Featured Post

||| LINK to author's Amazon page

Friday, April 24, 2020

Baron William Malet & Lady Heselia Crispin

~1020, William, ‘Sire de Graville,’ born in Normandy.
~1025, Heselia Crispin born in Normandy, France, d/o §§Castellan Gilbert Crispin of Tillieres in the Vexin.
4/3/1043, Edward the Confessor, became King of England.
[––William & Heselia––]
~1043, William married Heselia.
Bef. 1066, William associated with Earl Harold Godwinson of England. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P87.
1/5/1066, Harold Godwinson elected King of England.
3/20/1066, Haley’s comet appeard in the sky at its closest point to earth, and was interpreted as an evil omen.
9/1066, King Harald of Norway defeated the English in battle near York.
10/14/1066, William and son Robert participated in the Battle of Hastings. When the battle was over, Duke William entrusted William Malet to attend to the burial of the dead English King.
10/25/1066, William the Conqueror crowned King of England.
1068, King William travelled through England building castles. Nottingham was assigned to William Peverel, Warwick to Henry de Beaumont, and William Malet appointed Sheriff of York. [Record of Odericus: ‘William surveyed the most unaccessible points in the country, and selecting suitable spots, fortified them against the enemy’s incusions.’]
1068, King William returned to Normandy [which provided the opportunity for rebellion.]
1/1069, William serving under Robert Fitz-Richard and William of Ghent, with 500 picked knights had to fight off a local revolt, headed by Edgar the Atheling. Robert Fitz-Richard and many of his men were killed and it was only by the timely arrival of King William that the City was saved.
2/1069, Robert Fitz-Richard murdered at Durham. William appointed castellan of York.
2-4/1069, Back in England, King William devastated York and burned the countryside.
9/21/1069 at a siege of York, William, his wife and 2 of his children were captured by a combined force of Danes and English under Sweyn of Denmark, supported by Earls Waltheof and Gospatric and the Northumbrians. William, the governor of York, lost all of his land holdings in Yorkshire. [The Danes are said to have had 240 ships. The Normans to have lost 3000. The cathedral was burnt. At this time the ‘locals’ likely supported the Danes.]
1069, King William again marched north and defeated the invaders.
12/25/1069, William celebrated Christmas in the ruins of York.
1069-70, William was named Sheriff of Suffolk. William given the largest fife in East Anglia including lands in Suffolk, Norfolk and Essex. William built his home called Castle Mound, at Eye, Suffolk.
~1071, William died fighting “Hereward the Wake” in the Fens, near Ely Cathedral [in the middle of the Malet holdings]. (S) The Domesday Book: “... He went into the marsh ... he went on the King’s service, where he died.”
1085, Elesia holding lands in dower in Suffolk. [Hesilia, ‘Mother of Robert Malet’, is recorded in Domesday multiple times.]
Elesia died.
(S) Notices of an English Branch of the Malet Family, Arthur Malet, 1885, PP22-23, App’s C1-C2 & PP1-17, App’s A1-A10. (S) Battle Conference, 1996, P122ff. (S) Domesday York, Is78, Palliser, P3.
Family notes:
·         1040, King Henry besieged and destroyed the Norman outpost of Tillieres-sur-Avre [land of Duke William], held by Gilbert Crispin for Blois.
·         William and his brother Durand held lands in Lincolnshire, England, during the reign of Edward the Confessor, and through the reign of Harold right up to the conquest, in addition to those in Normandy. These Lincolnshire holdings, all in the Danelaw, probably came from William and Durand’s mother. After the conquest William’s English holdings were greatly increased, again, principally in the Danelaw, as English lands were taken from their Saxon owners and handed over to Norman Barons.
·         The Malet Castle at Graville Sainte Honorine had an important strategic location at the mouth of the Seine.
·         The Malet Coat of Arms can be seen on the Bayeux tapestry.
·         The Abbey church in which some of the Malets are buried is in the town of Le Havre, France.
Children of William and Heselia:
i. Robert Malet, born ~1045 in France.
Robert married Elisee De Brionne.
By 1066, Robert a witness in a charter of William, Count of the Normans, to the Abbey of Jumieges.
1071, Robert named Sheriff of Suffolk, succeeding his father William. The bulk Robert’s properties were in Suffolk and Norfolk, and comprised land in 137 parishes in that county, as well as 35 in Yorkshire, 22 in Norfolk, 6 in Lincolnshire, 4 in Essex, 2 in Nottinghamshire, 1 in Rutland, and 1 in Surrey. The size of individual holdings ranged from a few acres to entire parishes, and the total land area is estimated to have been at least 75,000 acres, of which 47,000 were located in Suffolk, making Robert the second largest landowner there, behind only the Abbot of Bury St. Edmunds.
1075, Robert was responsible for suppressing the rebellion of Ralph, Earl of Norfolk.
1076-83, Robert Malet grante to the priory of Eye the church of Eye and all the churches in the neighbouring town of Dunwich. (S) Cyclopedia of Education, V5, 1913, P259.
Robert was appointed to the office of “Great Chamberlain of England”. It’s possible he may have been the first Great Chamberlain of England, a title which passed to his relative Aubrey (Alberic) II de Vere upon his death.
Bef. 1086, Robert responsible for establishing Eye park as a hunting preserve, one of only four such parks mentioned in the Suffolk Domesday book.
1086, Robert listed in the Domesday survey. He had inherited most of his father’s estates in Suffolk, Yorks, Norfolk, Surrey, Notts, Rutland, Lincoln, Cheshire, and Essex.
1087, Robert was responsible for establishing the Benedictine priory of St. Peter.
Aft. 1087, [and after the death of William I] Robert was deprived of the Honour of Eye and was banished from the kingdom. [probably by William I’s son Rufus.]
1100, Henry, youngest s/o William I, became King; Robert Malet was there to witness his first Charter.
1104, in London, Robert Malet attested a writ of Queen Matilda.
9/28/1106, Robert died at the battle of Tinchebrae, France; the decisive battle in which Henry, King of England, defeated his brother Robert, Duke of Normandy.
Child: William Malet, born ~1070 in Eye, Suffolk, England. 1096, William was one of Duke Robert's companions in the first Crusade. 1110, William was banished from England by Henry I for participation in the rebellion of Helias, Earl of Mayne.
ii. Gilbert Malet (1080754272), born ~1050 in France.
iii. Beatrice Malet, born ~1055 in France.
~1080, Beatrice married William De Arches.
[Beatrice’s grant in aid to the village of Radingfield a source of the early family information.]

Grand Prince Yaroslav I of Kiev & Princess Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden

~978, Yaroslav Vladimirovich born in Russia, s/o §§Grand Prince Vladimir the Great of Kiev & Princess Rogneda of Polotsk.
988, Yaroslav’s father introduced Orthodox Christianity to Kievian Russia.
988-1010, Yaroslav, Prince of Rostov.
1010, Yaroslav moved from ruling Rostov to Novgorod near the Volga.
~1010, Ingegerd [Irina] born in Sweden, d/o §§King Olof ‘Skotkonung’ of Sweden & Queen Estrid of Obotriten.
1013, Yaroslav, Prince of Novgorod.
1014, Yaroslav refused to pay tribute to Kiev.
7/15/1015, Yaroslav’s father died, beginning a succession struggle.
1016, Yaroslav defeated his cousin Svyatopolk I, Grand Prince of Kiev, in battle at Liubech, who then fled to Poland.
7/1018, Invading from Poland, Svyatopolk pushed Yaroslav back to Novgorod. [The ‘Kiev succession crisis’.]
8/14/1018, Svyatopolk again assumed rule of Kiev. King Boleslaw of Poland [Svyatopolk’s father-in-law] left with his forces.
[––Yaroslav & Ingegerd––]
1019, Yaroslav married 2nd to Ingegerd.
1019, Yaroslav attacked Svyatopolk, drove him south, and defeated defeated him by the river Alta. Yaroslav again took control of Kiev.
1024, Yaroslav defeated by his half-brother, Mstislav , Prince of Tmutorokan. Yaroslav and Mstislav divided Kievan Russia. Yaroslav got the land on the western bank of the Dnieper, including Kiev and Novgorod.
1024, Yaroslav returned to find Kiev under siege by the Pechenegs; which he drove off.
1026, Yaroslav founded the town of Dorpat.
1030, Yaroslav founded the first school in Novgorod.
1030, Yaroslave founded the town of Yurev in the northwest; from which he gained control of access to the Gulf of Finland.
1031, Yaroslav, allied with Sweden, conquered Polish territories.
1036, Yaroslav’s brother Mstislav died; Yaroslav succeeding to his lands, becoming sole ruler of Russia.
1036, Yaroslav had a decisive victory in battle over the Pechenegs tribes, which had been raiding Russian for a hundred years.
1037, Yaroslav started the construction of Saint Sophia cathedral in Kiev to celebrate his victories.
1043, Yaroslav launched a [unsuccessful] naval attack on Constantinople.
1051, Yaroslav arranged for a Russian monk [1st non-Greek] to be named the Metropolitan of Kiev.
2/20/1054, Yaroslav died; buried in Saint Sophia cathedral. [Yaroslav’s 5 sons began a new succession struggle.]
(S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. (S) Russia, Borrero, 2009.
Child of Juraslov and Ingegerd:
i. Anne of Kiev (1272928373), born by 1032 in Russia.

Treasurer William de Breteuil & Lady Adeline de Montfort

2555189250. Treasurer William de Breteuil & 2555189251. Lady Adeline de Montfort
~1040, William born in Normandy, s/o 1272928378. William fitz Osbern & 1272928379. Adeliza de Tony.
~1045, Adeline born in Normandy, d/o §§Seigneur Hugh de Montfort-sur-Risle.
1060, ‘Guillelmus filius Osberti and Guillelmus filius Guillelmi filiii Osberti’ witnessed the charter by which William, duke of Normandy, granted Brenerias to the abbey of Bayeux.
[––William & Adeline––]
~1063, William married Adeline.
3/20/1066, Haley’s comet appeard in the sky at its closest point to earth, and was interpreted as an evil omen.
10/25/1066, William the Conqueror crowned King of England.
1068, ‘Willelmus comes filius Osberni dapiferi [steward of the king]’ made donations to Sainte-Trinite de Rouen, confirmed by his son William of Breteuil.
2/22/1071, William’s father killed at the battle of Cassel.
1072, William succeeded to the lands in France; his younger brother Robert [becoming earl of Hereford] inherited the lands in England.
1075, Roger, earl of Hereford [William’s brother], conspired with his brother-in-law Raoul de Gaël, Earl of Norfolk against King William. [Roger forfeited his lands in England and was imprisoned for the rest of his life.]
1077, William of Breteuil [among many others] listed in both of the abbey of Bec’s ‘pancarte’; one issued by King William of England, the other by King Philip of France. (S) Battle Conference, 1998, P182.
1078, Robert, s/o King William, rebelled claiming the duchy of Normandy as the gift of his father. Robert was supported by Robert of Belesme, William of Breteuil, Roger of Bienfaite, and Robert Mowbray. (S) Constitutional History of England, V1, Stubbs, 1889, P319.
1080, ‘Guillelmus de Bretolio filius Guillelmi comitis’ donated revenue to the monks of Saint-Evroult.
1081-2 at Breteuil, King William of England betrothed his daughter Adela to Stephen-Henri of Blois. (S) Aristocratic Women in Medieval France, Evergates, 2011, P14.
1087, Eustace III of Boulogne and his father, as well as Robert, Count of meulan, witnessed a grant to Bec by William of Breteuil [granting freedom of toll and customs.] (S) Norman Institutions, Haskins, 1918, P68.
9/26/1087, William Rufus crowned King of England; succeeding William the Conqueror. His elder brother Robert became Duke of Normandy.
1088-89, Robert, count of Meulan, claimed the Norman frontier castle of Ivry-la-Bataille in right of his father. The castle was held by William of Breteuil.
1089, ‘Ascelinus cognomento Goellus’ captured ‘arcem Ibreii’ from ‘Guillelmo Bretoliensi domino suo’ and surrendered it to Duke Robert fo Normandy, who resold it back to Guillaume de Breteuil for ‘MD libras’, triggering a lengthy war.
1089, ‘Willelmus de Bretoil’ witnessed the charter by which Robert III, Duke of Normandy, confirmed the restoration of the monastery of Saint-Vigor near Bayeux.
2/1090, William of Breteuil defeated by the forces of Roger de Toeni and Ascelin Gouel in which William and many other nobles were taken captive.
6/1090, Ascelin released William of Breteuil for a ransom of 3000 livres, and the agreements that Ascelin would marry his daughter, and Roger de Tony, his cousin, would be named his heir, and he had to give the castle of Yvery to Ascelin.
11/1090, William of Breteuil aided Duke Robert in suppressing a rebellion in the city of Rouen.
2/1091, Ascelin Gouel found an ally in Richard de Montfort after his brother Amaury de Montfort was killed by forces of  William of Breteuil. (S) Robert Curthose, Aird, 2011, P130.
1091, William of Breteuil fortified the monastery of St. Mary, near Yvery. [Roger de Tony and many other nobles had left on crusade.]
7/1091, Ascelin Gouel captured the fortified monastery of St. Mary.
1091-92, Ralph de Tony sought the help of his northern allies Stephen of Aumale and Gerard of Gournay. Ralph captured his nephew William of Breteuil, s/o his sister Adeliza.
1091-2, William paid a ransom of £3000-Norman, and forfeit of his inheritance to Ralph de Tony’s oldest son Roger [who would die leaving his younger brother Ralph as his heir].
1092, Robert of Belleme arranged a [short-lived] peace agreement between William de Bretevil and Ascelin Gouel. (S) Sussex County Mag., V11, 1937, P709.
1093-94, William of Breteuil and Ascelin Gouel continued to wage war.
1094, William of Breteuil paid 700 livres to King Philip of France for his aid against Ascelin Gouel. [William also supported by the clergy.]
1095, William of Breteuil commanded a great force that besieged Ascelin Gouel at Breherval. Robert de Belesme (756472972) was another commander of the siege forces. (S) Peerage of England, Collins, 1812, P325.
1095, After a 2-month siege, a peace agreement restored the castle of Yvery to William of Bretevil [which Ascelin would eventually get in right of his wife]; Ascelin kept the castle of Breherval.
1097, Duke Robert of Normandy [possible heir to English crown, and older brother of Henry Beauclerc] left on the 1st crusade to the holy lands with many knights and nobles.
8/2/1100, Henry Beauclerc [King Henry I] possibly complicit in the death of his brother King William II on a hunting trip in New Forest. Willima de Breteuil a member of the hunting party. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P154. [Henry’s brother William had been a very unpopular king. Henry left his body with servants and rode overnight to London.]
8/1100 in London, Before the coronation of King Henry, William of Breteuil, treasurer, had said that they should wait for the return of Duke Robert, Henry’s older brother, to do homage [4/1091, Henry, besieged at Mont-Saint-Michel by his brothers, had agreed to not be in succession in England or Normandy – though he would ultimately conquer both.] Henry drew his sword and silenced William.  [William was not at the coronation on the 5th.]
8/5/1100, Henry I crowned King of England.
1/12/1102, William died; buried at the monastery of Lire, Normandy.
(S) Peerage of England, Collins, 1812, P323ff. (S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Child of William and Adeline:
i. Isabella de Breteuil (1277594625), born ~1065 in Normandy.
Child of William and ?:
i. Eustace de Pacy, born ? in Normandy. [Natural son]
1103, Eustace married Juliane, natural d/o King Henry I of England.
2/1119, Juliane, d/o King Henry, married to Eustace de Breteuil of Pacy, attempted to kill her father with a crossbow during the assault of the castle of Breteuil. [King Henry had allowed her hostaged daughters to be blinded.]
1119, Juliane’s full-brother interceeded on her behalf with King Henry. Eustace allowed to keep Pacy.
1130, ‘Eustach de Britolio’ in Wiltshire.
2/1136, Eustace died; Juliane became a nun at Fontrevraud.

Comte Odo I of Blois & Ctss Bertha de Bourgogne

943-44, Odo [Eudes I] born in Blois, s/o §§Comte Thibaut II of Blois (b.913, m.943, d.975) & Ctss Luitgardis of Vermandois [Carolingian. See (9876543210).]
9/12/954, King Lothair succeeded King Louis IV as King of the West Franks.
964-5, Bertha  born in Burgundy, d/o §§King Conrad I of Burgundy [Welf, (d.10/19/993)] & Queen Mathilde of France [(b.941), Carolingian, See (9876543210).]
By 962, Odo’s eldest brother Thibaut killed in battle; Odo became the successor [his older brother Hugh became Archbishop of Bourges – died 986.]
975, Odo’s father died.
978, Eudes I, comte de Blois, Chartres, Tours and Meaux. (S) Coinage of the European Continent, V1, Hazlitt, P282.
979, Count Odo of Blois  issued a charter that concluded with the phrase ‘enacted publicly in the city of Tours.’ (S) Lordship in the County of Maine, Barton, 2004, P117.
[–––Odo & Bertha–––]
~980, Odo married Bertha [neice of King Lothair.] (S) Capetians, Bradbury, 2007, P42.
2/977, ‘Odo comes’ signed a charter of Chartres Saint-Père.
10/977, ‘Odoni comitis’ signed a charter relating to Bourgeui.
2/5/978, Property donated to ‘Sancti Petri’ with the consent of … ‘comite Odone.’
By 983, Odo’s maternal uncle Herbert ‘the old’ died. Odo and his cousin Herbert ‘the young’ shared the inheritance of the lands northeast of Paris [the Vermandois.] (S) France in the Making, Dunbabin, 2000, P191.
983, ‘Heriberti Trecassini et Oddonis comitis filii Tedbaldi’ were enemies of ‘Adelbero Remonis archiepiscopus.’
985, ‘Ottonem’ and ‘Heribertum’ made peace with the archbishop.
Aft. 985, Odo’s mother died.
6/8/986, Louis V ‘the Lazy’ succeeded King Lothair of the West Franks.
986, ‘Odo comes’ restored ‘villam ... Culturas’ to Marmoutier, subscribed by ‘Berte comitissæ uxoris eius, majoris filii eius Teutboldi.’ [Odo & Berte – Odo’s father and mother.]
986-7, Odo and Herbert part of the council of the Queen of France.
7/3/987, Hugh [Capet] succeeded Louis V [Carolingian] as King of the West Franks.
989, ‘Odonis comitis [Odo I], Rotberti filii eius [eldest son], Tetbaldi filius eius [2nd son], Odonis alterius filius [Odo II-Eudes], Hugonis vicecomitis Castridunensis, Raherii de Montigniaco’ subscribed the by which ‘Robert Vicomte de Blois’ donated property to the abbey of Evron.
990, Odo and King Hugh Capet made a peace agreement. (S) Fulk Nerra, Bachrach, 1993, P38.
991, King Hugh Capet gave Odo the county of Dreux. (S) Capetians, Bradbury, 2007, P77.
991, Foulques Nerra (1512882176) asked Eudes, Count of Blois, for permission to build a shelter for his hunting dogs on Eudes's land. (S) Road from the Past, Caro, 1996, P158. [Foulques turned the ‘shelter’ into the fortress of Langeais.]
992 at Orsay, Bouchard of Vendôme, and Geoffrey, count of the Gâtinais, engaged and defeated the army of Odo I of Blois.
4-5/993, Odo and Bishop Adalbero of Laon arranged a meeting at Metz with King Hugh of France and his son Robert, intending to take them prisoner [which was unsuccessful because the conspiracy was uncovered by the King].
5/20/994, Odo encamped at Tours.
6/994, Odo began a siege of Langeais, where Fulk was in personal command of the defending forces.
9/994, King Hugh of France supported Fulk’s campaigning by relieving the siege of Langeais by Odo I of Blois, who became ill.
995, Odo began a 2nd siege of Langeais.
[Undated], ‘Odonis comitis filii Theobaldi comitis’ subscribed the charter by which Ragnfred, Bishop of Chartres, donated property to Chartres Saint-Père.
7/4/995, Odo died; buried at the Abbaye de Saint Martin, Marmoutier, Tours.
996, Confirmation by ‘comitissæ Berthæ’ of the donation by ‘Odo comes’ of property for the construction of the abbey of Bourgeuil, with the consent of ‘filiorum suorum Teobaldi.’ [Odo’s elder brother.]
Aft. 10/996, Odo’s mother remarried to her cousin, King Robert II “the pious” of France. [Not approved by the church.]
998, Pope Gregory V called on King Robert to repudiate his wife on grounds of consanguinity.
1001, King Robert refused to divorce Bertha, and the kingdom of France was excommunicated.
9/1001, Queen Bertha formally divorced from King Robert.
8/1003, King Robert designated Bertha’s eldest son Theobald as bishop of Chartres.
1004, ‘Bertæ reginæ, Odonis comitis filii eius’ subscribed the charter of ‘Gislebertus prepositus.’
1005, ‘Odonis comitis, Ermengardis uxoris eius, Bertæ reginæ’ subscribed the charter by which ‘comitem Odonem’ donated property to ‘Sancti Petri.’
1008, Robert, accompanied by his 2nd wife Bertha, travelled to Rome to seek a divorce from Constance and remarriage to Bertha. [Which was denied.]
10/1010, Queen Bertha [Odo’s mother] and Odo accepted an invitation to the the court of Duke William of Aquitaine.
Aft. 5/1012, Bertha died. (S) England Under the Angevin Kings, V1, Norgate, 1887, P155.
(S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Child of Eudes and Bertha:
i. Eudes II of Blois (1279354120), born 983 in Blois. [3rd son]

Comte Geoffrey d’Anjou & Ctss Adela de Meaux

938-40, Geoffrey [‘Greymantle’ or ‘Greygown’] d’Anjou born s/o §§Comte Foulques II ‘le Bon’ d’Anjou & Ctss Gerberge ?.
~939, Adela born in France, d/o §§Comte Robert de Meaux et de Troyes & Ctss Adelais de Bourgogne (b.914).
11/11/958, Geoffrey’s father died.
9/960, ‘Gausfredi comitis’ subscribed the charter by which Aremburgis donated property to Saint-Florent de Saumur.
~958, Geoffrey married Adela.
6/19/966, ‘Gaufridus … Andecavorum comes’ names ‘patris mei Fulconis, matris quoque meæ Gerbergæ’ in a charter.
967-68, Adela’s father died.
971, Geoffrey helped the viscomital house of le Mans and the lords of Bellême put their relative in the episcopal chair at le Mans.
3/6/974, Adela donated property to Saint-Aubin d’Angers naming ‘seniore meo Gauzfredo comite’; subscribed by ‘Gauzfredi comitis, Fulconis filii eius, Gauzfredi filii eius.’
974, Adela died.
976, Fulk with his father at the court of Duke Hugh Capet at Orleans. 
By 3/979, Geoffrey married 2nd Adelais ?, widow of Lambert, comte de Chalon. [Adelais and Lambert had a son Hugh, count of Chalon. Geoffrey and Adelais had a son Maurice, half-brother to Hugh, and half-brother to Fulk.]
10/18/984, ‘Gauzfredi comitis, Adaleidis comitissa’ subscribed a charter.
985, Fulk with his father at Loches in the Touraine for the dedication of a church to St. Mary.
8/20/985 at Angers, Fulk attended a court of his father.
3/2/986, King Lothair succeeded by his son King louis V.
7/21/987, Count Geoffrey died during a siege of Marcon.
Family notes:
§§Comte Foulques II ‘le Bon’ d’Anjou, s/o §§Comte Foulques I ‘le Roux’ d’Anjou & Ctss Roscille de Loches.
Child of Geoffrey and Adela:
i. Ermengarde of Anjou (3025764387), born ~960 in Anjou.
ii. Fulk III Nerra of Anjou (1512882176), born 970 in Anjou.

Duke Richard I of Normandy & Mistress Gunnora ?

3025764384. Duke Richard I of Normandy & 3025764384. Mistress Gunnora ?
933, Richard ‘the Fearless’, born in Normandy, s/o 6051528768. Comte William Longsword of Normandy. [At his birth, William ordered his infant son be sent immediately to ‘Baiocas ... episcopo Henrico’ for baptism as ‘Richardum.’]
6/19/936, King Louis IV ‘d’Outremen’ succeeded Rudolf as King of the West Franks.
12/17/942, Richard’s father killed.
Aft. 942, King Louis IV marched on Rouen and captured Richard, who was taken to Laon.
942-43, Richard was freed by ‘Osmundus ... consilio cum Yvone patre Willelmi de Belismo’ and taken to ‘Silvanectis’ where ‘Bernardus ... comes’ protected ‘nepotem suum Richardum.’
942-43, ‘Osmundus’, in support of Richard, defeated the army of Otto I, King of Germany, after an attempt to capture Rouen in revenge for the escape of Count Richard.
944, Hugues, Duc des Francs, supported [temporarily] King Louis’ attack on Normandy.
945, Hugues, Duc des Francs, captured King Louis IV and helped Richard regain Rouen.
~948, Emma born in Normandy.
By 954, King Louis granted the land of the Normans to Richard [‘filio ipsius Willelmi, nato de concubina Brittana’]; becoming Richard I ‘Sans Peur’ Comte de Normandie.
9/12/954, King Lothair succeeded King Louis IV as King of the West Franks.
~955, Gunnora born in Normandy.
956, Richard betrothed to Emma, d/o Hugues, Duc des Francs [sister of future King Hugh Capet]. As part of the arrangement, Hugues Duc des Francs nominated comte Richard as guardian of his son Hugues.
6/16/956, Hugues, Duc des Francs died; succeeded by his son Hugh Capet [future king], still a minor.
 [–––Richard & Emma–––]
960 at Rouen, Richard married 1st to Emma.
960-61, Count Richard I accepted in Normandy a party of monks from Ghent which were given the site of Fontanelle where they began a house in honor of Saint-Wandrille.
961, Count Richard and King Lothair at war. King Lothaire captured Evreux.
962, On the river Deppe, Comte Richard, allied with his Viking relatives, defeated the forces of Thibaut II of Blois, who was allied with King Lothair.
By 965, Comte Richard suppressed the rebellion of Rodulf ‘Torta’, who was banished and fled to Paris.
965, Richard and the Vikings re-captured Evreux.
965, Richard ‘the fearless’ made a pact with King Lothair at Gisors; ending 4 years of war in the province.
966, Richard began using the title ‘marchio Normannorum’ [Marquis des Normandy] in the charter by which King Lothair re-established the community of Mont St-Michel. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P19.
968, Richard I recognized Duke Hugh Capet [his brother-in-law] as his overlord.
968, Duke Hugh and Count Richard restored the lands of the abbey of St-Denis. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P20.
968, Emma died without surviving children; her effects given to the poor and the monasteries.
[–––Richard & Gunnora–––]
~973, Richard married 2nd Gunnora [his mistress, d/o a forester] with the approval of his barons.
973, The Cathedral of Chartres burned during hostilities between Duke Richard and Thibaut II of Blois. (S) French Cathedrals, Winkles, 1837, P66.
~976, Richard I began the church of Benedictines at Saint Ouen [destroyed by fire in 1136]. (S) Arch. Tour in Normandy, Knight, 1836, P26.
977, Richard’s nemesis, Thibaut II of Blois died.
978, Richard I helped reconcile Arnulf II of Flanders with King Lothair. (S) Friends, Family and Allies, Tanner, 2004, P41.
~979, Richard I installed a community of clergy at Fecamp [a 7th century monastery that had been used as a prison. Richard had recruited Mayeul of Cluny, who declined saying the Normans were ‘barbaric and savage men, who destroy rather than build holy temples.’]
980, King Lothair, without Duke Hugh’s input, made a peace agreement with King Otto II of Germany. Duke Hugh called all his vassals together, including Count Richard, to address the terms of the agreement.
12/7/983, Otto II King of Germany died; leaving a 3-year old as his successor. King Lothair attacked Lotharingia; but Duke Hugh and Count Robert refused to participate.
6/8/986, Louis V ‘the Lazy’ succeeded King Lothair of the West Franks.
987, Dudo of St.-Quentin, a monk from Vermandois, and a visitor to Richard’s court, described him as an old man, tall, thick eyebrows and a long white beard. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P22.
7/3/987, Hugh [Capet] succeeded Louis V [Carolingian] as King of the West Franks.
988, Dudo of St.-Quentin sent by Albert, the count of Vermandois, to Richard I of Normandy requesting that he intercede on Albert’s behalf with King Hugh Capet. (S) Religion , Text and Society, Burman, 2002, P303.
990, Richard I self-styled himself as ‘count and consul’ in a charter to Fecamp.
3/1/991, Richard agreed to a non-aggression pact with Æthelred II King of England to prevent either side from sheltering Viking marauders. (S) Swein Forkbeard’s Invasions, Howard, 2003, P55. [991, Pope John XV wrote about this reconcilation in a letter.]
Aft. 6/991, Fulk Nerra, with King Hugh of France, Bouchard of Vendome, and Richard, count of Normandy, in capturing Melun and Chateaudun [where the defeated were treated severely].
992, Duke Richard allied with Conan I of Rennes (3025764386).
994, Duke Richard commissioned Dudo of St.-Quentin to write a history of the rulers of Normandy. (S) Medieval Scandinavia, Pulsiano, 1993, P144. [Richard’s illegitimate son Rodulf – ‘Raoul d’Ivry’, is named as ‘the relator of this work.’]
11/20/996, Richard became sick and died at Bayeux; buried at Fecamp.
1024-6, ‘Duke Richard [II]’ donated property to the abbey of Mont Saint-Michel, subscribed by ‘Gonnor matris comitis.’
(S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. (S) Fulk Nerra, Bachrach, 1993. (S) Architectural Antiquities of Normandy, Cotman, 1822. (S) Dukes of Normandy, Duncan, 1839. (S) Companion to the Anglo-Norman World, Harper-Bill, 2007. (S) Imaging the Sacred Past, Herrick, 2007.
Children of Richard and Emma:
i. Emma of Normandy, born ~985 in Normandy.
1002, Emma married King Aethelred II of England (3025764408). [See King Aethelred for her life details.]
Children of Richard and Mistress Gunnora:
iii. Richard II of Normandy (1512882192), born ~975 in Normandy.
iv. Maud of Normandy, born ? in Normandy.
1003-4, Maud married to Eudes II, count of Blois, gs/o Thibaut II of Blois [no children.]

Duke Conan I ‘le Tort’ of Rennes & Duchess Ermengarde of Anjou

~945, Conan born in Brittany, s/o of §§Comte Judicaël de Rennes & Ctss Gerberge de Hunebourg.
~960, Ermengarde born in Brittany, d/o 3025764352. Comte Geoffrey of Anjou & 3025764353. Ctss Adela de Meaux.
By 970, Conan’s father died.
973, Conan I married to Ermengarde [Conan’s 2nd marriage].
988, Conan I of Rennes killed Count Guerech of Nantes [succeeded by his son Alan.]
5/990, Conan I of Rennes seized Nantes, a city of Fulk’s (1512882176, brother of Ermengarde) ally Alan, Count of Nantes, who was killed in the attack. Conan crowned himself Duke of Brittany.
7/28/990, Conan gave the lands of Villamée, Lillele and Passille to Mont Saint-Michel.
992, 992, Duke Richard I of Normandy (3025764384) allied with Conan I of Rennes.
7/27/992, Fulk of Anjou  defeated and killed Conan I of Rennes in open combat at the battle of Conquereuil [about 40 miles north of Nantes]. Conan prepared defenses, digging of pits and filling them with water. Conan also built a rampart across the field, protected on either side by swampy ground. Fulk’s initial attack failed. Fulk called on his reserve forces, [he had a larger army] which won the battle. [Fulk did penance “for the great slaughter of Christians which occurred on the plain”.]
(S) FMG.
Children of Conan and ?:
i. Geoffrey de Bretagne, born ~970 in Brittany
992, Geoffrey succeeded his father.
7/20/1008, Geoffrey died. [Conan I’s parentage confirmed by the Chronico Sancti Michaelis which records the death of his grandson ‘Gaufridus Dux Britanniæ filius Conani filii Juhelli Berengarii’.]
Child: Duke Alain III of Brittany (b.997, d.10/1/1040).
Child of Conan and Ermengarde:
ii. Judith de Bretagne (1512882193), born ~980 in Brittany.

Comte Arnolf II of Flanders & Ctss Rosalie di Ivrea

3025764392. Comte Arnolf II of Flanders & 3025764393. Ctss Rosalie di Ivrea
9/12/954, King Lothair succeeded King Louis IV as King of the West Franks.
959, Arunlf’s parents married: ‘Baldwin [III], in the flower of youth most distinguished, with recently betrothed wife named Matilda, of Saxon descent, distinguished equally by nobility.’
By 960, Rosalie born in Italy, d/o §§King Berenger II of Italy (d.8/4/966). [Rosalie educated at the imperial palace in Germany.]
961, Arnolf born in Flanders, s/o §§Comte Baldwin III (b.~935, d.962 before his father) of Flanders & Ctss Matilda Billung of Saxony.
962, Arnolf’s father died of smallpox.
963, Arnulf’s grandfather, §§Comte Arnulf I of Flanders & Ctss Adele of Vermandois (b.~915, d.960 in Bruges) offered King Lothair the lands of Artois up to the Lys, Douai, and Ostrevant; for his protection of the succession of his infant grandson. [Arnulf I had William Longsword (6051528768) assassinated in 942. ]
964, ‘Arnulfus, filius Balduini ex Matilde’ succeeded his grandfather as count of Flanders. [Arnulf’s younger brother Adalulf received Ternois, Boulonais and the lay abbacy of Saint Bertin.]
[––Arnulf & Rosalie––]
968, Arnolf betrothed to Rosalie [known as Suzanne in Flanders].
968, Queen Gerberga (d.984), mother of King Lothar, in a charter returned the vill of Meersen to St. Remi of Reims ‘per manus fidelis advocati nostri Comitis Arnulfi.’
4/11/969, ‘Godefridi comitis, Ingelberti advocati, Arnulfi junioris marchysi’ signed the charter by which ‘Theodericus comes’ donated ‘Frilingim in pago Flandrensi’ to Saint-Pierre de Gand.
1/31/972, ‘Arnulfus … marchysus’ confirmed the possession of ‘Harnas … in pago Seirbiu’ to Saint-Pierre de Gand.
973, Arnulf’s guardian, his father’s first cousin, Baudouin Baldzo [de Boulogne] died.
973, Arunlf made himself Comte de Courtrai.
1/21/974, ‘Arnulfi … junioris marchysi, Herimanni comitis filiis Godefridi comitis, Wiggeri, Ingelberti advocati’ signed the charter by which ‘Godefridus comes et uxor sua Mathildis’ made donations to Saint-Pierre de Gand.
10/2/974, ‘Arnulfo juniore marchyso’ signed the charter by which ‘Theodericus comes et uxor sua Hildegardis’ made  donations to Saint-Pierre de Gand.
976, Arnolf reached majority and took control of his lands in succession struggle [killing one of his nephews in rebellion.]
976-7, Arnulf II of Flanders and Godfrey of Verdun attacked Hainaut.
977, Arnulf and Godfrey besieged and captured Castrilocum (Mons).
978, Richard I helped reconcile Arnulf II of Flanders with King Lothair and the surviving nephew.
978, King Lothair invaded Artois. King Lothair, to keep Arnulf neutral in the conflict, restored Arras and Artois to him.
5/981, Duke Hugh Capet captured Montreuil from Arnulf II of Flanders.
12/7/983, Holy Roman Emperor Otto II of Germany died; leaving a 3-year old as his successor. King Lothair attacked Lotharingia.
985, At Verdun, Arnulf’s step-father and half-brother were captured by King Lothair.
3/2/986, King Lothair succeeded by his son King louis V.
986, Arnulf II of Flanders performed homage to King Louis V.
7/3/987, Hugh [Capet] succeeded Louis V [Carolingian] as King of France. Arnolf helped King Hugues of France sieze power.
3/30/988, Arnolf died; buried in Gent [Belgium].
4/1/988, [Baldwin IV] ‘Baldwinus marchysus cum matre sua Susanna’ donated ‘villam Aflingehem … jacentem in pago Tornacinse’ to Saint-Pierre de Gand.
988, Rosalie married 2nd Robert II (1512882198). Rosalie was given Montreuil-sur-Mer by the county of Flanders as her dowry.
Robert II repudiated Rosalie.
Rosalie returned to Flanders and became and advisor to her son Baldwin.
6/26/995, ‘Susanna regina cum filio suo Baldwino’ donated ‘alodem suum … Atingehem … et in Testereph’ to Saint-Pierre de Gand, for the soul of ‘filie sue Mathildis’.
6/1/1003, ‘Susanna regina … cum filio suo Baldwino’ donated ‘alodem suum … in pago Flandrensi … in Holtawa … in Fresnere … in Clemeskirca … in Jatbeka … in Sclefteta’ to Saint-Pierre de Gand.
2/7/1004, Rosalie died; buried at St. Peter, Ghent.
(S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. (S) Friends, Family and Allies, Tanner, 2004. (S) Creating the Monastic Past, Uge, 2005.
Family notes:
§§Maud Billung, d/o §§Conrad I of Saxony.
Children of Arnoulf and Rosale:
i. Baldwin IV of Flanders (1512882196), born 979 in Flanders.