1055, Gruffydd, “grandson of Iago”, born in Dublin, Ireland, s/o §§Cynan ap Iago, s/o §§Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig [killed 1039].
Gruffydd’s father died while he was young.
10/14/1066, Duke William of Normandy became king of England at the battle of Hastings.
1075, Hearing of the death of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in north Wales, Trahearn ap Caradog (f/o 79959639), a cousin, claimed the crown. Gruffydd landed at Aber Menai in Wales to make his claim. Gruffydd, in conjunction with the sons of Merwydd, sought the help of the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan, who provided 60 of 140 men, some from his homeland of Ireland. Attacking at Lleyn, Gruffrydd surprised and killed Cynwrig, a chieftain of Powys and ally of Trahaearn. Gruffynd, now able to enlarge his force because of his success, making his was south, met the forces of Trahaern at the battle of Glyn Cyfing [later called the “Bloody acre”]. Trahaearn, defeated, losing more than 1000, retreated to Arwystli. (S) Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1874, P137.
~1065, Angharad born in Wales, d/o §§Owain ab Edwin.
1075, Gruffydd ap Cynan made a raid on the new Norman castle at Rhuddlan [built in 1073], destroyed it outerworks, and killed many of the defenders, starting a war between the Normans and Welsh.
52 of Gruffydd’s Irish soldiers were killed while they slept at Lleyn. Gruffydd withdrew to the cantref of Arfon. Soon after Gruffydd was surprised by the forces of Traheaern, and Gruffyd retreated to Wexford, Ireland.
1076-81, Trahaearn, the chief ruler of Gwynedd, was constantly harrased at sea by Gruffydd, and by land and sea by the Normans.
1081, Sailing from Waterford, Gruffydd, with his won Welsh supporters, and Irish and Danes in his contingent, met up with Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of Deheubarth at Port Clais.
1081, The forces of Gruffydd ap Cynan and Rhys ap Tewdwr met at the battle of Mynydd Carn the forces of Thahaearn, Meilyr, and Caradog ap Gruffydd. Attacking by surprise at dusk, the battle was quickly won. All three leaders of the opposition forces were killed.
1081, Under a ruse, Earl Roger of Montgomery (639664140) took Gruffydd ap Cynan, ruler of north Wales, captive at Rhug in Edeyrnion and confined him at Chester. [Apparently escaping about a year later, returning to Ireland.]
9/1087, William the Conqueror died.
1094, William Rufus left England for Normandy; and a Welsh uprising against their Normal rulers began. Gruffydd ap Cynan, with support of Godred Crowan, king of Man, attacked, unsuccessfully, the Norman garrison at Aber Leiniog. Landing again at Nevin, and gathering additional men from Gwynedd, Gruffydd captured the castle and killed 120 knights.
[––Gruffydd & Angharad––]
~1095, Gruffydd married Angharad.
1095, William Rufus had to leave the Welsh problem alone because of the rebellion of Robert, earl of Northumberland and Roger de Lacy.
10/1095, The English invaded north Wales with little success and retreated before winter.
1096, Gruffydd and Ifor routed an English contingent at Aber Llech.
1098, Gruffydd and Cadwgan ap Bleddy, having harrassed the English in 1097, retreated to the isle of Anglesey. Attacked by combined forces of the earl of Northumberland and Shrewsbury, the Welsh retreated to Ireland. While the English occupied the island, it came under attack by Magnus Barefoot, king of Norway.
1099, Gruffydd and Cadwgan returned to Wales; Gruffydd recovering Mon.
8/2/1100, Henry I crowned King of England.
7/27/1101, Gruffydd’s adversary, Hugh d’Avaranches, earl of Chester, “the fat”, died. Gruffydd eventually regained 7 cantrefs west of the Conway and north of the Mawddach.
7/1114, King Henry I led his first invasion in Wales against Gruffydd and Owain of Powys. Gruffydd came to terms with the king.
1116, Gruffydd attempted to capture Gruffydd ap Rhys, who was in revolt against the English.
1120, Gryffydd ap Cynan procured the election of David, and Irish clerk, as bishop at Bangor.
1136, Gruffydd and his sons went to a Great Eisteddfod, a festival which lasted 40 days, held by Gruffudd ap Rhys.
1137, Gruffydd, now blind, died; buried in the presbytery of Bangor Cathedral. He left money to many churches including the Danish foundation of Christ Church, Dublin, where he attended as a youth. [By the timeline, Gruffydd lived to age 81.]
(S) A History of Wales from the Earliest Times, V2, Lloyd, 1912.
1033, Iago ap Idwal, great grandson of Idwal the Bald was chosen to rule over Gwynedd.
1039, Gruffydd’s grandfather, Iago ap Idwal, assassinated by his own men. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ap Seisyll became the ruler.
Angharad a granddaughter of King Sitric of the Silken Beard (d.1042) of Scandinavia, who held lands in Dublin.
Gruffydd’s maternal grandfather was Olaf.
Children of Gruffydd and Angharad: [3 sons, 5 daughters]
i. Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, born ? in Wales/Ireland.
ii. Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd (79958920), born ~1100 in Wales.
iii. Gwenllian ap Gruffydd, born ? in Wales.
Gwenllian married Gruffydd ap Rhys.
1135, Gwenllian and her son died while attacking Maurice de Londres (189118312) at Oystermouth. (S) Inv. of Ancient Monuments in Wales, V5, 1917, P47.
Son: Lord Rhys ap Gruffydd.
1159, Rhys captured Kidwelly castle. Rhys recognized by King Henry II as ruler of the region.
iv. Susanna verch Gruffydd (79958923), born ~1120 in Wales.