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Saturday, August 8, 2020

‘King’ Edgar Atheling

 638797314. ‘King’ Edgar Atheling

1053-5, Edgar born in Hungary, s/o 756441102. Edward Aetheling & 756441103. Agatha of Hungary.

1056, Edgar’s father Edward recalled to England as heir to the crown by King Edward the Confessor.

1057, Edgar and his father arrived back in England.

4/9/1057, Edgar’s father died.

1064, Earl Harold Godwinson of Wessex and Hereford, shipwrecked off France, was taken to William, duke of Normandy, who made him swear to his succession.

1/5/1066, King Edward the Confessor died without a male heir.

1066, Edgar elected [but never crowned] King of England. Soon after, Harold Godwinson elected King because Edgar was considered too young to defend England against invasion.

10/14/1066, Duke William learned that Harold had been crowned King and invaded England, defeating [and killing] Harold at the Battle of Hastings.

10/25/1066, William I crowned King of England.

1067, King William holds a court at Berkhampstead, where he receives Edgar Atheling. (S) William the Conqueror, Douglas, 1964, P206.

2/21/1067 from Penvensy, King William returned to Normandy, taking Edgar Atheling and Waltheof of Northumberland.

Summer/1067, Edgar’s mother Agatha, with his sisters Margaret and Christina, returned to England.

Summer/1068, Edgar involved in the rebellion of earls Edwain and Morcar; fled to Scotland with his family [‘clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina’.]

1/1069, William Malet and fellow captains, Robert Fitz-Richard and William of Ghent, with 500 picked knights had to fight off a local revolt and siege of York, headed by Edgar the Atheling. Robert Fitz-Richard and many of his men were killed and it was only by the timely arrival of King William that the city of York was saved.

1069-70 at Dumferline, King Malcolm of Scotland married Edgar’s sister Margaret.

1072, King William invaded Scotland by land and sea and forced King Malcom to do homage. Edgar went into exile in Flanders.

1073, The Danes under Osbrorn invade England at the Ouse. Joined by Edgar, they lay siege to York. The Governor, William Malet was captured, and the the cathedral burned.

1073, King William breaks the siege of York, and Edgar again flees to Scotland.

1074, King Philip offered Edgar the Atheling Montreuil-sur-Mer. (S) William the Conqueror, Douglas, 1999.

7/8/1074, Edgar back in Scotland where King Malcolm was building a fleet to invade England. King Malcolm encouraged Edgar to return to France and accept the French King’s offer of the castle of Montreuil on the Normandy border.

1074-5, Edgar was going to Normandy, where King Philip promised lands, when his fleet was wrecked by a storm.

1075, King Malcolm of Scotland and Queen Margaret gave her brother Edgar Atheling “immense treasure”, and convinced him to renounce his claim to the English throne, and sent him to make peace with King William. (S) Kingdom of the Scots, Barrow, 2003, P279.

1075, Edgar travels to Rouen where he makes peace with King William. [Edgar given ‘a pound weight of silver daily’ by King William.] (S) Half Hours of English History, Knight, 1851, P343.

1077, King Malcolm again invaded England. (S) History of Scotland, V1, Helme, 1806, P71.

1079, King Malcolm again invaded the north of England in a raid that lasted a month.

1085, Edgar traveled to Normandy with King William, where they parted company. (S) General History of Scotland, V1, Guthrie, 1767, P276.

1086, ‘clito Eadgarus’ went to Apulia with 200 knights. [A pilgrimage to the Holy Land via Italy.] (S) Chronological Abridgement, Moleville, 1812, P138.

9/26/1087, William Rufus crowned King of England; succeeding William the Conqueror. His elder brother Robert became Duke of Normandy.

1087, After the death of King William, Edgar became an advisor to Robert, duke of Normandy, in his conflict with his brother King William Rufus.

5/1088, King Malcom attacked Cumberland. (S) Transactions – Dumfries, V21, 1910, P64.

1090, King Malcolm and Edgar invaded Northumberland; but forced to retreat by King William Rufus. (S) Roots of Stone, Allison, 2011.

5/1091, Malcolm with Edgar’s support invaded Northumbria again, besieging Newcastle. [King William Rufus  was in Normandy.]

9/1091, King William organized an ocean assault on Scotland, hugging the coast while moving North. Storms depleted his ships and supplies. The two armies met at Lothian. A truce agreement was arranged by Edgar Aetheling representing Malcolm, and Duke Robert representing William. Malcolm, for homage, was restored to his English lands, and given 12 gold marks annually. Edgar lost the lands given to him by Duke Robert. Edgar returned to Scotland. (S) Ecclesiastical History, V3, Vitalis, 1854, P9.

12/1091, Edgar returned to Normandy with Duke Robert. (S) Annals of England, 1876, P98.

1092, King Malcolm and Edgar travel to Gloucester to treat [unsuccessfully] for peace with King William.

1093, Edgar was sent from Scotland as an ambassador to King William Rufus to make a peace agreement.

8/24/1093, King Malcolm appeared at King William’s court at Gloucester to protest incursions by Northumberland forces in violation of the peace agreement.

11/13/1093, King Malcom of Scotland killed in the battle of Alnwick. Robert de Mowbray commanded the English forces. [Edgar’s nephew Edward, s/o Malcom, suffered mortal wounds in the battle.]

11/16/1093, Edgar’s sister Queen Margaret of Scotland died.

1094, King William II sent Edgar Ætheling in support of Scotland’s deceased King Malcolm’s son Edgar’s conquest of Lothian.

11/12/1094, King Duncan II of Scotland murdered; his brother Edmund becoming joint-King with their uncle King Donald III.

8/30/1095, ‘Edgari aederling’ subscribed the charter under which ‘Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum’ made grants for the souls of ‘fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi’.

1096, Edgar led an English army invading Scotland. He was able to dispose King Donald III. Edgar put his nephew [also named Edgar] by his sister Margaret on the Scottish throne.

1097, Edgar with Duke Robert attended the 1st crusade to the holy lands.

3/1098, Edgar commanded a fleet-based force that captured Latakia in Byzantium for Robert, duke of Normandy.

1099, The crusaders returned from the Holy Land.

8/5/1100, Henry I crowned King of England; usurping his oldest brother Duke Robert.

11/11/1100 in London, King Henry I married Maud, Edgar’s neice.

7/20/1101, Henry’s brother Duke Robert invaded England, landing at Portsmouth.

1102, Edgar made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

9/28/1106, Edgar, supporting Robert, duke of Normandy, taken prisoner at the battle of Tinchebray by King Henry I of England. King Henry released Edgar, who was not considered a threat, and was liked by the English people. [Duke Robert, also captured, spent the rest of his life in prison in England.] (S) Pictorial Hist. of England, Goodrich, 1856, P69.

1110, Edgar died in England. (S) Prose, Percival, 1826, P914.

(S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. (S) Pictorial History of England, Craik, 1848, P828.

Child of Edgar and ?:

i. Margaret of Huntingdon (319398657), born bef. 1110 in England.

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