Monday, April 15, 2013
G29: 94555154 King Alfonso Henriques I of Portugal
7/25/1109-12, Alfonso Henriques born in Portugal, s/o 189110308. Henri of Burgundy, count of Portugal & 189110309. Tarasia of Bierzo.
5/1112, Alfonso’s father died.
1112, Alfonso’s mother Theresa named his regent.
1/24/1118, Pope Gelasius II succeeded Paschal II.
2/1/1119, Pope Calixtus II succeeded Gelasius II. [Calixtus the brother of Raymond of Galicia.]
1120, Infante Don Afonso Henriques of Portugal in the confirmation of a document.
12/21/1124, Pope Honorius II succeeded Calixtus II.
5/1125, Afonso knighted at the cathedral of Zamora.
1125, Mafalda born, d/o 189110310. Amadeus of Maurienne, count of Savoy & 189110311. Adelaide ?.
5/23/1127, ‘Tarasia regina domni Adefonsi Yspaniarum imperatoris filia’ donated ‘monasterio Sancte Marie quod cognomento Viminerium’ to Cluny by charter.
1127, Alfonso VII of Leon and Castile invaded Portugal and forced Alfonso’s mother, Theresa, to recognize his supremacy.
1127, Alfonso Henriques refused to recognize her submission and rebelled with the help of Archbishop Paio of Braga.
9/7/1127, A donation of Alfonso VII King of Toledo and Leon, declares of Afonso Henriques: ‘imperante portucalis adefonsus filius henrici comes.’
1127, Afonso given the castles of Neiva and Lima.
11/13/1127, ‘Infanta dna Sancia, Infans dns Adefonsus regis consanguineus’ subscribed the charter under which King Alfonso VII donated ‘el castillo de San Jorge en la Sierra del Pindo’ to Santiago de Compostela.
3/31/1128, Afonso and his mother Theresa are both signatories of the same document.
4/27/1128, Afonso confirmed without his mother’s signature the charter of Guimarais of his father.
1128, Afonso holding territory north of the Douro. Teresa still held the lands south of the river.
5/26/1128, Afonso confirmed a previous privilege of Paio Mendes, archbishop of Braga, naming him chaplain and promising to cede him the city of Braga.
7/24/1128, Theresa, mother of Afonso, and Fernando Peres, her lover, taken prisoner at the battle of San Mamede near Guimarais by Alfonso Henriques. Afonso’s Portugal now extended southward to Coimbra.
3/18/1129, Charter document of Afonso Henriques.
1129-30, Theresa gave up all rights to the rule of Portugal. The pope tried to arrange for her release through the Bishop of Coimbra, and a papal Cardinal. Afonso refused and was excommunicated. After threatening to kill the Cardinal, Afonso released his mother and was not excommunicated.
1/15/1130, Charter document of Afonso Henriques.
1130, Alfonso’s mother died.
1130s, Expansion was possible to the north into Galacia, or south into Muslim territory. Afonso initially went north, taking Tuy and other fortresses.
1135, Afonso built the castle of Leiria as a defensive base of operations in the south; a strong fortress with a sheer cliff on one side.
1135, Afonso, ‘Prince of Portugal’, refused to do homage to Alfonso VII of Castile.
1136, Alfonso Henriques captured the castle of Ourem from the Moors.
1136, Afonso Henriques replaced deceased Bishop Hugo of Oporto with Joao Peculiar [who became archbishop of Braga in 1138.]
1137, Muslims attacked Afonso’s castle at Leiria; killing 250 of the garrison.
1137, Afonso made peace with Alfonso VII of Spain [Peace of Tuy], and focused on extending his lands to the south.
7/25/1139, Afonso won his 1st victory over the Muslims at Campo-Ourique.
1139, Alfonso declared himself King of Portugal, and “a knight of Blessed Peter and of the Roman Pontiff”; and promised to pay 4 ounces of gold annually for papal protection.
4/1140, In a document of Afonso styled: ‘rex Alfonsus.’
1140, Afonso and Alfonso VII of Spain made an agreement over the towns of Tuy and Val-de-Vez.
1140, Afonso attacked Galicia through Tuy and entered Torono. Alfonso VII retaliated by marching on Vez. At the castle of Penha da Rainha, the two armies met. A tournament was conducted with Afonso’s side winning and capturing Afonso’s brother-in-law and Bermudo Peres, brother of the Emperor. Afterwards, prisoners and castles were exchanged.
1140-42, Afonso, with the help of a fleet of crusaders from northern Europe, made an unsuccessful attacked on Lisbon.
1142, Afonso built the outpost of Germanelo near Penela; beyond which was Muslim territory.
1143, Alfonso Henriques, King of Portugal, recognized as a vassal of Alfonso VII of Spain.
12/13/1143, Afonso received papal approval for his independence from Spain.
1144, Pope Lucius II wrote to Afonso Henriques, addressed as ‘Portugalensium dux’, accepting the proferred tribute and extending protection.
1144, Afonso rebuilt and garrisoned the castle of Leiria [for the 3rd time.]
2/15/1145, Pope Eugene III succeeded Pope Lucius II.
1145, Afonso allowed his sister and her husband, Fernao Mendes of Braganca, to give the Templars the castle of Longroiva.
7/1145, ‘Alfonsus, Portugaliæ rex, comitis Henrici et reginæ Theresiæ filius, magni quoque regis Alfonsi nepos … cum uxore mea regina donna Malfada, filia comitis Amedei de Moriana’ confirmed donations to La Charité-sur-Loire by his father.
1-6/1146, Afonso married his cousin Mafalda. ‘Rex Donnus Alfonsus’ and ‘Donnam Matildam, Comitis Amadæi de Moriana filiam.’
1146, Charter of Alfonso … ‘anno ... quo duxeramt Mahaldam.’
7/1146, A donation made ‘cum uxore mea Regina Dona Mafalda.’
3/15/1147, Afonso seized Santarem, on the Tagus river north of Lisbon. Preparations for the attack were made under concealment the night before.
6/28/1147, Afonso allied himself with another group of crusaders from northern Europe; guaranteeing them the plunder of Lisbon and the ransom of the captives. Afonso also had the support of the Archbishop of Braga.
10/24/1147, Lisbon [al-Ushbuna] fell to Afonso and the crusaders. [The capture of Lisbon is said to as important as the capture of Toledo in 1085, and the capture of Zaragoza in 1118.]
4/1148, Mafalda’s father died on crusade in Nicosia, Cyprus.
1148, Alfonso gave the Templars the castle of Cera on the banks of the river Tomar.
10/1/1149, In a document of Afonso styled: ‘Alphonsus glorioissimus princeps et Dei gratia Portugalensium rex.’
1151, Afonso planned an attack on Alcacer.
1152, Afonso repulsed at Alcacer-do-Sal.
7/8/1153, Pope Anastasius IV succeeded Pope Eugene III.
1154, Afonso gave a charter to the inhabitants of the castle at Sintra.
1154, Muslim map-maker Edrisi prepared a map for Roger II of Sicily of the world that had details of Portugal. (S) Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, Diffie, 1977, P14.
12/4/1154, Pope Adrian IV succeeded Pope Anastasius IV.
8/21/1157, Fernando II succeeded as King of Leon-Castile.
1158, Afonso captured Alcacer do Sal in the Alentejo south of the Tagus river, of great military importance.
1158, Afonso Henriquez establish the military order of Aviz at Evora. (S) Portugal Illustrated, Kinsey, 1828, P478.
9/1158, Fernando II of Leon [Alfonso’s future son-in-law] compensated Pelayo Curvo for devastation caused by Alfonso, King of Portugal.
By 4/1157, Afonso and his wife Matilda, who commanded the establishment of the charter, made an anticipatory grant of the churches in Portugal; accepted by Hugh of Martonio, a Templar knight. (S) The Templars, Barber, 2002, P132.
11/4/1157, Mafalda died; buried at the Church of the Cross, Coimbra.
9/7/1159, Pope Alexander III succeeded Pope Adrian IV.
1160, Fernando II of Leon founded the city of Ciudad Rodrigo on the Portuguese border.
1160, Afonso establish the Templars at Tomar. (S) Portugal, A Traveller’s History, Livermore, 2004, P52.
12/1160 at Celanova, Fernando II of Leon met with Alfonso Henriques and sealed a marriage agreement of Fernando II and Alfonso’s daughter Urraca.
1161, Afonso suffered a defeat against the Moors.
1162, Afonso’s lieutenant Geraldo Sem-Pavor captured Evora.
1163, Alfonso occupied for a short time the town of Salamanca in Leon.
1165-66, Afonso’s knight Giraldo Sempavor captured, Trujillo, Caceres, Montanchez, Serpa  and Juromenha between the Tagus and Guadiana on his behalf.
1166, Afonso granted a charter to Evora in which rights were given to Muslims and Jews as well as Christians. Every man with a house, a yoke of oxen, 40 sheep and an ass, and 2 beds was also obliged to turn out for military service. If there was a brawl among the villagers, the woulds would be taxed. (S) Cadogan Guides Portugal, Evans, 2004, P397.
1167, Fernando II of Leon and Alfonso Henriques in battle over the city of Ciudad Rodrigo. Alfonso’s son Sancho led the attack on the city. Fernando’s forces won the battle. Fernando captured many of Alfonso’s men, but later freed them.
1168, Afonso founded the Cistercian Mosteiro de Salzedas.
5/1169, Afonso came to the aid of Giraldo Sempavor in the capture of the citadel of Badajoz. Afonso broke his leg during the battle and was only able to ride a horse with difficulty. Fernando II of Leon, of whom the Muslims held the city as his vassal, attacked and freed the city; captured Afonso; and demanded the surrender of Montanchez and Trujillo.
1169, Afonso granted a charter to Linhares da Beria.
1170, Alfonso loses to the Moors at Alemtejo.
8/1170, Afonso knighted his son Sancho at Coimbra.
1171, Afonso defended Santarem, which was surrounded, against the Almohad led by Aby Ya’qub. The Muslims broke the siege when they heard of the approach of Fernando II of Leon and his army.
1171, Afonso instituted the military Order da Ala de S. Miguel.
1171-72, Alfonso Henriques went to Lafoes on the Vouga to retire, turning his government over to his son Sancho.
1172, Afonso made a truce with the Muslims.
1173, Afonso Henriques had the remains of St. Vincent moved from Cabo de Sao Vicente to Lisbon. (S) Rough Guide to Portugal, Fisher, 2010, P528.
1174, Giraldo Sempavor, knight of Afonso, beheaded by the Almohads.
1177, Alfonso hosted crusaders bound for the Holy Land at Lisbon, including Philip of Alsace [who was eventually betrothed to Alfonso’s daughter Teresa.]
1177, Afonso established the military order of St. James of the Sword in Portugal [established by Pope Alexander III in 1175.]
1178, Afonso began construction of the Cistercian Mosteiro de Santa Maria at Alcobaca.
1178, The truce with the Muslims was broken when Afonso’s son Sancho made an expedition into Muslim territory, reaching Seville.
5/23/1179, Pope Alexander III wrote of Afonso: “he protected the whole of Portugal with his sword”; for which the Pope acknowledged “the intrepid destroyer of the enemies of the Christian name and the energetic defender of the Christian faith” as “rex Portugalensium”; thereby confirming Portuguese independence.
7/15/1180, An Almohad fleet attacked Lisbon, but was defeated off Cape Espiches by a Portuguese fleet under the command of Fuas Roupinho.
9/1/1181, Pope Lucius III succeeded Pope Alexander III.
1184, Afonso Henriques attacked the forces besieging Santarem, Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf; who was mortally wounded in the battle. [Afonso’s son Sancho attacked from within the city. The Muslims were caught between the two forces.]
12/8/1185, Alfonso died [having doubled the size of Portugal in wars against the Moors]; buried in the Church of the Cross, Coimbra.
1196, ‘Regina D. Matilda … Comitis Amadæi filia, uxor D. Alfonsi Portugallensium Regis’, died.
(S) History of Medieval Spain, O’Callaghan, 1975. (S) Medieval Iberia, Gerli, 2003. (S) History of Portugal, 1937. (S) Historian’s History, V10, 1907, P636. (S) Curia and Cortes in Leon, Procter, 1980. (S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Children of Alfonso and Malfada:
1174, Sancho, ‘the city builder’, married Dulce; d/o Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona & Petronilla of Aragon.
1183, Sancho captured a Muslim stronghold in the Algarve after which he styled himself ‘Dei Gratia Portugalie, Silvii et Algarbi Rex.’
3/26/1212, Sancho died; buried in the Church of the Cross, Coimbra.
Children: Afonso II [died 1223]; Fernando, married Joan of Constantinople, d/o Emperor Baldwin of Constantinople; Saint Teresa [1178-1250]; Saint Sanchia [1182-1229]; and Saint Mafalda [1204-1252.]
8/1183, Teresa married to Philip of Alsace.
8/1/1191, Philip died on crusade.
2/1194, Teresa married Eudes [Odo] III, duke of Burgundy.
1195, Teresa divorced from Eudes on grounds of consanguinity.
5/6/1218, Teresa drowned in a marsh near Furness, Flanders; buried at the Abbaye of Clairvaux, Jura.