1031, Malcolm Caenmore [Bighead] born in Scotland, s/o 756441100. King Duncan I Mac Crinan & 756441101. Sybilla of Siward.
~1040, Ingibiorg born in Norway, d/o §§Finn Arnesson. (S) Kingship and Unity, Barrow, 1981, P27.
1040, Hardicanute became king of both Denmark and England.
8/15/1040, Mac Bethad mac Findlaích [‘Macbeth’ of Shakespeare’s fame] killed Malcolm’s father in battle and became King of Scotland. [MacBeth of Moray’s claim was based on being step-father of Lulach.]
4/3/1043, Edward the Confessor became King of England, succeeding Hardicanute.
1045, Malcolm’s grandfather Crinan, lay-abbot of Dunkeld, killed attempting to overthrow Macbeth. Malcolm went into in exile in England.
Ingibiorg 1st married to Thorfinn of Norway. (S) Kingship and Unity, Barrow, 1981, P27.
~1050, Margaret born in Hungary, d/o 756441102. King Edward Aetheling & 756441103. Agatha of Hungary.
7/27/1054, Malcolm and Siward, Earl of Northumbria, defeated the forces of Macbeth in battle north of the Tay in Perthshire. Malcolm was created ruler of the Lothians and Strathclyde [Cumbria] by King Edward the Confessor. [Macbeth lost 3000 men, and Malcolm 1500. Siward’s son Osbert was killed.]
1055, Siward, Earl of Northumbria, died; replaced by Tostig, brother of Harold Godwinson, earl of Wessex.
1056, A Norwegian fleet sent against England was destroyed by a storm at sea. This weakened MacBeth’s contol of Scotland.
2/1057, Margaret’s father died; her brother nominated as heir apparent by King Edward the Confessor.
1057, Margaret and Edgar returned to England from Hungary at the call of King Edward the confessor.
8/15/1057 at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, Malcolm killed Macbeth and his son in battle. Macbeth’s stepson Lulach succeeded.
4/23/1058, Malcolm killed Lulach at Essier, Strathbogie [Huntley].
4/25/1058 at Scone abbey, Perthshire, Malcolm crowned King of Scotland.
5/23/1059, Philip I crowned King of France.
1059, King Malcom visited King Edward the Confessor at Gloucester. [And likely 1st met Margaret.] (S) English Monarch Series, I3, Barlow, 1984, P203.
1061, Malcolm, breaking his alliance with Tostig who was on pilgrimage, invaded Northumbria plundering Lindisfarne.
1062, Malcolm abolished the ancient tenure system by which a 2nd son inherited from his father. (S) Dictionary of Dates, Haydn, 1841, P78.
1062, Malcolm created Walter as the 1st lord high steward [Dapifer] of Scotland [founder of the house of Stewart]. (S) Ancient House of Drummond, Malcom, 1808, P13.
1063, Malcolm moved his court from Abernethy to Dumfermline. (S) Scottish Nation, V3, Anderson, 1877, P93.
10/1063, Morthlach erected by Malcolm Canmore into an episcopal monastery. (S) Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, Wilkins, 1873, P154.
1064, On the death of Thorfinn Sigurdsson of Norway, Malcolm obtained possession [disputed] of the entire Scottish mainland. (S) Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, Wilson, 2013, P206.
[––Malcolm & Ingibiorg––]
1064, Malcolm 1st married to Ingibiorg, widow of Thorfinn of Norway. (S) Kingship and Unity, Barrow, 1981, P27.
1065, Tostig, earl of Northumbria, exiled by a revolt, took refuge at Malcom’s court. (S) History of Scotland, Fry, 2002, P16.
1/5/1066, Kind Edward the Confessor died without a male heir; Harold Godwinson elected King of England because Edgar was considered too young to defend England against invasion.
Aft. 8/14/1066 on the death of King Harold at the battle of Hastings, Edgar Atheling, brother of Margaret, was a elected King of England in London. [Edgar, never crowned, eventually submitted to King William I.]
9/23/1066, King William defeated and killed Tostig, and King Hardrada of Norway, ending Malcom’s alliance with the Norwegians and their attempts to conquer England.
10/25/1066, William I, duke of Normandy, crowned King of England
7/1067, Edgar, as a potential heir to the English throne, and his sister Margaret fled to Scotland, where many Saxons had already gone due to the civil war; and which was the land of their friend, King Malcolm.
1068, Malcolm granted refuge to English exiles fleeing King William I. [Who was violently suppressing revolts in the north of England.] The exiles included Margaret, her brother Edgar, and their mother Agatha.
1069, Gospatrick, who had claims on the earldoms of Cumbria and Northumbria, took refuge at Malcom’s court. (S) History of Scotland, Fry, 2002, P16.
1069, King William granted Cumberland to Ranulph de Meschines [eventual earl of Chester], dispossessing Malcolm for harboring English refugees. (S) Gentleman’s Mag., V125, 1819, P404.
~1069, Ingibiorg died.
[––Malcolm & Margaret––]
1069-70 at Dumferline, Malcolm married Margaret.
1070, King Malcolm of Scotland invaded northern England, attacking Northumberland from the north west. Malcolm marched through Teesdale, invading as far south as Castle Howard in Yorks, “displaying savage cruelty.” (S) History of Scotland, V1, Lang. [Malcolm supposedly spared only the young men and women whom he enslaved.]
1071, Malcolm invaded Cumberland and discovered that the lands were mostly undefended. (S) History of Scotland, Fry, 1985, P53.
1072, Queen Margaret invited the Benedictine order to establish a monastery at Dunfermline.
1072 at Stirling, Malcolm’s army met William the Conqueror’s who was invading Scotland. William’s was so much larger that Malcolm chose homage over battle. [The beginnings of England’s claim to the throne of Scotland.]
8/1072 at Abernethy, Malcolm perfomed homage to King William and provided hostages including his son Duncan.
1073, Edgar, brother of Margaret, returned to Scotland from Normandy. King Malcolm encourage him to accept the offer of the French King of the castle of Montreuil on the border with Normandy.
1074, Malcolm refortified the castle at Edinburgh.
1074, Malcolm constructed a fleet to invade England. Edgar Atheling was given command of the fleet, which was destroyed in a storm.
1075, Malcolm and Margaret gave Edgar Atheling “immense treasure”, convinced him to renounce his claim to the English throne, and sent him to make peace with King William. (S) Kingdom of the Scots, Barrow, 2003, P279.
1076, Queen Margaret held a provincial council of laity and clergy where a ‘national confession of faith’ was framed at a place near Scone. (S) Annals of Scotland, Dairymple, 1797, P199.
1076, Malcolm invaded Northumbria and devastated the lands as far as the river Tyne. Malcolm defeated English forces at Hunderskelde, and on the river Derwent. (S) History of Scotland, V1, Buchanan, P341.
1077, Malcolm again invaded England. (S) History of Scotland, V1, Helme, 1806, P71.
1077, King Malcolm suppressed a revolt in Moray. (S) History of Scotland, Brown, P47.
1078, Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Máel Snechtai, all his treasures, and his cattle. [Máel Snechtai a son of Lulach who was in rebellion.] (S) History of the Norman Conquest, Freeman, 1876, P658.
1079, Malcolm again invaded the north of England in a raid that lasted a month.
1080, King William of England sent his son Robert, duke of Normandy, into Scotland. King Malcom again gave homage to gain a peace agreement.
1081, Robert, duke of Normandy, built a new castle on the Tyne as an outpost of English sovereignty.
1085, Malcolm’s son Donald killed in battle.
9/9/1087, King William of England died; his son William Rufus succeeding in England.
1087, Malcolm’s son and heir Duncan released by Robert, duke of Normandy.
5/1088, King Malcom attacked Cumberland. (S) Transactions – Dumfries, V21, 1910, P64.
1090, King Malcom introduced the fuedal system into Scotland. (S) Universal History, V6, Ramsay, 1819, P264. [Before this there were no written charters or titles in Scotland.]
5/1091, Malcolm with Edgar’s support invaded Northumbria again, besieging Newcastle. [King William II was in Normandy.]
8/1091, King William II and his brother Duke Robert of Normandy returned to England to confront Malcolm.
9/1091, King William organized an ocean assault, hugging the coast while moving North. Storms depleted his ships and supplies. The two armies met at Lothian. A truce agreement was arranged by Edgar Aetheling representing Malcolm, and Duke Robert representing William. Malcolm, for homage, was restored to his English lands, and given 12 gold marks annually.
1092, King Malcolm held Cumberland “not legally, but by conquest.” (S) History of Scotland, V1, Lang, P1035.
1092, King William erected a castle at Carlisle, which was opposed by King Malcolm as an encroachment on Cumberland. A meeting of the King’s was arranged to discuss the issues.
1093, Malcolm travelled into England, going to Gloucester.
1093, Malcolm visited his daughter Edith at Wilton abbey.
8/24/1093, Malcolm appeared at King William’s court at Gloucester to protest incursions by Northumberland forces in violation of the peace agreement, as well as not receiving payments. King William refused to see William.
1093, in response to William II’s bringing Cumberland and Westmorland under English rule, Malcolm besieged Alnwick castle in Northumberland.
11/13/1093, Malcom killed in the battle of Alnwick, Northumbia by Morel of Banborough, steward and kinsman of Robert de Mowbray, earl of Northumberland; buried at Tynemouth St. Albans. [Malcolm’s son Edward wounded and died soon after the battle.]
11/16/1093, Margaret died soon after hearing of the death of her husband and son; buried at Dumferline abbey.
(S) Epistolæ. (S) Conqueror’s Son, Lack, 2007. (S) People of Medieval Scotland.
Margaret introduced the English language into the court in place of the Gaelic spoken by her husband. She set the agenda for the church in Scotland, and as a result, the Roman church made inroads into the Celtic Church in the north of the country. Margaret was canonised by the Pope in 1251. St. Margaret’s Chapel in Edinburgh Castle is the oldest surviving building there, and was constructed by King David I, Margaret’s son.
Children of Malcom and Ingibiorg:
i. King Duncan II (378258580); born 1065 in England.
ii. Donald; born ? in England.
1085, Donald killed in battle.
Children of Malcom and Margaret: [6 sons, 2 daughters]
i. Edward of Scotland; born ? in England.
11/13/1093, Edward wound at the battle of Alnwick; died son after of his wounds.
ii. Maud of Scotland (189110275), born ~1082 in Scotland.
iii. King David I of Scotland (319832120), born 1084 in Scotland. [4th son]
iv. Mary of Scotland (378220863), born ~1087 in Scotland.