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Wednesday, August 12, 2020

Count Robert I of Flanders & Countess Gertrude of Saxony & Count Floris I of Holland and Friesland

 756441642. Count Robert I of Flanders & 756441643. Countess Gertrude of Saxony & 1512882962. Count Floris I of Holland and Friesland

Bef. 1028, Floris born in Holland, s/o §§Count Dirk III of Holland & Countess Othelindis von Haldensleben, d/o Margraf Bernhard I der Nordmark.

7/20/1031, Henry I became King of France on the death of his father.

~1035, Robert ‘the Frisian’ born in Flanders, s/o 756441098. Baldwin V of Flanders & 756441099. Adela Capet.

5/27/1039, Floris’ father died; his brother succeeding as Dirk IV, count of Holland. Floris’ mother returned to Saxony.

1039, Baldwin, Countess Adela [‘of royal descent’], their sons Baldwin and Robert, and Eustace I of Boulogne all witnessed the charter founding the abbey of Phalempin [north of Lens.] (S) Families, Friends and Allies, Tanner, 2004, P83.

~1035, Gertrude born in Saxony, d/o §§Duke Bernard II of Saxony & Duchess Elilka of Schweinfurt.

3/31/1044, Floris’ mother died.

1/13/1049, Floris I succeeded as count of Holland when his brother Dirk was killed at the battle of Dordrecht.

[–––Floris & Gertrude–––]

~1052, Floris married Gertrude.

~1053, Robert stood as the godfather of Baldwin I, count of Guines. (S) Anglo-Norman Studies, 1998, P157.

1054, William, bishop of Utrecht, began a war with Floris to recover lost lands.

1058, William, bishop of Utrecht, invaded Holland again. Facing a larger force, Floris had prepared defenses which threw the attackers into confusion allowing an easy victory. Floris captured the govenor of Gelderland, the count of Louvain, and the bishop of Liege. (S) France – Netherlands, Williams, 1907, P288.

6/29/1059, Gertrude’s father died, her mother surviving.

8/4/1060, Philip I succeeded as King of France.

6/28/1061, Floris I, count of Holland and Friesland ambushed and killed [while sleeping under a tree] at the battle of Nederhemert in the Netherlands; buried at Egmond. Floris’ son Dirk V succeeded as count of Holland.

[–––Robert & Gertrude–––]

1062, Robert married Gertrude.

1062, Robert named as regent of the county of Holland for his stepson.

1063, ‘Rodbertus, Baldwini potentissimi iunior filius, Frisiam subintrat.’

1063, Robert ‘the Frisian’ regent for his step-son Dirk V of Holland.

5/1064, William, bishop of Utrecht, granted a large part of Dirk’s lands by the Emperor of Germany.

1064, Robert, acting as guardian of his stepson and trying to recover the lands, defeated in battle and forced to take refuge in Ghent.

3/20/1066, Haley’s comet appeard in the sky at its closest point to earth, and was interpreted as an evil omen.

5/1066, King Philip reached his majority and took over rule of France.

10/14/1066, William the Conqueror [married to Robert’s older sister Matilda] defeated and killed King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, becoming William I, King of England.

9/1/1067, Robert’s father died; his older brother Baldwin VI succeeding as Count of Flanders.

7/16/1070, Robert repulsed an invasion of Holland by his brother Baldwin VI. Baldwin VI was killed in the battle. (S) French Under the Merovingians, Sismondi, 1850, P129. [Robert’s godson, Count Baldwin of Guines, fought with him at the battle.]

1070, Robert contested the succession of Baldwin’s son Arnulf. Countess Richilda and her son Arnulf sought refuge with King Phillip of France.

1070-71, William fitz Osbern dispatched by William I, King of England  to act as guardian of Baldwin’s son Arnulf.

2/22/1071, Robert’s forces captured Richilde, mother of his nephew Arnulf, at the battle of Cassel; but Robert was also captured [by Eustace II of Boulogne]. Each was exchanged for the other; and the battle continued. Both claimants to Flanders, Arnulf and William fitz Osbern his step-father, were then killed in the battle.

1071, Robert I succeeded as Count of Flanders on the death of his nephew Arnulf. [Robert was recognised as count by Philippe I, King of France, after Robert transferred Corbie to him, the arrangement being confirmed by the king's marriage to Count Robert’s stepdaughter Bertha of Holland.]

1072, As part of the peace agreement between King Philip and Robert the Frisian, Robert married his stepdaughter Bertha to the king. (S) Medieval France, Kibler, 2013, P221.

1072, At the instance of his mother Adela, Count Robert founded the priory of Watten near St. Omer. (S) History of Sacerdotal Celibacy, V1, Lea, 1907, P313.

1072, Robert le Frison added to the fortifications of the castle of Bailleul. (S) Bailleuls of Flanders, Bayley, 1881, P6.

4/22/1073, Pope Gregory VII succeeded Pope Alexander II. [Pope Gregory was against ‘simony’, the practice of purchasing spiritual offices, which was most prevalent in Germany at the time.]

1074, Robert defended Holland against Godfrey-le-Bossu, duke of Lorraine [who had invaded at the instance of Countess Richilda.]

1075, William, bishop of Utrecht, and his ally Gottfried, duke of Lorraine, both died; William succeeded by Conrad.

1075, Count Robert harboured a Danish expedition fleet of 200 ships opposing a fleet of King William of England, which was sent in support of Conrad, Bishop of Utrecht.

1076, Count Robert and his stepson Dirk V defeated the forces of the Bishop of Utrecht and was restored all of Dirk’s lost lands.

1076, Adela and her son Count Robert applied to Pope Gregory VII to clarify what they should do to those who did not comply with his reforms. (S) History of Sacerdotal Celibacy, V1, Lea, 1907, P312.

1077, Robert Curthose [nephew of Count Robert], in rebellion against his father William I of England, took refuge at Count Robert’s court. (S) The Normans, Crouch, 2006, P114.

1078, Robert supported Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, against the duke’s brother, William [the Conqueror] King of England, married to his sister Matilda.

1078, Count Robert provided protection for monks in electing a successor at Bergues-Saint-Winoc who was opposed by Bishop Hubert.

11/1078, Papal legate Hubert and Bishop Hugh of Langres excommunicated Count Robert. [For this activity they were rebuked by Pope Gregory.]

1/8/1079, Robert’s mother died.

1080, Count Robert issued a charter confirming the possessions of the abbey of Messines; witnessed by Eustace II of Boulogne.

1081, Count Robert appointed his candidate [Lambert] to the see of Therouanne. (S) Battle Conference, 1991, P275. This put Count Robert in [sometimes violent] conflict with Eustace II of Boulogne.

1082, Pope Gregory VII wrote a letter to Count Robert of Flanders [addressed as ‘our beloved son’], and the clergy and people of Flanders [Robert addressed as ‘the most noble count’].

1082, Count Robert was in a disagreement with papal legate Hugh of Lyons over the appointment of Bishop Lambert to the see of Therouanne.

10/1082, Hugh of Lyons and Amatus of Oloron excommunicated Count Robert for his offences [which included imprisoning 5 clerks attempting to appeal to Rome.]

1083, Pope Gregory VII wrote letters to Count Robert of Flanders, Archbishop Hugh of Lyons, and to all the bishops and principes of Flanders. [Gregory told the bishops to urge Count Robert ‘to penance and restitution within forty days.’]

1083-4, Robert, successful in growing Flander’s economic status, proclaimed a special peace associated with the county’s fairs. (S) France in the Making, Dunbabin, 2000, P212.

1084 at Gistel, The Canonization of Godelieve of Gistel performed by Radbod, bishop of Noyon and Tournai, in the presence of Gertrude of Saxony, wife of Count Robert. (S) Anglo-Norman Studies, 1998, P157.

5/25/1085, Pope Victor III succeeded Pope Gregory VII.

1085-6, Robert and his son-in-law Canute IV of Denmark [married to Adela] planned a naval attack on England. Robert promised 600 ships. (S) Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, Oksanen, 2012, P18.

7/10/1086, King Canute murdered, ending the planned invasion.

1086, Robert made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; leaving his son Robert as regent. [The 1st Crusade would not take place for 10 years.]

1090-92, Robert, returning from Jerusalem, entered the service of Emperor Alexios. (S) Medieval Expansion of Europe, Phillips, 1998, P32.

10/13/1093, Robert died.


8/4/1113, Gertrud died; buried at Veurne, Flanders.

(S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. (S) Pope Gregory VII, Cowdrey, 1998, P346.

Family notes:

Robert first organized the ‘peers of Flanders’ – vassal counts with responsibility for the defence of the the county’s frontiers; and had a full court with a butler, constable, sensechal and chamberlains. (S) France in the Making, Dunbabin, 2000, P212.

Child of Floris and Gertrude:

i. Bertha of Holland (756441481), born ~1055 in Holland.

1072, Bertha married King Philip I of France. Child: King Louis VI of France.

Children of Robert and Gertrude:

i. Robert II of Flanders, born ~1063 in Flanders.

1089, Count Robert II of Flanders appointed the provost of Saint Donatian as Chancellor of Flanders.

1096, Robert married to 3894121520. Clementia of Burgundy.

1096, Robert joined the 1st crusade.

9/1099, Robert returned to Flanders.

1102, Godfrey opposed the invasion of Robert II of Flanders into Cambraisis.

1103, Robert and Clementia founded Bourbourg abbey.

1103, Robert summoned by Pope Paschal to attack the cities of Liege and Cambrai.

1103, Robert a signatory of the Treaty of Dover with King Henry I of England.

1106, Count Robert supported the conquest of Normandy by King Henry I.

5/17/1110, ‘Rann. Meschin’ a part to a Convention made at Doura between King Henry and Robert, count of Flanders.

1111, Robert received his nephew, Charles the Good at court.

10/5/1111, Robert died; his son Baldwin succeeding; Clementia regent for her son.

1119, Baldwin died without heirs [starting a war of succession between nephews William of Ypres and Charles the Good, and William Clito, s/o Robert, Duke of Normandy.]

ii. Adela of Flanders, born 1065 in Flanders.

1080, Adela married Knud II, King of Denmark.

7/10/1086, Knud murdered.

1090, Adela married 2nd Roger, duke of Apulia.

2/22/1111, Roger died.

1111-14, Adela regent for her son William, duke of Apulia.

4/15/1115, Adela died.

Child: Charles the Good [aka Carl of Denmark]. 1119, Charles a contender for the title Count of Flanders. 3/2/1127, Charles, count of Flanders, murdered.[Starting another war of succession. 1128, After the death of William Clito, Thierry of Alsace would defeat William of Ypres to gain the title.]

iii. Philip of Loo, born ~1068 in Flanders.

1093, ‘Philippus filius Roberti marchionis cognomento Frisonis’ transferred rights to the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Loo, naming ‘fratris mei Roberti comiti Flandrie.’

Bef. 1127, Philip died; buried at Bergis.

Child: William of Ypres. 1119, William a contender for the title Count of Flanders. 1165, William died.

iv. Gertrude de Flandre (378220821), born ~1072 in Flanders.

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