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Saturday, February 29, 2020

Crusades and Crusaders

Chronology of the Crusades attended by persons in the Many Mini Biographies books. To find out in which book the various individuals have their biographies, search the “Index” post.

Note that there are many contemporary internal Muslim conflicts, as well as minor Christian-Muslim conflicts not described. An excellent book for these materials as well as an indepth description of the crusades is: “Crusaders”, by Dan Jones, 2019.

1063, Pope Pope Alexander II offered absolution of sins to knights “determined to set out for Spain.” The crusaders attacked the town of Barbastro, which was loyal to a Muslim ruler.
1071, The Byzantine forces of Constantinople were defeated by the Turks at the Battle of Manzikert.
1083, Alfonso VI (756441250), King of Castile and Leon, ravaged the kingdom of Seville, and continued south until he proclaimed: ‘This is the very end of Spain and I have set foot upon it.’ (S) History of Spain, Chapman, 1918, P72.
5/25/1085, Alfonso completed the conquest of the Taifa [al-Mu’tamid] of Toledo. [Without opposition from El Cid (756441258), who had opposed other Christian attackers.]

11/27/1095, at Clermont, Pope Urban proposed the 1st crusade; to start on August 15, 1096, with a new doctrine that the blood they shed would not be held against them. [Clerics were then sent throughout Europe to recruit knights.]
8/1096, From all over Europe Dukes, Counts, … with wifes and children … supported by knights, clerics, cooks, engineers, … left for the Holy Lands.
8-9/1096, Hugh de Vermandois’ (636464186) crusaders left France, crossing the Alps, then traveling to Rome, and then Bari. The army left Bari by sea. Many of Hugh’s ships were destroyed in a storm. Hugh landed near Dyrrachium. [There are reports that a greated part of his fleet was lost.]
9/1096, Duke Robert Courteheuze [s/o William the Conqueror (378220548)] set out on crusade. They traveled south to Lucca, then Rome, then the south coast of Italy to the port of Bari. Not having access to ships, they wintered at Calabria.
4/1097, Robert’s crusaders sailed from Brindisi to Durazzo; then overland by the Via Egnatia road to Constantinople.
5/1097, From Constantinople Count Stephen-Henri of Blois (319838530) wrote: “My Countess … By the grace of God … the city of Constantinople. The Emperor received me with dignity, … In this whole army of God there is no duke, no count nor any other person of consequence, whom he trusts and befriends above me. … your father my beloved gave me many great gifts, but this generosity was as nothing compared to this.”
6/1097, Duke Robert’s crusaders reached Nicea, joining a siege in process, while being harrassed by mounted archers of Kilij Arslan [who’s wife was in the city]. The city fell soon after.

6/1097, Stephen of Blois sent a letter home: “Count Stephen to countess Adela, his sweetest friend, his wife … I tell you, my beloved, that from Nicaea, which I have spoken so much about, we shall reach Jerusalem in five weeks, unless Antioch prevents us.”
6/1097, The crusaders divided into 2 divisions, taking parallel roads across Turkey. Duke Godfrey of Bouillon (319834740) was a co-leader of one of the divisions.
6/30/1097, Half the forces a day ahead of the other half encamped in a valley near Dorylaeum in Aisa Minor. The next morning they were attacked by archers of Kilij Arslan. Forming a defensive perimeter, they held off the attack until the Moslems were suprised by the arrival of the 2nd half of the force and had to flee, leaving behind horses and camels, as well as treasure. The crusaders then moved south. During this part of the journey Duke Godfrey was attacked by a bear, pulled from his horse and mauled before the bear could be killed.

8/1097, The crusaders reached Iconium in Asia Minor, closely populated by Armenian Christians. A small group broke away from the main force to attack Tarsus in Cilicia. The population was mostly Christians and the city surrendered.
8/1097, Traveling east, the crusaders engaged Seljuks at Heraclea, easily winning the city. The crusaders then divided their forces again, one part taking the Roman road that went shortest distance, but required difficult mountainous conditions; the other taking a longer, safer route, that could encounter early snowfalls. On the longer route with the main body of forces went to Caesarea-in-Cappadocia.
1097, Leaving Caesarea, they traveled through the mountains capturing small towns including Coxon. [From a letter of Stephen of Blois: “… we conquered for the Lord all Romania and afterwards Cappadocia. And we learned that there was a certain Turkish prince Assam, dwelling in Cappadocia; thither we directed our course. All his castles we conquered by force and compelled him to flee to a certain very strong castle situated on a high rock …”] Clearing the Taurus mountains, they arrived at Antioch [which Stephen of Blois said of it: “a very great city, stronger than one can imagine, and utterly impregnable.”]

10/1097 at Antioch, the crusaders 1st captured the Iron Bridge to seal access from the east.
12/1097-2/1098, Cold and rain prevented much activity. [A chronicler noted that by February, as many had died of sickness as had died in battle.] Stephen wrote: “We have suffered … throughout the whole of winter, from excessive cold and great deluges.”
3/1098, ‘King’ Edgar (638797314) commanded a fleet-based force that captured Latakia in Byzantium for Robert, duke of Normandy.
4/1098, letter of Stephen: “Count Stephen to Adele, his sweetest and most amiable wife, to his dear children, and to all his vassals of all ranks, his greeting and blessing. … the messenger whom I sent to give you pleasure, left me before Antioch safe and unharmed, … our princes, with the common consent of the whole army, against my own wishes, have made me up to the present time the leader, chief and director of their whole expedition. … after the capture of the city of Nicaea we fought a great battle with the perfidious Turks and by God's aid conquered them. Next we conquered for the Lord all Romania and afterwards Cappadocia. And we learned that there was a certain Turkish prince Assam, dwelling in Cappadocia; thither we directed our course. All his castles we conquered by force and compelled him to flee to a certain very strong castle situated on a high rock. … city of Antioch, we besieged it and very often …, we fought with the fiercest courage, … these seven battles by the aid of the Lord God, we conquered and most assuredly killed an innumerable host of them. In those battles, indeed, and in very many attacks made upon the city, many of our brethren and followers were killed and their souls were borne to the joys of paradise. … 12,000 picked Turkish horsemen suddenly came to aid the inhabitants of Antioch. … we attacked them at three leagues' distance with 700 soldiers, on a certain plain near the Iron Bridge. God, however, fought for us, His faithful, against them. For on that day, fighting in the strength that God gives, we conquered them and killed an innumerable multitude, … The emperor of Babylon also sent Saracen messengers to our army with letters, and through these he established peace and concord with us. … during Lent [a battle on the bridge] the number of Turks and Saracens killed is reckoned at 1,230, but of ours we did not lose a single man.”
6/2/1098, Count Stephen of Blois and his contingent of crusaders returned home.
6/3/1098, In a swift assualt through gates opened by crusaders that had scaled the walls at night, Antioch fell. The next day they were attacked by a Moslem army of Kerbogha, who laid siege to the city. [During this time they discovered the lance that was used to pierce the side of Jesus – which they saw as divine intervention on their part.]

6/28/1098, The crusaders went on the offensive and attacked, driving off the disorganized opposition.
7/14/1098, A Genoese fleet arrived with much needed supplies. [Although soon after an epidemic killed many crusaders.]
8/1098, The Fatimids of Egypt captured Jerusalem.
11/1098, The crusaders at Antioch began moving south.
11/28/1098, The crusaders captured and plundered Marra in Syria.
1/13/1099, A much smaller band of crusaders split off and marched towards Tripoli.
2/1099, Duke Robert with Robert of Flanders and Godfrey of Bouillon attacked Tripoli.
5/16/1099, The crusaders left Tripoli for Jerusalem.
6/7/1099, By way of Beirut, Acre, Tyre, Haifa, Caesarea, Arsuf, Ramla, and Jaffa, they came within sight of Jerusalem. The army was now about a third of what had left Constantinople. Quickly all Christians were expelled from the city. Count Raymond of Toulouse commanded the forces south of the city. The rest of the forces were north of the city.
6/13/1099, An unsuccessful attack was made on the city.
6/17/1099, Six Genoese ships arrived with wood and carpentry equipment.
7/10/1099, The crusaders had 3 trebuchets in place volleying large stones at the walls. Duke Godfrey commanded archers with burning arrows to ignite bundles of straw used by defenders to cushion the blows from the trebuchets. Duke Robert then used a battering ram to breech the wall.
7/15/1099, A siege tower was drawn up against the inner wall with Duke Godfrey on top. Soon after they poured over the top and opened the gates to the city.
8/10/1099, The crusaders defeated an approaching Egyptian army.
8/12/1099, The crusaders won the Battle of Ascalon.
8/1099, Duke Robert and his crusaders left the Holy Land to return to Normandy.
Ancestral Attendees: 80007784. Seigneur Gerard de Gournay & 80007785. Dame Ediva de Warenne. 318232094. Baron Ralph de Gael de Montfort. 319838530. Count Stephen-Henri of Blois. 319834740. Duke Godfrey of Bouillon. 378220862. Comte Eustace III of Boulogne. 636464186. Comte Hugh de Vermandois. 638797314. ‘King’ Edgar Atheling. 638798810. Baron William de Meschines. 756441632. Comte Baldwin II of Hainaut.

6/1101, Crusaders left on a minor crusade.
5/19/1102, The crusaders fought at the Battle of Ramla.
Ancestral Attendees: 159917968. Comte Stephen ‘Tete-Hardi’ of Burgundy.

11/1144, Edessa, the first of the crusader states, fell to Muslim’s of Mosul and Aleppo.
12/1/1145, The Pope in a bull known as the Quantum Praedecessores officially called for a new crusade. In the bull he promised protection for “wifes and children, goods and possession”, immunity from legal suit, and relief from interest payments on debts.
12/25/1145 at Bourges, King Louis VII (189110370) of France declared his intention to go on crusade.
3/31/1146 at Vezelay, Both Louis & Eleanor (47277569) “took up the cross”. Eleanor pledged “her thousands of vassals” from Poitou and Aquitaine. Organizing a crusade took tremendous effort and hugh sums of money. Eleanor and other ladies of nobility dressed as Amazons [Eleanor as Queen Panthesilea] and rode the country side recruiting support.
5/1146, Emperor Alfonso VII (189110312) of Spain captured Cordorba. [In 1123, Pope Calixtus had supported crusading in Spain as equivalent to crusading in the Holy Lands.]
1/1147, Emperor Alfonso captured Calatrava, Spain, a key fortress linking Toledo and Andalusia.
2/1147, Emperor Frederick I Barbarosa (189118300) took the cross of a crusader in Bavaria. Frederick attended the  crusade with his uncle King Konrad III of Germany [Konrad never crowned Holy Roman Emperor]. King Conrad’s crusader army left from Nuremberg going southeast to Regensburg, where they boarded ships to travel down the Danube.
5/23/1147, 164 ships of crusaders of northern European backgrounds set sail from Dartmouth, England, arriving on 6/16 at Porto, Portugal. They then sailed south to Join King Alfonso Henriques I of Portugal (94555154) who was besieging Lisbon.

6/1147, Eleanor accompanied Louis VII on his crusade, joined by the forces of Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor [of Germany] at Worms. However, the 2 groups were separated at Byzantium, the Germans preceding the French.
6/28/1147, King Afonso allied himself with the group of crusaders from northern Europe; guaranteeing them the plunder of Lisbon and the ransom of the captives.
7/1147, King Alfonso sent Infantry crusaders to storm the suburbs of Lisbon outside the city walls, while others were tunneling under the walls, and others were constructing siege towers.

9/7/1147, The German crusaders reached the town of Cherevach west of Constantinople. The army camped to await those trailing behind. They were surprised by a sudden storm that caused loss of life and supplies.
10/24/1147, King Alfonso captured Lisbon. A siege tower had successfully bridged one part of the walls, and tunneling had collapsed a 200 foot section of another part. [The European crusaders wintered in Portugal.]
10/25/1147, The Germans were ambushed by Turks [probably with help from the Greeks] at Dorylaeum. Most of the foot soldiers were killed or captured.
11/1147, Emperor Alfonso VII (189110312) of Spain captured Almeria from the Moors, a rich port city. [Lost again in 1157]. King Garcia Ramirez VII (189110314) of Navarre supported Alfonso in the campaign.

12/25/1147, On Christmas day on the coast of mode`rn-day Turkey, encamped by a river, a tremendous storm washed away much of the supplies of the French.
1/4/1148, The French crusaders fought in a battle at Laodicea against the Turks.
1/7/1148 in the area of Mount Cadmus, at night, King Louis’ rear guard was surrounded and attacked. The French suffered many losses.
1/20/1148, After additional battles, the crusaders reached Atalya. Louis decided to return to his water route. There was not enough money for ships for everyone, and he left 7000 infantry. [A plague killed many of the 7000, and those not killed by the Turks joined their ranks against the Greeks and helped take Satalia. Nothing else is known of their destiny.]
3/19/1148, The French crusaders reached Antioch.
1148, King Conrad III led the Germans in an attack on nearby Ascalon which failed.
4/1148, The German crusaders left before the French. They were carried in Turkish ships.
6/24/1148 at Acre, at a High Court of Jerusalem, King Louis VII, Emperor Conrad III, and Baldwin, King of Jerusalem met. The Council decided that the best move in defense of the holy lands would be to retake Damascus.
1148, At Damascus, due to heat, lack of water, and disagreements on plans, the seige failed after 4 days. King Louis sent most of the forces back. King Louis and Queen Eleanor stayed and visited various shrines.
Ancestral attendees: 39979516. Seigneur Maurice II de Craon. 40003892. Baron Hugh de Gournay. 47277568. King Henry II. 47277569. Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. 79958680. Lord William de Dover. 79958984. Comte Guillaume de Macon. 79959034. Comte Waleran de Beaumont. 94555136. Comte Geoffrey Plantagenet. 94555140. Comte William VI de Taillefer. 94555154. King Alfonso Henriques I of Portugal. 94555184. Comte Henry I of Champagne. 94555224. Compte Renaud II de Bar-le-Duc. 94555228. Comte Robert I of Dreux. 189118242. Earl William de Warenne III. 189110272. Comte Fulk V of Anjou.  189110286. Baron Renaud de Courtenay. 189110310. Comte Amadeus III of Savoy. 189110312. Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain. 189110314. King Garcia VII Ramirez of Navarre. 189110328. Comte Guy de Montgomerie. 189110370. King Louis VII Capet.  189110410. Count Thierry of Alsace. 189110448. Comte Renaud II de Mousson. 189110460. Seigneur Enguerrand of Coucy. 189118300. Emperor Frederick I Barbarosa. 189125120. Baron Roger de Albini de Mowbray. 243393932. Earl Roger de Newburgh.

8/1164, The battle of Harim, on the plain of Artah. The crusaders in the service of Bohemond III, prince of Antioch.
Attendees: 155917950. Seigneur Geoffroy III de Mayenne.

1179, Sultan Saladan invaded the crusader states in the Holy Land.
6/10/1179, At the Battle of Marj Ayyun Saladin’s forces defeated the French crusaders led by Baldwin IV with his army from Jerusalem. Initially winning some smaller encounters, they rested, and were then surprised by the main army of Saladan.
8/23/1179, The Battle of Jacob’s Ford, a crossing on the upper River Jordan, a historic passage point between the Golan Heights and northern Galilee, about 100 miles north of Jerusalem. Sultan Saladan defeated the forces of Baldwin IV, King of Jerusalem, and then destroyed the fortress they were building. About 800 Templars and crusaders were killed.

1184, Sultan Saladin laid siege to Jerusalem. Unsuccessful, Saladin made a truce with the crusaders that ended the fighting.
4/5/1187, Saladin’s truce expired.
5/1/1187, Saladin forces wiped out a force of 140 Christian knights near Nazareth.
7/3/1187, Saladin’s allowed his forces to be chased by a large Christian army united from over the area to defeat him. As the approached the Horns of Hattin [an extinct volcano], some of Saladin’s forces went behind the rear of the crusader army to cut off its access to water. Saladin also set brush fires such that the smoke drifted into the crusader army.
7/4/1187, The Battle of Hattin lasted about 8 hours, the crusaders suffering defeat in a fierce battle.
7-9/1187, Saladin captured Gibelet, Beirut, Sidon, Acre, Tiverias, Naxareth, Nablus, Haifa, Caesarea, Arsuf, Jaffa, Ascalon, Lydda, Ibelin, Toron, Bethlehem and Hebron.
10/2/1187, Saladin captured Jerusalem.

1189, The Germans, under Emperor Frederick I  (189118300) departed on crusade. They traveled overland through Hungary, Serbia and Bulgaria.
9/1189, The German crusaders arrived in Constantinople.
12/12/1189, King Richard I departed England on the 3rd Crusade. Richard commandeered 63 ships and ordered them to Dover to move his forces to France. The fleet was then to move to Marsailles to meet up with the combined English and French troops in 30 additional ship coming from Normandy.

5/18/1190, The German forces sacked Iconium [SE Turkey].
6/10/1190, Emperor Frederick drowned in the Saleph river. Many of the German army turned around, but a force of about 5000 proceeded to the Holy Land, led by Frederick’s son.
1190-91, The German crusaders spent the winter in Greece.
6/24/1190, King Philip Augustus left on crusade to the holy lands from France.
7/2/1190, The English and French armies met at Lyons.

7/4/1190, The French forces left ahead of the English forces. [3rd anniversary of the Battle of Hattin.]
9/16/1190, The French forces, traveling by ship from Genoa, stopped in Sicily.
9/22/1190, King Richard’s army arrived at Sicily.
10/4/1190, Richard captured the city of Messina, Sicily, after they had refused to let the English ships land. Envoys from the French forces met with King Richard I at Messina.
3/1991, The German cursaders reached Hellespont.
3/30/1191, King Philip’s French forces arrived at Tyre.
4/10/1191, The English forces sailed from Sicily.
4/1191, 24 English ships sank in a storm on the way to Cyprus.

4/20/1191, King Philip arrived at Acre and took command of the siege [multiple smaller and unorganized forces had arrived over the previous 2 years].
5/1991, The German crusaders conquered Iconium by siege.
5/1191, Richard captured Cyprus in a 15-day campaign, which he would use as a supply base for his forces.

6/5/1191, Richard set sail for Acre on the galley Trenchmere.
6/1191, When the English arrved, the French forces were already besieging the city. Seige engines were launching objects at walls, troops were trying to fill in the moat, and other troops were tunneling under the walls; but the various national groups were acting independently. Both King Richard and King Philip developed a disease that caused their hair and nails to fall out. Richard had his bed moved to the front where he could fire a crossbow at the city. [Many of the women participated in the assault.]

7/21/1191, Acre fell to the combined forces of the English, French, and Germans. Saladin’s city commander agreed to surrender for a ransom of 200,000 gold pieces, the release of 1500 christians, and the Muslim garrison to be given safe conduct.

7/31/1191, Due to the death of Count of Flanders and Philip of Alsace, and King Philip’s own illness, Philip left his 10,000 men under the control of Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, and left for France.
1191, Many of the forces, especially the Germans, returned home. Duke Leopold V of Austria, their leader, had been insulted by Richard over the flying of Leopold’s flag.
7/31/1191, Due to the death of Count of Flanders, Philip of Alsace, and Philip’s own illness, King Philip left his 10,000 men under the control of Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, and returned to France.
8/20/1191, King Richard ordered the slaughter of the Muslim prisoners, about 2600, outside the city in view of Saladin’s army. [Their stomach’s were cut open incase they had swallowed precious stones, then their bodies were burned.]
9/1191, French forces arrived at Arsuf.
9/5/1191, The crusader forces defeated Saladin at the battle of Arsuf. King Richard I led 2 charges of knights “carving a wide path for himself, cutting them down like a reaper with a sickle.” Richard suffered a non-serious wound.

9/8/1191, King Richard’s forces arrived a Jaffa to find it’s fortifications destroyed. [Richard spent 3 months repairing the fortifications at Jaffa and along the road back to Acre.]

1191, Richard and Saladin, at the suggestion of Richard, began to exchange gifts through emissaries. Richard became friends with Saladin’s brother.
11/8/1191, Richard was entertained at the tent of al-Adil, Saladin’s brother.
12/1191, Richard arrived at Beit Nuba, 12 miles from Jerusalem.
1/1192, Richard decided to return to Jaffa when they decided they could not begin a siege.
1192, Richard moved to Ascalon, on the coast south of Acre, and spent 4 months rebuilding its fortifications.
4/1192, Richard held an election for King of Jerusalem – won by Conrad de Montferrat. [Conrad was murdered soon afterwards in Tyre by members of the original Muslim “Assassins”, who had also attempted to kill Saladin.] Richard also named Guy de Lusignan as Lord of Cyprus.
8/1/1192, Richard conducted a sea assault on Jaffa, which had been recaptured by Saladin. An emir wrote, “We did out best to sieze him, but in vain, for no one escaped his sword.”
8/4/1192, Saladin’s army attacked Richard’s 80 knights, 400 archers, and a small force of lancers, camped outside the city walls. Richard lost his horse at the height of the battle. Saladin, watching from a hill, sent Richard 2 fresh horses.
9/2/1192, King Richard made a 3-year truce with Saladin when he agreed to let Christians have access to the holy places. Richard agreed to raze the fortifications built at Ascalon. [For this he would be captured while returning to England and tried for treason against the Pope, who did not support the trial.]
9/9/1192, Richard turned over command of the crusaders to Henry of Champagne.
Ancestral Attendees: 19989744. Sir Geoffroi de Joinville. 19989994. Sir Wydo de Croun. 20001946. Baron Hugh de Gournay. 23638804. Duke Waleran III of Limburg. 39924924. Lord Hugh de Neville. 39979008. Earl William de Ferrers. 39979486. Baron Guillaume des Roches. 39979516. Seigneur Maurice II de Craon. 39979488. Geoffroi de Joinville. 47277602. Emperor Baldwin of Constantinople. 47277612. Compte Thibaut I of Bar. 47277614. Comte Robert II de Dreux. 47280384. Lord Henry de Gray. 79958024. Lord Robert de Quincy. 79958120. Baron John ‘Fitz Richard’ de Lacy. 94499124. Comte Hugh IX de Lusignan. 94555164. Count John de Montgomerie. 94555182. Emperor Peter II de Courtenay. 94555230. Seigneur Raoul I de Coucy. 94555248. King Philip II Augustus Capet. 94559170. Count Ralph d’Issoudun. 94563028. Lord Osmund de Stuteville. 94563992. Baron Gilbert Pecche. 94564646. Lord Hugh de Morville. 135094284. Lord Gilbert Malet. 189118300. Emperor Frederick I Barbarosa. 243394002. Baron Robert Corbet. 243394008. Lord Richard Corbet. 378236428. Baron Bertram de Verdun. 378250680. Duke Hugh III of Burgundy. 486757632. Baron William Lovel. 486764626. Admiral Stephen de Turnham. 486787712. Baron Ralph de Sudeleye. 486794754. Baron Robert de la Mare. 973530162. Baron Robert de Turnham. 1512967104. Baron Gerard I de Furnivall.

4/14/1202, Baldwin (47277602), Count of Flanders, left on the 4th Crusade with his wife Marie.
10/1/1202, King Philip of Germany (94559150), the leader of the Ghibellines, allied with the Venetians, sailed on crusade from Venice against Greece with 200-plus ships [the Pope wanted them to attack Egypt; but many wanted to attack Greece for their disobediance to the Latin church.]
11/10/1202, The crusaders reached, then captured Zara.
1203, All the crusaders reached Durazzo, where Alexis IV [s/o Emperor Isaac II Angelus (189118302)] was received as their emperor.
1203, Meeting resistance, the crusaders devasted the island of Corfu. [About half the crusaders then separated, desiring to proceed to Syria rather than Constantinople. An agreement was reached guaranteeing later transport for the separatists to Palestine.]
5/24/1203, The fleet sailed from Corfu for Constatinople. They captured the island of Andros in the process.
6/24/1203, The crusader fleet anchored off the abbey of St. Stephen, 7 miles south of Constantinople.
7/5/1203, The siege of Constantinople began with a French attack on the Galata and its defensive tower.
7/17/1203, The Venetians, with a sea assault, captured 25 towers on the sea wall, and set fire to the buildings inside the walls.
1203, The crusaders captured Constantinople after a 3-month siege. Most of the crusaders returned home.
5/9/1204, Baldwin, the most popular leader of the crusade, with the support of Venetians, elected Emperor of Constantinople; crowned 7 days later at Hagia Sophia. His crown was valued at 62,000 silver marks.
Ancestral Attendees: 23640736. Emperor Jean de Brienne. 47277602. Emperor Baldwin of Constantinople & 47277603. Empress Marie of Champagne. 94559150. King Philip of Germany.

3/1208, Theodore I Lascaris (94555258) crowned Emperor of Constantinople [by the Byzantine empire].
1208, Pope Innocent III launched the Albigensian crusade against the Cathars in southern France.
1209, Crusaders fought at Beziers [July] and Carcassonne [August].
10/3/1210 at Tyre, Jean (23640736) married Maria Yolanthe, d/o Conrad de Montferrat & Isabella of Jerusalem, becoming King of Jerusalem. King Philip II of France and Pope Innocent III each provided a dower of £40,000 silver.
Ancestral Attendees: 23640736. Emperor Jean de Brienne. 39979486. Baron Guillaume des Roches. 94555258. Emperor Theodore I Lascaris.

1217, Pope Innocent III and his successor Pope Honorius III organized crusading armies led by King Andrew II of Hungary and Leopold VI, Duke of Austria.
10/19/1217, The cruaders captured al-Qasr.
11/1217, The crusaders raided the territory of Al-Adil I for food.
12/1217, John de Frienne and Bohemond IV of Antioch laid siege to the Ayyubid fortress on Mount Tabor.

4/1218, A German army led by Oliver of Cologne, and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I (47277604), Count of Holland joined the crusade, allied in Anatolia with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm which attacked the Ayyubids in Syria.
1218, Jean elected Supreme Commander of the various forces. [Strictly strategic, the forces did not follow anyone but their leader.]
6/1218, Crusaders began the siege of Damietta in Egypt.
8/17/1218, The fortress protecting Damietta fell to the crusaders.
10/9/1218, The crusaders repulsed a surprise attack by the Egyptians.
10/1218, Sultan Al-Kamil sent messengers to the crusaders offering to restore Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth to them if they withdrew from Egypt. Jean supported the agreement, but the military leaders refused. [Coins minted there bore John’s name.]
11/1218, The crusaders captured the port. A storm halted progress of the siege and the crusaders began winter preparations.
2/1219, The crusaders had completely isolated the city.
8/29/1219, The forces suffered an attack of Egyptian forces.
11/4/1219, The crusaders entered the city to find only 3000 of about 80000 remained, most of them sick.
7/1221, The Crusaders marched south towards Cairo, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack at Al-Mansurah by Sultan Al-Kamil resulted in a great number of crusader losses. Jean de Brienne was captured. In order to retreat without being slaughtered, the crusaders had to concede Damietta.
8/28/1221, The crusaders gave up Damietta in an 8-year truce, and John de Brienne was freed.
Ancestral Attendees: 19989530. Earl John de Lacy. 23640736. Emperor Jean de Brienne. 47277604. Comte  William I of Holland. 60849196. Baron Robert Fitz Walter. 94499124. Comte Hugh IX de Lusignan.

1219, From Lyon the Albigensian crusade began.
6/1219, Pierre (19989754), count of Brittany, the count of Guines, and Guillaume des Roches, seneschal of Anjou, at the siege of Marmande, which they captured.
1219, After failing to capture Toulouse during a 6-week siege, they returned home.
Ancestral Attendees: 19989754. Duke Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux. 39979486. Baron Guillaume des Roches.

By 1231, King James I of Aragon (23638794) captured Malorca. [James continued fighting and conquered Valencia in 1238 as well as other towns afterwards.]

1239, The forces of the Thibaut IV (23638796), King of Navarre, Count Peter of Brittany (19989754), Amaury of Montfort, the counts of Macon, Bar and Nevers, and many of the baronage of France assembled at Lyons.
1239, The French crusaders traveled down the Rhone and sailed from Marseilles to Acre. The King of Navarre was elected their leader.
9/1239, Saracen horsemen surprised their forces near Gaza. The Count of Bar and the Lord of Clerment were killed. Amaury of Montfort was captured.

6/10/1240, Richard of Cornwall (23640580) joined the 6th crusade. They stopped on the way in Paris where they met with Pope Gregory.
9/1240, Richard of Cornwall and his English forces arrived.
9/1240, After a truce with the Sultan of Damascus, the King of Navarre and the Count of Brittany returned to France. The French that stayed joined with the English forces of Richard of Cornwall.
10/8/1240, The crusaders arrived at Acre; fighting no battles, but managing to negotiate for the release of prisoners.  The crusaders arranged for the burial of Crusaders killed at a battle in Gaza in 1239.
1240, The crusaders then helped the Duke of Burgundy (94562670) rebuild the defenses at Ascalon, and secured Jerusalem for the Church.
6/1241, The crusaders returned home.
Ancestral Attendees: 9994808. Baron Hugh Wake. 19989754. Duke Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux. 23638796. Thibaut IV, Count of Champagne. 23638806. Comte Henri II de Bar. 23640580. King Richard of Cornwall. 30424578. Lord Richard de Grey. 47281996. Baron Hamon Pecche. 60835588. Lord Wischard Ledet. 94562360. Baron Robert de Thweng.

8/23/1244, Jersulem captured by a Khwarizmian army in the pay of the Sultan of Egypt. [Khwarizmians were displaced Turks driven from their homes by th Mongols.]
10/4/1244, In a battle near Gaza a gathering of the Christian forces in the Holy Lands was decimated by the Khwarizmians.

6/12/1248, After 3 years of preparation, King Louis IX (47281332) left Paris on the 7th crusade with his family and brothers.
8/25/1248, Louis and his forces set sail from Aigures-Mortes near Marsailles, where Louis had built his fleet of ships.
9/17/1248, The fleet of Louis, carrying 2500 knights, 10,000 men at arms, and 5000 cross-bow men, arrived at Cyprus. [Supplies had been sent ahead and were waiting when they arrived.]
5/13/1249, The crusaders left Cyprus for Damietta in Egypt.
6/23/1249, Louis, with a force of 15,000 captured Damietta.
11/20/1249, King Louis departed Damietta for Mansourah. A force of 500 under the command of Hugh, duke of Burgundy, was left to defend the city. [Most of the wives, including Queen Margaret remained in Damietta.]
2/1250, King Louis took his cavalry to ford the Tafnis river 4 miles from Mansourah [they had been searching for a place to ford the river for some time.] Once across, they engaged a small Saracen force. On pursuing, the crusaders’ vanguard became engaged by a force far superior in number to theirs. On retreating back through Mansourah many were killed. Putsuing, the Saracens engaged the main force of the crusaders who sent them in retreat. Hugh (94562670) arrived with crossbowmen; having been delayed while building a raft to cross the river. The bowmen forced the Saracens into a complete retreat. [Although the Saracens attacked the city again over the next several days.]
2/9/1250, At Mansourah, Robert of Artois, the king’s brother, had initial success against a small Egyptian force, even managing to kill their General Fakhr ad-Din. [Robert soon after was killed when he attacked the city.]
2-4/1250, While holding Mansourah, many became severely ill [plague] and they began to run out of food.
4/5/1250, King Louis led a retreat back to Damietta by way of the river during the cover of night.
4/6/1250, Louis defeated and captured at the 6-hour battle of Fariskur by Egyptian forces [Even though the Sultan had died, the Sultan’s family had hidden the fact to keep their forces from faltering].
1250, While Louis was captive, Queen Marguerite, pregnant, ruled the French on crusade from Damietta. When Egyptian forces appeared and starting building siege devices, Margaret requested a trusted knight to kill her if the town fell back to the Saracens.
1250, Most of the French barons, including Charles and Alphonse, brothers of Louis, returned to France. Louis and a handful of knights remained at Acre awaiting money from France to free the remaining prisoners.
5/1250, King Louis appealed to the Mamluks to release their prisoners as agreed in Damiettia, but they were in no hurry and only released a few hundred knights. About the same time an emissary from another region power, the Sultan of Aleppo, asked Louis to join him against the Mamluks, who had killed their leader, his possible heir, and had put a non-family member in place as Sultan. Louis used the offer of the Sultan of Aleppo to leverage the release of the remaining hostages and forgiveness of the remaining 200,000 livres ransom from the Sultan of Cairo, or he would join the Sultan against the Mamluks.
1252, Louis and the Sultan of Cairo made peace. Louis even agreed to support the Sultan against the Sultan of Aleppo. Louis organized a small army and relocated to Jaffa to join up with an Egyptian force. The two Sultans made peace, and Aleppo attacked the Christian town of Sidon in retaliation for Louis’ support of Cairo.
4/25/1254, Louis and his forces, needing only 13 ships, returned from crusade. On the voyage they were shipwrecked in a storm on a small island where Margaret made a vow to Saint Nicholas.
Ancestral Attendees: 11820368. Vicomte Louis de Brienne. 19989742. Viscount Geoffroi VI of Chateaudun. 19989754. Duke Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux. 23639786. Count Robert of Artois. 47279564. Earl Hugh de Vere. 47279584. Earl Humphrey de Bohun. 47281332. King Louis IX Capet & 47281333. Queen Marguerite of Provence. 94562670. Duke Hugh IV of Burgundy. 94567584. Baron William Longespee.

1258, The Mongols sacked Bagdad, killing 100,000 and destroying the largest library in existence.
1260, A Mamluk army from Egypt went into the field to challenge the Mongol invasion. The Christian forces in the area, holding a 10-mile wide area along the coast, let the Egyptian forces pass without interference.
9/3/1260, The two armies fought at the Springs of Goliath. The Saracens won, killing 1500 Mongols. The Saracens then pursued the rest and drove out various smaller Mongol forces in the area.

7/2/1270, King Louis’ crusader ships left the coast of Provence heading for Tunis. The emir of Tunis was in arrears to King Charles of Sicily. He was supposed to send 34,300 gold coins annually.
7/21/1270, Louis’ crusader fleet arrived in Tunis. After easily taking the port, they attacked Carthage, 15 miles from Tunis, but did not enter the city. Very quickly, a plague [likely typhus] decimated the crusader forces. Louis son, Jean Tristan, born on the previous crusade died with 10 days of landing.
8/19/1270 from Dover, Lord Edward (5909696) [future King Edward I] of England left on the 8th crusade.
8/25/1270, King Louis died on the 8th crusade at Carthage.
11/10/1270, Edward arrived in Tunis to find that King Louis had died, the crusader forces had been decimated by disease, and King Charles of Sicliy, his uncle by marriage, had already arranged a peace treaty with the emir of Tunis.
11/11/1270, The French crusader fleet left to return to France. There was a storm and 40 ships were lost.
By 5/1271, Edward moved his forces to Acre; waiting for support to arrive [which never came.]
6/1272, Edward attacked by an Emir, faining an interest in negotiations, with a poisoned knife. Edward was wounded in the arm and forehead. He was saved by the skills of his surgeons.
9/1272, Edward, leaving soldiers to defend Acre, began his journey home.
Ancestral Attendees: 2498706. Lord Thomas de Clare. 2498708. Baron Thomas de Berkeley. 4997408. Lord Roger de Clifford. 4997434. Baron William de Fiennes. 4997438. Count Hughes XII de Lusignan. 5908610. Sir Simon Pecche. 5909696. King Edward I & 5909697. Queen Eleanor of Castile. 7604736. Sir William le Brune. 8422406. Lord Walter de Gayton. 11819402. Lord Henri VI of Luxembourg. 11819892. Earl Edmund of Lancaster. 11819894. Sir Patrick de Chaworth. 11820102. Earl William de Valence. 11820104. Lord Robert le Straung. 15208896. Lord William le Latimer. 23638812. King Charles I of Naples. 23639794. Baron Enguerrand de Fiennes. 23640666. King Philip III Capet & 11819397. Queen Isabella of Aragon. 30424672. Sir Thomas Mauduit. 47281332. King Louis IX Capet. 60844608. Lord Roger de Carmynow. 60845680. Lord Robert de Ufford. 60845568. Sir Giles de Fiennes. 121670048. Sir John de Sancto Laudo. 121688174. Baron Nicholas de Segrave. 121691366. Baron Robert de Tibetot.