/1065.]
1052, William unsuccessfully sought a truce with King Henry of France.
9/20/1052 at Vitry-aux-Loges, William at King Henry’s court.
1053, William spent the year suppressing insurrections; especially against Mauger, archbisop of Rouen [uncle of William].
10/25/1053, Forces loyal to Duke William defeated forces of King Henry near Saint-Aubin, who were attempting to reach Arques.
1053, Matilda named as Duke William’s consort in a charter in favor of Holy Trinity church, Rouen.
1053, William captured Arques and exiled William, count of Arques [uncle of William].
2/1054, William had to repel the forces of King Henry I of France invading Normandy from the east, while the King’s brother Odo invaded from the west. William divided his forces and took his part against King Henry. Vassals including Robert, count of Eu; Walter Giffard, Roger de Mortimer, and William de Warren opposed the other army. This army won the battle of Mortemer.
1054, In response to the invasion, William built a castle at Ambrieres in northern Maine; and captured the castle of Geoffrey of Mayenne, who was allied with Geoffrey Martel.
1054, Hugh de Gournay one of the leaders of the army of Duke William at the battle of Mortemer. (S) Guernsey and Jersey Magazine, Vs3-4, 1837, P170. [Other leaders were William de Warrenne and Walter Giffard.]
1055, William summoned a convocation of bishops at Lisieux at which he accused Mauger, archbisop of Rouen, of crimes and misdemeanours.
5/1055, Maurilius, not a Norman native, brought from Fecamp by Duke William, became the archbishop of Normandy.
1055-56, William disinherited William Warlenc, count of Mortain, and created his half-brother Robert as the comte.
8/1057, William had to repel the forces of King Henry I of France invading Normandy with Geoffrey Martel. King Henry was defeated at the battle of Varaville. William had waited until the invading forces were half on each side of a bridge to launch a surprise attack on one half.
1058, Duke William and Harold the Saxon visited Mont Saint Michel. (S) Sacred Places in Europe, 2007, P101.
1058, William again retaliated for the invasion by taking Tillieres and Thimert near Dreux.
6-8/1058, King Henry made a final brief campaign into Normandy and began a siege of Thimert; which continued into the next year.
1059 at the 2nd Lateran Council, Pope Nicholas II sanctioned the marriage of William and Matilda.
1060, William erected the fortress of Le Chateau de Caen. (S) Frommers’s France, 2009, P307.
8/4/1060, King Henry I of France died; succeeded by King Philip I, age 8.
1060-61, William’s rival to the west, Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou, died. [Succeeded by a minor.]
1061, William confirmed a grant of his father to the monks of St. Michael. (S) History of … Gurensey, Berry, 1815, P115.
Aft. 3/1062, William invaded the county of Maine [south of Normandy] after the death of Herbert II, his son Robert bethrothed to a sister of Herbert. [William had control of Maine by 1064.]
1062, William founded the Abbaye aux Hommes at Caen. (S) Great Architecture, Norwich, 2001, P275.
1063, William and Matilda designated their son Robert “elected by his parents to govern the regnum after them.”
1063, William consecrated the cathedral of Caen to the Holy Virgin, in presence of his queen and court.
1064, William invaded Brittany [a peninsula southeast of Normandy] with the support of the Earl of Wessex. They captured the town of Dol held by Conan II of Brittany.
1064, Earl Harold Godwinson of Wessex and Hereford, shipwrecked off France, was taken to William who made him swear to his succession.
1065, Duke William nominated Arnold as bishop-elect of Le Mans.
1/5/1066, Kind Edward the Confessor died without a male heir. Edgar Aetheling elected [but never crowned] King of England. Harold Godwinson elected King because Edgar was considered too young to defend England against invasion.
3/20/1066, Haley’s comet appeard in the sky at its closest point to earth, and was interpreted as an evil omen.
1066, William held a council at Lillebonne to plan the invasion of England. William then built his invasion fleet and raised his army.
5/1066, Philip, age 14, assumed his role as King of France.
1066, Mathilde founded the Abbaye aux Dames at Caen. (S) Great Architecture, Norwich, 2001, P275.
9/1066, Duke William on the eve of the invasion had his son Robert confirm to the abbey of Marmoutier all the property which he himself had given. Witnesses: Roger de Montgomery, William fitz Osbern, William his son, Roger de Beaumont, Hugh de Grandmesnil, …
9/27/1066, William sailed from Valery-sur-Somme, landing at Pevensey Bay in England. William immediately occupied Hastings.
10/14/1066, William defeated and killed King Harold at the Battle of Hastings. This was followed by the submission of Dover and Canterbury the same month.
10/25/1066, in London at Westminster, William crowned King of England. [The coronation had to be performed in Saxon and French. The soldiers guarding the ceremony outside were confused by the voices, and believing a dire event had taken place, set fire to nearby buildings. The crowd rush out to safety – hastening the ceremony.]
1066, William began the construction of the Tower of London [at this time just a large castle.]
2/1067 from Penvensy, King William returned to Normandy, taking hostages including Edgar Atheling and Wlatheof of Northumberland. William left Odo, bishop of Bayeux, earl of Kent, as regent. [Odo’s rule led quickly to open rebellion in Kent, Hereford and Exeter.]
4/8/1067 at Fecamp, King William held ‘the most splendid royal court ever seen in France in recent years.’ (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P98.
1067, King William announces that the city of London shall enjoy all the rights which it had in the time of King Edward.
9/1/1067, Matilda’s father died.
12/1067, William was back in England ending the revolt; and besieging Exeter. Exeter fell after an 18-day siege.
5/1068 at Winchester, Matilda crowned Queen of England. Matilda [pregnant at the time] was given her own crown, sceptre, and coronation ring [which she left to her foundation at Caen on her death.]
1068, Matilda remained in England where her son Henry was born [the other sons born in Normandy.]
1068, William travelled through England building castles. Nottingham was assigned to William Peverel, and Warwick to Henry de Beaumont. [Record of Odericus: ‘William surveyed the most unaccessible points in the country, and selecting suitable spots, fortified them against the enemy’s incusions.’]
1068, William returned to Normandy.
1069, Edward Aetheling with of King Sweyn of Denmark attacked York, Exeter and Shrewsbury. Edward was proclaimed King by his supporters in York.
2-4/1069, Back in England, King William devastated the city of York and burned the countryside.
4/1069, The city of Le Mans in Normandy revolted with the support of Azzo, lord of Este. The seneschal of King William was killed.
9/1069, The King of Denmark invaded and occupied York. King William again marched north and defeated the rebels.
12/25/1069, William celebrated Christmas in the ruins of York.
4/1070, William, having suppressed the revolts around England, returned to London to celebrate Easter and have a ceremonial coronation performed by papal legates.
1070, William founded Battle Abbey at the sight of the battle of Hastings.
1070, King Malcolm of Scotland invades northern England.
2/1071, King William lost Flanders to Robert le Frison; and his friend William fitz Osbern was killed in the fighting.
1071, William defeated a rebellion of Earl Edwin and Morcar in the north of England.
1071-72, King William returned to Normandy where he met his half-brother, Odo of Bayeaux.
4/1072, King William was back in England attending an ecclesiastical council at Winchester.
5/1072, Both William and Matilda signed the Accord of Winchester, establishing the primacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury over the Archbishop of York [William was concerned about the allegiance of a northern archbishop.]
1072 at Stirling, King Malcolm’s army met William the Conqueror’s who was invading Scotland. William’s was so much larger that Malcolm chose homage over battle. [The beginnings of England’s claim to the throne of Scotland.]
8/1072 at Abernethy, Malcolm perfomed homage to King William.
1073, William returned to Normandy to deal with an invasion in Maine by Fulk le Rechin, count of Anjou.
3/30/1073, William ended his campaign in Maine with the capture of Le Mans.
1073, William made a trip back to England, and then back to Normandy. William left Richard fitz Gilbert and William de Warren as his lieutenants in England.
4/4/1074, Letter from Pope Gregory VII to Matilda: “Gregory, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Matilda, queen of the English, greetings and apostolic blessing … Urge your husband, do not cease to suggest useful things to his soul. …, a believing husband can be made better by a believing wife.” (S) Epistolæ.
1074, William on an extended stay in Normandy.
1074, Edgar Aetheling made peace with King William. King William sent for Edgar and brought him to Normandy [where Edgar would spend several years.] (S) Conqueror, Freeman, 1907, P163.
4/1075, William and Matilda held their Easter court at Fecamp where their eldest daughter Cecily took the veil.
1075 in England, the revolt of the Earls: Ralph de Gael of Norfolk, and Roger de Breteuil of Hereford. Waltehof of Northumberland was also implicated. [Ralph de Waer led a plot against the life of King William. Waltheof declined to be involved in the plot, but also declined to betray them. Waltheof was executed the next year.]
9/1075, William returned to England leaving Matilda as regent in Normandy.
12/25/1075, William celebrated Christmas at Winchester [then dealt with the rebellion, and then returned to Normandy.]
4/1076, King William attended an ecclesiastical council at Winchester.
1076, William established a mint at Pevensey. (S) Village Walks in Britain, Smith, 1997, P121.
9/1076, William advanced into Brittany, besieging the castle at Dol held by Ralph de Gael, earl of Norfolk. King Philip arrived and forced William to give up the siege. [The 1st major defeat of King William.]
1077, King William of England and King Philip of France made a peace agreement. William allowed his eldest son Robert to begin to call himself Duke of Normandy. [This led to a brawl between sons Robert, William, and Henry at Laigle.]
9/1077, King William & Maud founded St. Stephens of Caen, France.
4/4/1078, Letter from Pope Gregory VII to King William I of England. (S) Pope Gregory VII, Cowdrey, 1998, P622.
1078, William constructed the White Tower at his castle which became known as the Tower of London.
1078, William’s son Robert led an insurrection in Normandy of young barons. William attacked and drove them from their base at castle Remalard. King Philip gave them the castle of Gerberoi. William the besieged that castle.
1/1079, At a battle in Vexin [Gerberoi], William was unhorsed and wounded by his son Robert. William had to lift his siege and retreated to Rouen. [William’s son William was also wounded.]
1079, By treaty at Gerberoi, with King William, King Philip acquired Vexin.
1079, Matilda’s mother Adela died.
4/12/1080, William and his son Robert made peace at the urging of Matilda. Robert was guaranteed Normandy when William died.
5/8/1080, “Gregory, bishop, servant of the servants of God to Matilda, queen of the English, greetings and apostolic blessing. Having read the letters of your noble-mindedness, we have understood with how faithful a mind you obey God. …” (S) Epistolæ.
7/1080, William and his son Robert returned to England to suppress a rebellion in the north. [Robert was sent on the campaign.]
1080, William presided over a council of prelates and barons at Lillebonne. (S) King John, Warren, 1978, P95.
1081, A papal embassay arrived asking William to declare fealty for England to the pope, which William refused.
1081, William, at the request of Queen Matilda, granted freedom from tools and customs to the abbey of St. Mary and St. Aldhelm at Malmesbury.
1081, William visited the shrine of St. David in Wales, and then returned to Normandy.
1081, Fulk of Anjou attacked La Fleche, taking the city. King William made a peace agreement by which Fulk became overlord of Maine.
1082, King William founded the Holy Trinity of Caen, France.
1082, Queen Matilda granted the manors of Felsted, Essex, and Tarrant Launceston, Dorset, to La Trinite.
1082, William ordered the arrest of his half brother Odo, earl of Kent and bishop of Bayeux. (S) King Stephen, King, 2010, P112.
1082, William visited Gloucester.
7/1083, Queen Matilda with King William and son Robert at Caen.
7/1083, William’s son Robert again rebelled with the support of King Philip of France.
11/2/1083, Queen Matilda died. [A grant to St. Etienne of her great-grandson in 1156 refers to “her last illness.”]
4/1084, William celebrated Easter in Normandy.
6/19/1084, King William at Rouen.
1084, William spent extensive time preparing for an invasion of England by King Canute IV of Denmark allied with Robert le Frison, earl of Flanders.
1085, William visited Gloucester.
12/25/1085, King William held his Christmas court at Gloucester.
1085-86, William ordered a general survey of the lands and holders which became known as the Domesday Book.
1086, William sent a group to Constantinople and Nicaea to bring back his father’s body. [While returning the group learned of William’s death and re-interred Robert’s body in Italy.]
8/1086, The first draft was completed and contained records for 13,418 settlements in the English counties south of the rivers Ribble and Tees (the border with Scotland at the time).
7/1087, King William, extremely overweight and confined to bed at Rouen, was referred to by King Philip at his court: “By my faith, the king of England is long lying-in; there will doubtless be a ceremonious churching.” (S) History of the Norman Conquest, Thierry, 1841, P130.
8/1087, William led an expedition against Vexin after attacks by King Philip of France, capturing Chaumont, Pontoise, and Mantes.
1087, William wounded in a riding accident at the siege and burning of Mantes. William was taken to Rouen.
9/9/1087, William died at Saint-Gervais near Rouen; buried at St. Etienne, Caen.
(S) King William the Conqueror, Evans, 1956. (S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007. (S) Conqueror’s Son, Lack, 2007. (S) William the Conqueror, Douglas, 1999. (S) Queen of the Conqueror, Borman, 2012. (S) Norman Conquest: Sources and Documents, Brown, 1984. (S) Life of William the Conqueror, Roscoe, 1846.
· Legend says William was so strong that no other man could bend his bow.
· 8/6/1017, William’s uncle, Richard the Good, duke of Normandy, died leaving William’s father as the heir.
· Queen Matilda’s epitaph on her gravestone identifies her father and mother, and brother as Henry, king of France, husband William the King, and gives the date of her death.
Children of William and Matilda:
1051, Robert 1st mentioned in a document of his father.
1080, Robert, sent on an embassy to Scotland, became the godfather of Matilda, d/o King Malcom III.
1087, Robert inherited Normandy on his father’s death. [Robert released multiple persons his father had imprisoned.]
1088, Robert unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow his brother William in England.
1091, Robert and his brother William finally started to work together to restore their father’s lands lost in the conflict, but not including their brother Henry.
9/1096, To raise money for a crusade Robert mortgaged his duchy for 10,000 marks to his brother William.
1097, Robert attended the 1st crusade to the holy lands.
1099, On returning from crusade, Robert married Sybilla de Brindisi, d/o Geoffrey of Conversano.
1100, Sybilla’s father died.
1101, Back from Crusade, Robert invaded England claiming his right to the throne. Henry and Robert ceased warfare by the Treaty of Alton, recognizing Henry as King of England, but giving up his rights in Normandy.
3/18/1103, Sybilla died; buried at Rouen.
9/23/1106, Robert opposed his brother King Henry I; was captured at the battle of Tinchebrai, Normandy [and was imprisoned for 26-28 years in Devizes and later Cardiff castles].
1119, Lewis of France, Suzeraine of Normandy, complained to the Pope about Robert’s long imprisonment.
8/3/1134, Robert, in the 28th year in of imprisonment, died; buried in the abbey church of St. Peter in Gloucester.
Child of Sybilla:
10/25/1102, William Clito born in Normandy.
1116, William knighted by Baldwin, count of Flanders.
8/20/1119, William Clito lost his horse at the battle of Bremule, the defeat of King Louis of France against King Henry of England.
1121, William married Sibyl, d/o Fulk V of Anjou & Erembourg of Maine.
3/28/1127, William became the Count of Flanders.
7/28/1128, William died of a hand wound at the siege of Alost in Flanders.
1070, Richard died.
9/26/1087, William Rufus crowned King of England.
1088, William’s barons rebelled in support of his brother Robert [who did not show up to help.]
1090, William invaded Normandy securing some of his brother Robert’s lands.
1091, William invaded Scotland.
1094, William invaded France again.
1099, William was killed while hunting [he was widely hated]; buried at Winchester.