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Saturday, September 4, 2010

Duke Thomas of Woodstock & Duchess Eleanor de Bohun

3802866. Duke Thomas of Woodstock & 3802867. Duchess Eleanor de Bohun

1/7/1355, Thomas born in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, s/o 1477424. King Edward III & 1477425. Philippa of Hainault.

~1362, Eleanor born in England, d/o 7605734. Humphrey de Bohun & 7605735. Joan Fitzalan.

6/8/1376, Thomas’ eldest brother, the Black Prince, died, leaving a son Richard.

8/24/1376, Thomas married Eleanor.

6/21/1377, Thomas’ father, King Edward III, died leaving his grandson Richard as heir. [Thomas’ nephew.]

6/21/1377, Richard II, age 10, son of the Black Prince, succeeded Edward III as King of England.

7/16/1377, Thomas, age 22, created 1st Earl of Buckingham at the coronation of his nephew King Richard II [who was age 10 at the time.] Grant for life to Thomas de Wodestok, earl of Bukyngham, the king’s uncle, for supporting his rank, of £1,000 yearly … if Eleanor his wife, one of the daughters and heirs of Humphrey de Bohun, late earl of Hereford, die without issue … (S) CPRs.

1377, Confirmation for Thomas of Woodstock, earl of Buckingham, of grants … of £300 pension during the minority of Eleanor his wife; …, all during the minority of the heirs of Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex. (S) UKNA.

1377-79, Accounts of Thomas, earl of Buckingham, constable of England, of wages of soldiers engaged in 2 expeditions at sea. (S) UKNA.

4/1378, A naval expedition under the earls of Arundel and Salisbury. The fleet was attacked by Spaniards off the Breton coast.

4/1380, Thomas invested as a Knight of the Garter.

6/22/1380, Thomas, Earl of Essex, in right of his wife.

7/19/1380, Thomas, earl of Buckingham, named the king’s Lt. in France, landed at Calais with 5000 men, about half archers, from where he advanced on Burgundy and cut a path through northern France in minor skirmishes. Thomas besieged Nantes, but failed to take the town. (S) Chronicles of England, France, Spain … Froissart, P263.

3/1381, Thomas and his army returned to England.

1381, Thomas took part in suppressing the Peasant’s Revolt.

5/1382, Petitioner: Thomas of Woodstock Earl of Buckingham. The Earl of Buckingham and other captains … for the last voyage in Brittany makes 2 requests: … (S) UKNA.

1384, King Richard II created Eleanor de Bohun a Lady of the Garter. [The highest English honor a woman could receive .]

4/6/1385, Richard II granted Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet, a £10 stipend which Geoffrey received at Eltham “into his own hands.” [Geoffrey closely associated with the family of King Edward III.]

8/6/1385 at Hoselow Lodge, Tividale, Thomas created 1st Duke of Gloucester. [Thomas was marching with Richard II into Scotland.]

1386, Thomas headed the barons who forced King Richard to dismiss Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk as Chancellor. [10/1386 Chaucer was an MP for Kent at parliament and a supporter of the King, and testifying in the famous Scrope-Grosvenor trial.]

12/1387, Thomas, duke of Gloucester, defeated Robert, Earl of Oxford, at the battle of Radcot, a bridge of the Thames between Oxfordshire and Berkshire.

2/1388, Thomas the leader of the 5 Lords Appellant who secured conviction of the king’s councilors  for treason in the “Merciless Parliament”.

3/1388 at Shenley, Hertfordshire, Thomas godfather to Thomas Montague (3802862).

1388, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester requests that, whereas the King granted him £1000 yearly in maintenance of his estate of Buckinghamshire and £1000 yearly in maintenance of his estate of the duchy of Gloucester until he is provided with lands and tenements in England to that value, that the King grant him the manors, lands and tenements of Vere, la Pole and others now in the King's hand by reason of forfeiture. (S) UKNA. [In may Geoffrey Chaucer “surrendered at his own request” his pensions from the time of King Edward III.]

6/12/1388, Thomas 1 of 5 “Lords Appellant” in opposition to King Richard II. Grant to Thomas, duke of Goucester, Henry, earl of Derby, Richard, earl of Arundel, Thomas, earl of Warwick and Thomas, earl Marshall, of £20,000 on condition that the said 5 lords should Have this sum for their costs and expenses in saving king and kingdom. (S) CPRs.

5/1389, Thomas and the Lords Appellant disbanded by Richard II who declared himself of age. [In July King Richard made Chaucer chief clerk of all his works, which Chaucer held until 1391. This position kept him very busy.]

1389-90, Thomas made peace with King Richard.

1/21/1390, John of Gaunt and his brother Thomas appointed to the Privy Council of Richard II.

6/12/1390, Richard II gave his uncle, Thomas, duke of Gloucester, the reversion of the castle, town, lordship and manor of Okeham, co. Rutland, and the shrievalty of the county and the office of sheriff. (S) CFRs, 8/10/1419.

1391, Thomas made Lt. of Ireland. (S) Journal of Society of Archivists, V7, 1983.

10/1392, brothers John of Gaunt – Duke of Acquitaine , Thomas of Woodstock – Duke of Gloucester, and Edmund of Langley – Duke of York, met at John’s house in London.

1393-94, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, and Eleanor his wife to Pleshey College (John Kirkston, master): Conveyance by final concord of 15 acres of land in Pleshey and the advowson of the church: (Essex). (S) UKNA.

1394, Thomas accompanied King Richard II to Ireland.

1/1396, Thomas was strongly opposed to his brother John’s marriage to his mistress Katherine Swynford. [Eleanor was especially opposed because Katherine, of humble birth, then “outranked” her.]

7/11/1397, Thomas arrested by King Richard II at Pleshey castle, Essex.

7/1397, Thomas imprisoned at Calais, France.

8/17/1397, Justice Sir William Rickhill sent to Calais to obtain a confession from Thomas.

9/8/1397, Thomas murdered at Prince’s Inn, Calais, France; buried at Westminster Abbey, London. [Probably on the orders of King Richard II.] Thomas was smothered between 2 feather beds by John Hall. (S) The Lives of the Chief Justices of England, V1, Campbell, 1849, P127.


10/28/1397, Duchess Eleanor attended the wedding of Richard II near Calais, France. Eleanor was given a gold livery collar to wear to the wedding.

10/3/1399, Eleanor died; bequesting a large number of books in her will. [Her brass plate gives death as 10/3/1399, but these plates, which were added later, have often been found to have wrong dates.]

1/6/1400, IPM of Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester. Lincoln: … She died on 3 Oct. last. Her daughters and heirs are Anne wife of Edmund earl of Stafford, of full age, 17 years and more; Joan, also of full age, 15 years and more; and Isabel, aged 13 on 23 April last. Essex: … Hertford: … Cambridge: … Oxford: … Berkshire: … Hereford and the Adjacent March of Wales: … Gloucester and the Adjacent March of Wales: … [very long list.] (S) CIsPM.

[––Post Mortem––]

2/5/1400, Writ for IPM for fees of Thomas, duke of Gloucester. … Buckingham (8/15/1402): … He died on 8 Sept. 1397. Anne, wife of Edmund earl of Stafford, and Joan, of full age, 17 and 15 years, and Isabel, aged 13, are his daughters and heirs. Joan died seised of the annuity … She died on 16 Aug. 1400. Anne and Isabel were her heirs … Isabel was professed a nun of the order of Minoresses in the suburbs of London on 23 April last.

7/18/1413, IPM of Thomas, duke of Gloucester. York: He held nothing in Yorkshire. He died on 9 Sept. 1397. Anne wife of William Bourchier, knight, his daughter and next heir is aged 24 years and more. (S) CIsPM.

(S) The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women, McCash, 1996, P237.

Children of Thomas and Eleanor:

i. Humphrey Plantagenet, born 1381 in England. [Heir]

1399, Humphrey died leaving his sister Anne as his heir.

ii. Anne of Woodstock (1901433), born 4/1383 in England. [Eldest daughter]

iii. Joan of Woodstock, born 1385 in England.

8/16/1400 Joan died. (S) IPM of Thomas, 8/15/1402, Buckingham.

iv. Isabel of Woodstock, born 4/23/1387 in England.

4/23/1401, Isabel became a nun of the order of Minoresses in the suburbs of London. (S) IPM of Thomas, 8/15/1402, Buckingham.

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