Sunday, April 21, 2013
G29: 378220740 King Louis VI
12/1/1081, Louis born at Château Bethizy near Paris, France, s/o 756441480. King Philip I & 756441481. Bertha of Holland.
1091, Louis’ father divorced his mother. [Bertha retired to her dower land of Montreuil-sur-Mer.]
1092, Adelaide born in Savoy, d/o 756441482. Humbert II, Count of Savoy & 756441483. Gisele de Burgundy. [Adelaide the sister of Pope Calixte II, and a descendent of Charlemagne.]
1092, Louis created as Comte du Vexin, de Mantes et de Pontoise by his father.
1093, Louis’ mother died.
1096, Louis’ father King Philip married his mistriss Bertrade in Orleans; an act opposed by Pope Urban II. [This would be a source of conflict between Louis and his father, who would be under a constant threat of excommunication for the relationship.]
1097 at Chaumont in the Vexin, Prince Louis repelled King William’s Anglo-Norman forces, killing 700 of the attackers horses with their bows.
5/1098 at Abbeville, Louis knighted by Gui I, count of Ponthieu.
1098, Louis led the forces of the Vexin in defensive warfare against King William Rufus of England. (S) Early Gothic Column-Figure Sculpture in France, P110.
8/13/1099, Pope Paschal II succeeded Urban II [and would be Pope for 19 years.]
1100, Louis crowned King “rex designatus” by his father [a Capet tradition to retain power.] King Philip began to share the throne with his son.
1100-08, Louis VI was the first royal child to use a seal [which was used on several documents]: ‘sigillum lodovici designati regis.’ (S) When Ego Was Imago, Bedos-Rezak, 2010, P91.
8/2/1100, King William Rufus of England killed in a hunting incident; William and Robert’s younger brother Henry claimed the English crown. [Duke Robert was away on crusade.]
8/5/1100, Henry I crowned King of England.
12/25/1100, King Henry I of England, hosting Louis VI at his Christmas court, received a letter with the seal of King Philip [sent by Queen Bertrade] asking that he secretly have Philip’s successor murdered. [Bertrade wanted her son to succeed.] Henry sent Louis back to Paris where he demanded vengeance. Louis was subsequently poisoned by someone in Bertrade’s service [but survived.]
12/25/1101, King Louis at King Henry’s Christmas court in London. (S) Church Historians of England, Pt1, 1856, P120.
1102, Prince Louis marched 700 knights against the Count of Foucy at Rheims who had been victimizing the local churches. [Prince Louis was a frequent adventurer with his knights attacking local barons in revolt.]
1103, Attacking Geoffrey Borel at Meung, Louis set fire to the tower and then had the defenders shot to death when they jump to safety. [Louis was known to give mercy, but not to those who gave none.]
10/19/1103, Adelaide’s father died; her brother Amadeus III succeeding in Savoy.
1104, Louis married Lucienne de Rochefort, d/o Guy, count of Rochefort, seneschal of King Philip.
12/1104, Ivo of Chartres wrote a letter calling for the genealogies of Louis and Lucienne to be reviewed at a synod at Soissons.
4/1105, Serlo, bishop of Seez, preached against men with long hair and used scissors to cut the tresses the royal family and many magnates. [Louis VII, s/o Louis VI, would again wear his hair to his shoulders.]
1105, Viscount Milo of Troyes for captured the castle of Montlhéry. Louis VI destroyed the castle except for the main tower; and forgave the viscount.
4/1106, Louis [likely] attended the wedding of his sister Constance at Chartres, hosted by Adela of Normandy. [Adela the sister of William the Conqueror. Louis’ father King Philip attended.]
1106, at Nimes, King Philip and his son King Louis met Pope Pope Pascal II, where the Pope asked for support for his German policy.
9/28/1106, King Henry I of England captured his brother Robert Curthose at the battle of Tinchebray, Normandy; uniting England and Normandy.
1107, at Troyes, Prince Louis met with his father and Pope Paschal. An agreement was made over homage, investiture, and the grant of temporalities of new bishops. (S) The Papal Monarchy, Morris, 1989, P158.
5/23/1107, Louis’ marriage annulled by the Pope on the grounds of consanguinity, at the request of King Philip. [1116, Lucienne married Guichard, lord of Banjeu.]
7/29/1108, Louis succeeded his father on his death. Louis named Stephen Garlande as chancellor. Stephen’s brother Gilbert was a royal butler. [Paris, Orleans and Bourges formed a considerable portion of the royal domain.]
8/3/1108 at the Cathedral of Sainte-Croix, Orléans, Louis crowned by the archbishop of Sens [because he was in dispute with the archbishop of Reims – who normally would have performed the ceremony].
Aft. 3/1109, Louis had his 1st confict with the forces of King Henry I of England; which soon followed with conflicts along the border with supporters of Duke Robert Curthose, King Henry’s brother.
1109, King Louis, with 4000 knights, raided the lands of Robert, count of Meulan. (S) Anselm of Bec, Vaughn, 1987, P351.
1109, Louis, supporting William Clito, s/o Duke Robert Curthose, challenged King Henry I of England to single combat to determine the fate of Normandy [King Henry refused.]
Aft. 1109, Locenis, a town of Robert de Beaumont in Normandy, was sacked by King Louis VI of France.
1109-11, There was widespread famine in France.
1110, King Louis laid out Les Halles adjacent to his palace [which became the largest market in Europe]. (S) Paris in the 50s, Karnow, 2011.
1110, King Louis ordered Bishop Gaudry’s palace ransacked. [Gaudry was an “eccentric cleric”. Louis believed he was responsible for the murder of Gerard of Quierzy.]
3/12/1111, Thibaut of Blois headed a delegation to a royal council at Melun to ask King Louis VI to suppress the attacks by Hugh le Puiset, referred to as “a mad dog”. [King Louis launched a campaign against Hugh.]
1111, Louis attacked the lands of the Count of Meulan, vassal of King Henry [who also owned property near Paris from which he could easily attack Louis.]
1111-12, Louis led campaigns against Hugh, lord le Puiset. He staged his operations from Toury in Beauce, which was supervised by Sugere. Hugh was wounded and captured.
4/1112, Louis was bribed by supporters of Bishop Gaudry to dissolve communes in Noyon and Saint-Quentin. A riot ensued in which the bishop and other nobles were killed. [Communes were early self-governing civil units with local administration and finances.]
1112, Exercising his power, Louis forbid the Count of Blois to build new castles without his consent.
1112, Louis released Hugh, lord le Puiset under a peace oath. [Hugh ignored the oath an rebuilt his castle and joined Theobald of Blois in opposition to Louis.]
1112, King Louis defeated in battle near le Puiset [50 miles south of Paris] by Theobald of Blois and Hugh le Puiset.
1112, King Louis moved the capital from Orleans to Paris.
3/1113, at Gisors, King Louis had to yield Maine and Brittany by treaty to England after Theobald of Blois and a coalition of barons supported King Henry.
1113, Louis gve the abbey of Saint-Denis the primacy over the other churches of the kingdom. (S) Approaches to Medieval Architecture, Bork, 2011, P68.
1114, King Louis ended the commune at Laon [which he had initially supported in 1111.]
1114, Louis VI razed the castles of Crecy and Nouvion of excommunicated Thomas de Marle of Laon. (S) Oxford Encyc. of Medieval Warfare, V1, 2010, P77.
[–––Louis & Adelaide–––]
3/1115 in Paris, Louis married Adelaide. [Arranged by Yves, Bishop of Chartres – an apparently happy marriage in which Adelaide’s name appears on many documents with Louis’; and in which she was actively involved in the education of her children.]
3-4/1115 at Amiens, Louis besieged Castillon, castle of Enguerrand I of Coucy. Louis took an arrow in the siege but was not seriously wounded.
4/1116, War broke out again between King Louis and King Henry, who had just returned from England [King Henry would spend the next 4 years in Normandy]. Most skirmishes occurred on the border of the Norman and French Vexin.
1116, King Louis formed an alliance with Flanders and Fulk V of Anjou. (S) Gothic King’s of Britain, Potter, 2008, P53.
6-7/1117, Louis VI and Baldwin VII of Flanders unsuccessfully invade Normandy. (S) Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, Oksanen, 2012, P259.
8/3/1117, Louis granted a fair to the abbey of Morigny. (S) Consolidation of Local Authority, Bush, 2007, P72.
1118, King Louis defeated Theobald of Blois and Hugh le Puiset at the battle of Janville.
1118, Louis gave the abbey of Saint Denis the market and customs at Toury. (S) Approaches to Medieval Architecture, Bork, 2011, P68.
1118, A charter of Louis and Adelaide: “… in the tenth year of the reign of King Louis and the third year of Queen Adelaide …’ (S) Women in the Middle Ages, Gies, 2010. [Other records ‘… King Louis with the consent of Queen Adelaide …’; ‘… acting upon Adelaide’s intercession or plea …’.]
2/1/1119, Pope Calixtus II succeeded Gelasius II. [Pope Calixtus the brother of Adelaide.]
1119, The organization of the Templars was founded to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000, P181.
1119, Louis VI took Cluny and all its dependent priories under his protection, acquiring in return the right to build castles on their lands with the permission of the abbot of Cluny.
1119, King Louis, supported by Amaury de Montfort, invaded Normandy. Louis 1st burnt Ivry, then approached Bretueil, held by Ralph de Gael, who offered stiff resistance. At the height of the battle, 200 knights of King Henry arrived ahead of his main army. The French forces retreated. (S) Henry I, Green, 2006, P153.
1119, King Louis captured Les Andelys.
8/20/1119, King Louis and his forces defeated at the battle of Bremule by King Henry I. A thousand knights were engaged; 80 French knights were killed. Henry I suffered a blow to the head, but was saved by his chain mail. King Louis lost his horse and his banner. Henry returned to Rouen; Louis went on to Chartres, where the city surrendered.
1119, After Bremule, Louis assembled a council of nobles at Rheims, presided over by Pope Calixtus II, where he became self-proclaimed “King of France” and “special son of the church of Rome”, no longer “King of the Franks”; the beginning of France as a political entity and power. [At this point in his life Louis was already described as “heavy”, with the “appetitie of a hunter”.]
1120, King Louis named Stephen Garlande his seneschal [chief official.]
1120, King Louis donated his father’s crown to Saint Denis. (S) Les Lieux de Memoire, V4, Nora, 2010, P17.
1120, The ‘curia regis’ became permanently seated at Paris. (S) Development of the French Monarchy, Thompson, 1895, P41.
Aft. 11/25/1120 [the White Ship disaster], With the death of his only legitimate son, King Henry I of England agreed to do simple homage to King Louis for his lands in Normandy.
1121, Laon, King Louis VI confirms an exchange of properties between Barthélémy of Joux, bishop of Laon, and the Cistercian abbey of Foigny, and ordered that his confirmation be strengthened with the impression of his royal image. (S) When Ego Was Imago, Bedos-Rezak, 2010, P154.
By 10/1121, Louis’ son Philip is identified as the king designate.
1122, Louis raised a large army which he used to restore the Bishop of Clermont to Auvergne, opposing William, count of Avuergne; besieging William’s castle at Pont-du-Chateau.
1122 at Worms, An agreement between the papacy and the empires that clergy would elect the bishops, the church consecrate the bishops, and the king give the regalia.
1122, “Sugere” elected the abbot of St. Denis. Louis had the messengers imprisoned because the election was without royal assent. Upon meeting with Sugere, Louis accepted the election. [Eventually Louis chose as an advisor Abbot Suger, who also wrote his biography and became his royal minister.]
1123, King Louis sent an embassy to Rome headed by Suger, Abbé de Saint-Denis.
1123, Through the influence of Louis VI, Simon de Vermandois elected bishop of the dual diocese of Noyon-Tournai. (S) Murder of Charles the Good, Galbert, 2005, P136.
8/1124, Louis, having assembled an army from across France, repeled invading Emperor Henry V in Lorraine. Before going into battle Louis acquired the red silk banner, the Oriflamme of St. Denis, to carry into battle. An easy victory, Louis returned the Oriflamme to St. Denis.
12/13/1124, Pope Calixtus II died; succeeded by Pope Honorius II.
1125, Count Thibaut received 3 counties in Champagne from his uncle Count Hugues. These strategic lands on either side of King Louis VI posed a threat to the Capetians.
1125, In a charter of Louis VI his sons are named: ‘… assensu … filiorumque nostrorum, videlicet Philippi regis designati, Ludovici quorue ac Henrici’. (S) Charters of King David I, Barrow, 1999, P6.
1126, Louis again had to defend the Bishop of Clermont to Auvergne, opposing William, count of Avuergne. Louis, with Charles the Good of Flanders, Fulk V of Anjou, and Conan of Brittany, and Norman knights, besieged the castle at Montferrand. William X, duke of Aquitaine, who was overlord of the castle, questioned Louis’ authority, but was forced to accept Louis’ authority. After capturing the castle, Louis had the hands of those captured cut off.
1126, A charter by Louis VI to the city of Beauvais [One of the oldest known written in French.] (S) View of the State of Europe, Hallam, 1840, P327.
1/1127, Adelaide’s half-sister Jeanne, d/o Rainier de Montferrat married William Clito, son and heir of Robert, duke of Normandy, eldest s/o William the Conqueror. (S) An Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Swanton, 1998, P257.
4/12/1127, Louis in Bruges, Flanders to revenge the killing of his cousin Charles the Good [murdered 3/2/1127]. [King Louis hung 22 of 30 conspirators from the tower of Bruges; 2 others were captured and killed later; 6 pardoned.]
1127, Louis VI countersigned the charters of St. Omer and Bruges in Flanders. (S) Development of the French Monarchy under Louis VI, Thompson, 1895, P90.
12/1127, At his Christmas court, Louis VI encouraged his nobles to aid William [Clito] the Norman in his campaign against King Henry I of England. (S) Robert Curthose, Aird, 2008, P271.
4/1128, Louis, at the influence of Adelaide, supported William Clito as the new Count of Flanders.
5/1128, King Louis convoked a council in Arras in which the archbishop of Reims excommunicated Thierry of Alsace and his sympathers, a contender with William Clito for the title to Flanders. (S) Henry I, Hollister, 2001, P321.
1128, Louis captured the Garlande castle [a powerful family in revolt headed by his seneschal of 1120.]
1128, Thierry of Alsace unsuccessfully besieged for 6 days by King Louis VI at Lille. Louis received a leg wound from a “missile” from a catapult that left him with a permanent limp, and combined with his weight was unable to mount a horse. Louis abruptly returned to France, leaving William Clito without his aid. [William died in battle in July.]
7/1128, Louis approved the Peace of Laon, acknowleging Thierry of Alsace as count of Flanders; and which included a protection for the dower rights of widows. (S) Aristocracy in the County of Champagne, Evergates, 2007, P337.
1129, Louis crowned his son Philip, King “rex designatus”. ‘Ludovicus et Philippus, filius ejus, divina ordinante providencia reges Francorum.’ (S) Charters of King David I, Barrow, 1999, P6.
1129, King Louis met with Hugh of Pontigny, Bernard of Clairvaux, and Henry, archbishop of Sens, over issues with the Cistercian abbots. (S) Boundaries of Charity, Newman, 1996, P146.
1129, King Louis confirmed the foundation and privileges of Saint-Vincent. (S) Memory and the Medieval Tomb, Valdez del Alamo, 2000, P259.
1130, King Louis made Paris his primary residence.
1130, Louis VI was driven by the constant complaints of the clergy and the entreaty of Ralph, count of Vermandois, to organize and expedition against Thomas, lord of Coucy and Boves. King Louis surprised Thomas before Coucy, and Thomas was mortally wounded in the battle. (S) Cambridge Medieval History, Vs1-5, Bury.
10/1130, King Louis assembled a council at Etampes which recognized Pope Innocent II.
1/1131, Pope Innocent II joined King Louis VI at Orleans. (S) The Papacy, Robinson, 1990, P286.
1131, The abbot of Coulombs asked Louis VI to judge a case concerning Prudemanche near Brezolles.
11/1131 at Rheims, Louis crowned his son Louis, King “rex designatus” on the death of Philip.
1132, Louis made peace with the Garlande family and reinstated Stephen Garlande as chancellor [but not seneschal. The seneschal office was vacant for 4 years.]
1132, Louis protected Adelaides’s dower rights in his gifts to two collegiate chaptes. (S) Aristocracy in the County of Champagne, Evergates, 2007, P337.
1133, King Louis purchased Saint-Pierre de Montmarte from the Comte de Meulan.
1133-4, Adelaide founded the Abbey of the Women of Montmartre with lands donated by King Louis. (S) Medieval Cathedrals, Clark, 2006, P19.
1134, Louis VI granted to Humbert, bishop of Puy-en-Velay, the exercise of regalian rights in the absence of his lord, the Count of Tripoli. (S) Development of the French Monarchy under Louis VI, Thompson, 1895, P28.
1135, King Louis attacked St-Brisson-sur-Loire [45 miles southeast of Orleans], who’s lord had been attacking passing merchants.
11/1135, Louis, due to an illness, appointed Count Thibaut II of Champagne guardian of his son Louis. [Louis recovered from this illness.]
12/2/1135, King Henry I of England died in Rouen, Normandy.
12/22/1135, Stephen crowned king of England.
10/28/1135 at Châteauneuf-sur-Loire, In ill health, Louis VI transferred effective power to his son Louis VII.
1136, Louis attacked Thomas Marle, who had killed Louis’ cousin Hugh de Vermandois. [Thomas was killed in the battle by Hugh’s brother Ralph.]
1136, 'Our provost,’ declares Louis VI in his pariage [partitioning] with the bishop of Paris, shall do fidelity to the bishop; and his provost reciprocally to the king. (S) Crisis of the 12th Century, Bisson, 2009, P360.
5/1137, King Stephen of England, on the continent, met with King Louis VI of France. (S) Tradition and Change, Greenway, 2002, P177.
By 6/1137, Louis had again fallen ill in the forest of Yveline near Melun; and took refuge at Bethisy.
1137, Before dying, Duke Guillaume X, duke of Aquitaine, made Louis the ward for his daughter Eleanor. Louis arranged for her marriage to his son Louis.
8/1/1137, Louis “the glorius” died at the castle of Bethisy-Saint-Pierre wearing a monastic habit.
1137, Adelaide conspired against Suger, Abbé de Saint-Denis, triggering a quarrel with her son Louis VII.
1138, Adelaide married 2nd Matthew de Montmorency, Constable of France. [1 daughter.]
Adelaide retired to her lands at Compiegne.
1146, King Louis VII confirmed a donation of his mother Adelaide to an abbey.
1147, Adelaide [likely] attended the dedication ceremony for the new church of Sainte-Pierre at the abbey Montmartre near Paris, consecrated by Pope Eugenius III. Bernard of Clairvaux and Pierre, abbot of Cluny, performed as acolytes.
1153, Adelaide founded Royallieu near Compiegne.
1153, Adelaide retired to the abbey Montmartre near Paris.
11/18/1154, Adelaide died; buried at Montmartre in the abbey of Sainte-Pierre.
(S) Memoires of the Queens of France, V1, Bush, 1843. (S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007. (S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
· Louis is often called “the fat”. His biographer, Sugere, the abbot of St. Denis, and a personal friend, called his work “The Deeds of Louis the Glorious”. Over the years “glorious” was altered to “grossus” – the fat.
· 457 acts of Louis VI are recorded, of which over 100 are references to acts now lost. (S) English Govt. in the 13th Century, Jobson, 2004, P34. Adelaide is mentioned in 90 royal acts. (S) When Ego Was Imago, Bedos-Rezak, 2010, P92.
· Louis had at least 9 illegitimate children.
· Louis often left important offices vacant for multiple years in an attempt to end hereditary succession to these offices.
· Louis used councellors from ordinary backgrounds, his “council of those who surround us”, even using them to represent him in presiding over disputes. These led to the emergence of legal specialists.
· The mother of Charles the Good of Flanders and Louis’ mother Bertha were sisters.
Children of Louis and Adelaide: [8 sons, 1 daughter]
1129, Louis crowned Philip, King “rex designatus”.
10/13/1131, Philip died after being thrown from his horse after is was scared by a roaming pig. [Afterwards, it was forbidden to allow a pig to roam the streets.]
ii. King Louis VII Capet (189110370), born 1120 in France.
1134, Henri ‘tonsured’.
1142, Henri the archdeacon of Orleans.
1150, Henri consecrated bishop of Beauvais.
1162, Henri elected archbishop of Reims.
11/13/1175, Henri died, buried at Reims.
iv. Count Robert I of Dreux (94555228), born ~1125 in Fance. [5th son]
2/1140, Constance married Eustace of Blois, s/o King Stephen of England.
8/1153, Eustace died.
8/10/1154, Constance married Count Raymond V of Toulouse.
Raymond became a supporter of King Henry II.
By 1176, Raymond returned his support to King Louis.
11/1177, Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem confirmed a sale of property, with the consent of ‘… Constantiæ sorori regis Franciæ’.