~1142, William born in Scotland, s/o 159916060. Henry of Scotland & 159916061. Ada de Warenne.
6/12/1152, William made the Earl of Northumbria on the day his father was buried.
5/24/1153, Malcolm IV succeeded King David I of Scotland.
12/19/1154, Henry II crowned king of England.
~1157, Mistress ‘Isabel’ Avenel born in Scotland, d/o 39979814. Robert Avenell & 399798145. Eva ? [‘Isabel’ assumed from name of daughter.]
1157, William had to give up the Earl title to King Henry II.
6/24/1158, At the castle of Roxburgh, Malcolm, King of the Scots, to the bishops, abbots, earls, … to Walter fitz Alan my steward … Witnesses, … William and David, the King’s brothers, Earl Gospatrick, Earl Duncan, Richard de Moreville, … Robert de Brus, … (S) Charters and Doc’s Relating to the Burgh of Paisley, 1902, P3.
1159, King Henry II, with the support of Malcolm IV of Scotland and William attending, attacked Toulouse, which Henry claimed by right of his wife. (S) Anglo-Norman Studies XII, 1989, P197.
1160, Robert de Quincy is recorded as a close companion of his cousin, future King William.
1160-62, William and his brother David, and their mother Ada, witnessed a charter of King Malcom to the abbey of Newbottle.
9/28/1162, Floris III, Count of Holland married Ada, sister of future King William the Lion of Scotland.
12/24/1165, After the death of his brother Malcolm, age 24, William “the Lion”, age 22, crowned King of Scotland. [The title “the Lion” came from the image on his standard.]
1166, King William the Lion of Scotland confirmed a grant of land made to the monks of Jedburgh by Margaret, mother of Henry [his father]. (S) History of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, 1887, P421.
3/1166, King William’s passage to Normandy with King Henry II of England paid for by King Henry.
8/1166 at Mont St. Michael, France, King William sought an audience with King Henry II.
By 10/21/1166, King William started a return trip to Scotland.
1167 at Stirling, An agreement is formed between Durham Priory and Croyland Abbey (Lincs), in the presence of William, king of Scots.
1168, Malcolm MacEth, earl of Ross, died. King William did not regrant the earldom [in his reign.]
1168, King William concluded an alliance with France.
1169, Philip de Seton received a Charter from King William the Lion reaffirming the Lands of Seton, Winton and Wynchburgh. [One of the oldest Charters existant in Scotland.]
4/5/1170, William, King of the Scots, and his brother David present at the Council of Windsor of King II of England.
6/15/1170, at Westminster, King William does homage to the newly-crowned [the day before] young King Henry.
6/10/1171, King William the Lion made a grant of Morgund to the earl of Marr. (S) Celtic Scotland, V3, 1880, P441.
4/1173, William attended the Easter court of King Louis VII in Paris [along with many other leaders.] William became a key rebel in the revolt of the sons of Henry II.
7/1173, Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester, Hugh de Keveloic, earl of Chester, King William of Scotland, and Hugh le Bigod, earl of Norfolk, laid siege to Aumale, Meuf-marche, and Verneuil.
1173, William returned to Scotland.
1173, David sent to England by his brother King William of Scotland to aid the Earl of Leicester.
1/13/1174, Hugh, bishop of Durham, agrees on a truce with William, King of the Scots, until the close of Easter.
4/1174, William besieges Carlisle, held by Robert de Vaux.
7/11/1174, William ambushed and captured at the battle of Alnwick and imprisoned at Newcastle.
8/8/1174, From Portsmouth, King Henry took King William, his prisoner, to imprisonment in Falaise in Normandy.
9/30/1174, Through negotiations at Montlouis, King Henry II agreed to release all his prisoners except 4: the King of the Scots, the earl of Leicester, the earl of Chester [Hugh], and Ralph de Fougeres. (S) Henry II, Warren, 1973, P138.
~1174, Ermengard born in England, d/o 39979746. Richard de Beaumont.
10/11/1174, By the Treaty of Falaise, William agreed to submission to King Henry and pay of Henry’s army occupying Scotland by taxing the Scots. Also by the treaty Henry got to pick William’s bride.
12/8/1174, An agreement is formed between William, king of Scots, and Henry (II), king of the English, son of the Empress Matilda. King William becomes the liege man of the king against all men, for Scotland, … He also does homage and swears fealty to the King Henry, his son (i.e., Henry the young king), reserving the fealty due to his father the king. (S) POMS.
8/10/1175, at York castle, William, King of the Scots, his brother David, and the bishops, abbots, and nobles of Scotland attend court and do homage to King Henry II and his son Henry, the young king.
1/24/1176, King William attended the Great Council of King Henry II at Northampton, along with multiple Scottish bishops, and the archbishops of Canterbury and York.
10/1176 at Feckenham, Worcestershire, King William met King Henry II of England, bring to King Henry Gilbert fitz Fergus who had killed a relative of King William.
7/1/1177, King William, as leige of King Henry of England, attended King Henry’s Great Council at Winchester under a summons to an army for Normandy [which expedition was postponed by intervention of the pope.]
10/14/1178, William founded the Abbey of Arbroath which was dedicated to Thomas à Becket.
1179, William and his brother David led a force northwards into Easter Ross, establishing 2 castles.
3/30/1180 at Haddington, a dispute between Richard de Morville’s family and the monks of Melrose [which became a famous controversy] required King William to gather a vast assemblage of the chief men of the Kingdom.
1180, King William recognized Gile Christ [Gilchrist] as earl of Mar.
1181, Pope Alexander excommunicated William the Lion of Scotland and put the kingdom under the interdict.
4/1181, King William travels to Normandy, landing at Barlfeur, to consult with King Henry about 2 bishops he had banished.
7/1181 at Gisors, King Henry II arbitrates a settlement between King Philip of France and the count of Flanders. William, King of the Scots was present.
7/26/1181, King William returns to England from Cherbourg with King Henry, landing at Portsmouth.
1181, While William was overseas Donald Meic Uilleim (d.1187) of Inverness rebelled, taking control of Ross.
11/22/1181, King William, under interdict, sent Josecline, bishop of Glasgow, to Pope Lucius.
3/17/1182, Pope Lucius releases William of Scotland from his interdict.
7/1182, Pope Lucius sent Rolland, archbishop-elect of Dol, with others as legates to negotiate between King William and the rival bishops of St. Andrews.
1184, King Henry attempted to marry William to his granddaughter Matilda, d/o Henry the Lion of Saxony. [Refused by the Pope on grounds of consanguinity.]
1184-85, King Henry decided on William’s bride, Ermengarde de Beaumont, granddaughter of Henry I. Edinburgh castle was part of her dowery [which King Henry now controlled], as well as land valued at 140 marks annually and 40 knights’ fees.
3/18/1185, At Clerkenwell [in London] a Great Council decides that King Henry should not go on crusade. William, King of the Scots, and his brother David, both attended. King Henry restored the earldom of Huntingdon to King William.
5/25/1186 at Oxford, King William attends the Great Council of King Henry II, where it is arranged for King William to marry the daughter of the Vicomte of Beaumont. [King William was to have married Matilda of Saxony, King Henry’s grandaughter, but consanguinity was an issue.]
1186, William competed in tournaments in northern France.
7/1/1186, at Carlisle, King Henry sent King William and his brother David to summon Roland fitz Uctred to court.
[––William & Ermengarde––]
9/5/1186 at Woodstock, William married to Ermengard; her father, Richard de Beaumont, present at the wedding. [King Henry, by treaty of Falaise, got to pick William’s bride. Ermengarde’s grandmother, 79959493. Constance fitz Roy, a natural d/o King Henry I (who had multiple ‘recognized’ children by mistresses).]
3/1187 at Crail, King William to Scone Abbey; he has granted the revenues in th)e queen's household which it already has in the king's, in the Spence and the kitchen, whenever the queen keeps her household separately.
1187, King William advanced with a large force into Inverness, supported by the Galwegians under Roland.
7/31/1187, King William defeated the rebelling Donald Bane at the battle of Muir of Mamgarvy on the Upper Spey. (S) DNB, V61, 1900, P334.
1/16/1188, Pope Clement III writes to Bishops … recalling the great tribulations which the church of St Andrews …, Clement commands that they should visit King William of Scotland, and warn him to desist from his rancour towards that bishop.
2/11/1188, King Henry imposes a tax of a 10th on moveable goods to be assessed in all of England to aid a crusade, and dispatches Hugh, bishop of Durham, to King William to press him to raise have the tax in Scotland. [King William refused to grant the tithe request.]
4/1189, King William gave the See of St. Andrews to his chancellor, Roger fitz Robert, earl of Leicester.
7/6/1189, Henry II of England died; Richard I succeeding.
12/5/1189 at Canterbury, Newly crowned King Richard I met with King William and agreed to the cancellation of William’s Treaty of Falaise for a single payment of 10,000 silver marks which would help pay for his crusade. King Richard also returned all hostages to King William.
1189-90, King William to Earl David, his brother; has granted quittance of all teinds and customs which church of St Mary of Aberdeen and bishops of Aberdeen used to have; in exchange for two measured ploughgates of land in Kennethmont.
Aft. 4/1/1190, King William has given the agreement (for a tack) made between Kelso Abbey.
1190 at Canterbury, King William did homage to King Richard. (S) Acts and Monuments of the Church, Foxe, 2004, P193.
1191, King William gave his daughter Isabel, widow of Robert de Brus, to Robert de Roos. (S) FMG.
3/13/1192, The Pope granted a Bull to King William that recognised the separate identity of the Scottish Church, and its independence of all ecclesiastical authorities apart from Rome.
2/2/1193, At Edinburgh in presence, and with agreement, of King William, Roger, bishop of St Andrews, to clergy of St Andrews diocese; he has established and decreed agreement made between him and Prior Bertram and monks of Durham.
1193, William gave 2000 marks towards the ransom of King Richard I of England, who had been captured returning from the crusades. (S) Richard and John, Kings at War, McLynn, 2008, P233.
4/17/1194 at Winchester, William carried carried a ceremonial sword at King Richards royal walk through Winchester after his return from captivity.
1194, William offered 15,000 marks to purchase Northumbria. King Richard did not want to give up his castles.
7/4/1195, King William to Kelso Abbey; has granted the donation and concession which Jocelin, bishop of Glasgow.
1195, William, lying ill at Clackmannan,and having no son, assembled his nobles and announced his appointed successor as Otho of Saxony, who would have to marry princess Margaret. (S) Royal Palaces of Scotland, Douglas-Irvine, 1911, P16.
1195-96, King William to David de la Haye, son of William de la Haye; has granted Errol.
6/16/1196, King William to Alexander, son of Philip of Seton; has granted the land which belonged to Philip, his father, that is, Seton, Winton and Winchburgh.
1197-98, William the Lion reduced Harold, earl of Orkney, Caithness, and Shetland, who took arms at the instigation of his wife, sister of Donald Macheth. (S) The Cambridge Medieval History, V7, 1936, P560.
5/29/1198, King William grants that on the death of an abbot of Scone the canons of Scone may freely elect one of their convent to be abbot, with the counsel and consent of their king.
10/16/1198, King William to Walter, son of Walter Scott; has given Allardice for the service of one archer with a horse and haubergel, and making common aid.
5/27/1199, John crowned king of England after the death of Richard I.
12/26/1199 at Forfar, King William to church of the Holy Trinity of bishopric of Moray and to Bishop Richard; has given teinds of his revenues of Moray and of his pleas throughout diocese of Moray and of his cain.
8/20/1200, King William to Hugh, son of Hugh of Benholm; has regiven Benholm.
10/30/1200, King John to William, king of Scots; he sends him Roger, bishop of St Andrews, Saher de Quincy, Hugh de Moreville and Richard de Maleville, by whom, and by these letters patent, he sends a safe conduct to William and his attendants.
11/1200, at Lincoln, William the Lion of Scotland did homage to King John. He obtained large grants and immunities. William’s son-in-law, Baron Robert de Roos (9994952) escourted him from Scotland.
1201-02, King William to Inchaffray Abbey; has granted the donation which Earl Gilbert of Strathearn made.
2/1202, King William again visited with the King of England at Yorkshire. (S) DNB, Watkins, 1899, P376.
3/1202-7/1202, An agreement was made to settle the dispute between Bishop Roger and St Andrews Cathedral Priory sealed by King William.
1203, William was ill and housed at Traquair.
11/4/1203, King William to Holyrood Abbey; has granted donation which William de Vieuxpont made of land of Ogilface.
5/9/1204 at Selkirk, King William announces that in dispute between Kelso and Melrose about marches between Melrose and Bowden, he held a hearing at Melrose …, judgement in favour of Kelso Abbey.
1205, King William by charter founded Ayr as a royal burgh.
7/24/1205, King John writes to the king of Scots [William], informing him that his messengers are to be retained …, due to the death of H[ubert], archbishop of Canterbury. As he is awaiting a response, he sends R[oger], constable of Chester … so that William can deal with the relevant business. John is pleased by the exception regarding the land of Tynedale, as contained in William’s letters.
1206, Earl William Longespee escorted King William the Lion of Scotland to visit King John at York. [While there, William is recorded as having cured a case of Scrofula by touching and blessing a child with the ailment.]
6/6/1207, Pope Innocent III writes to the bishop of Brechin, the abbot of Scone and the prior of Arbroath, … chapter of St Andrews … the Noble Man, S[aher] de Quincy had usurped the patronage of the church by violence, …, wishes to litigate the case before the king [William], he compelled the chapter to appear before the king so that the case could be examined.
1207, Walter, a royal chaplain, [supposedly] obtained the position of bishop of Glasgow partly by bribing Queen Ermengard.
2/29/1208 at Forfar, King William to Dunfermline Abbey; has granted donation which Robert of London, his son, made of Outh.
11/6/1208 at Selkirk, King William has granted settlement in his presence and in his full court of dispute between Patrick, earl of Dunbar, and Melrose Abbey anent pasture on west bank of Leader Water; settlement is made with consent of Earl Patrick's son and heir, Patrick.
7/1209, King John, with 800 knights, 45 of them household knights, made a short-lived invasion into Scotland. (S) English Historical Review, V110, 1995, P284. [William ended the incursion promising money and the marriage of his elderst daughters to English barons.]
4/10/1209, King John writes to W[illiam], king of Scots, expressing joy at his recovery, and comes to meet him … He sends as an escort R[anulf], earl of Chester, W., earl of Ferrers, P. […], [Robert fitz] Roger, R[oger], constable of Chester, Robert de Ros and Eustace de Vescy. The king desires to confer with him and settle matters long discussed between them.
8/4/1209, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth commanded his forces in support of King John at the battle of Norham against King William of Scotland [who lost the battle]. (S) Land of My Fathers, Evans, 1993, P211.
8/7/1209, King William binds himself to pay to his lord, King John of England, in 4 equal instalments of 3,750 marks each, the sum of 15,000 marks, …; in order to observe agreements made between himself and King John as established in charters issued by both parties. To ensure payment, he has given to King John the keeping of hostages he already has, …, except for his two daughters whom he has now released to King John. Queen Ermengard acted as a mediator in the negotiations.
1/7/1210 at Stirling, King William to the church of St Cuthbert of Kirkcudbright; has granted donation which Alan, son of Roland the constable, made of that part of Sypland.
1/1211, King William sent the earl of Atholl, the earl of Mar, Malcom son of Morgrund and Thomas Durward [each representing families claiming Mar] with 4,000 men to suppress a rebellion in Ross and Moray. (S) Medieval Scotland, Barrow, 1998, P175.
6/27/1211 at Edinburgh, Charter by King William granting his firm peace to all attending the fair at Glasgow. (S) Charters … City of Glasgow, V1, Pt2, P430.
10/2/1211 at Forres, King William to William Comyn; has granted right to have a burgh at Kirkintilloch, and market every Thursday with liberties and rights pertaining to burghs.
1211-12, William the Lion’s campaign against the MacWilliam rebels.
2/1212, Queen Ermengard acted as a negotiator when King William and King John met at Durham; resulting in a peace agreement, part of which stipulated that Prince Alexander would be given an English wife.
5/31/1212 at Edinburgh, The case called between Abbot P[atrick] and the convent of Dunfermline and Philip de Mowbray and his wife, Galiena, concerning the church of Inverkeithing before papal judges …, the suit was settled thus. In the presence of Lady Ermengarde, queen of Scots …
7/1/1212 at Edinburgh, Philip de Moubray and Galiena, his wife, for the welfare of their lord William, king of Scotland, and of Sir Alexander his son, have granted and by this their present charter established, and in the presence of Lady Ermengarde, queen of Scotland, and of Sir William, bishop of St Andrews, quitclaimed in perpetuity to Dunfermline Abbey, all the teinds of grain pertaining to the church of Inverkeithing.
2/25/1213 at Selkirk, King William to Arbroath Abbey; has given, granted and established various possessions.
10/28/1213, Pope Innocent III commands William, king of Scotland, and Alexander his son, now that peace is made between John, king of England, and the priesthood in England, to remain in fealty to the king and his heirs.
12/7/1213 at Edinburgh, King William has granted convention made at Edinburgh in his full court between Maurice, elder, of Menteith, and Maurice, younger, his brother, of earldom of Menteith, which Maurice, younger, had claimed as his right and heritage and which Maurice, elder, resigned into king's hand, and king delivered to Maurice, younger, as his right.
11/25/1214, Fulk de Sulis witnessed a grant of Meikleour and Lethendy by King William to Gilbert, earl of Strathearn. (S) POMS.
10/27/1214, Pope Innocent III writes to the bishops of St Andrews and Aberdeen … he wishes to remind and advise the king of Scotland [William] to defend the church of Glasgow and other churches in his realm.
12/4/1214, William died, his reign the 2nd longest in Scotish history. He was an effective monarch. New burghs founded, criminal law clarified, the responsibilities of justices and sheriffs widened, and trade expanded.
12/1214, Ermengard stay with the body of her husband while her son was taken to Scone for his coronation.
3/4/1215, Ermengarde buried William at Aberbrothock where she mourned for 14 days.
10/28/1216, Henry III, age 9, crowned king of England.
12/7/1219, Pope Honorius III commands Pandulph, bishop-elect of Norwich, papal legate, to enquire and report to the pope touching information laid against the bishop of Glasgow … he gave 100 marks to Philip de Valognes, the king’s chamberlain, and promised a much larger sum to the queen [Ermengard] to procure his appointment to the see by the king.
6/18/1221, King Alexander II for Joan, eldest sister of Sir Henry, king of England, his spouse; has granted in dower £1,000 of land, … should the queen his mother (Ermengarde) survive the king and be unwilling to confer her lands of Kinghorn and Crail on Joan in dower, the deficiency is to be met by king's heirs in castles and castleries.
10/12/1225, An agreement is formed between Queen Ermengarde, mother of the lord King Alexander (II), and Sir Adam of Stawell, over 1000 marks which the lady queen owed Adam of Stawell for the quitclaim.
Aft. 6/24/1226, Adam of Stawell has received at London in the Temple of London 1000 marks from Lady Ermengarde, Queen of Scots, mother of the lord king of Scotland, in the presence of brothers Simon and Morica, chaplains of the Temple, and other brothers of the same Temple, for the lands Balmerino.
Bef. 1229, Ermengarde devoted herself to founding a Cistercian abbey at Balmerino in Fife; and oversaw the construction.
12/13/1229, Monks from Melros settled at the Cistercian abbey. Ermengard and her son were frequent visitors.
2/11/1233, Ermengard died; buried before the high alter at Balmerino.
(S) Scotland’s Historic Heraldry, McAndrew, 2006. (S) The Wars of Scotland, Brown, 2004. (S) Scottish Queens, Marshall, 2004, P18. (S) From Domesday Book to Magna Carta, Poole, 1955, P279. (S) Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II, Eyton, 1878. (S) People of Medieval Scotland.
i. Ada of Scotland (973530389), born ~1165 in Scotland.
Children of William and Mistress ‘Isabel’:
ii. Isabel of Scotland (9994953), born ~1175 in England. [Natural daughter]
Children of William and Ermengarde:
iii. Margaret of Scotland, born bef. 1195 in Scotland.
1219, Margaret betrothed to Thibaut IV, comte de Champagne [not finalized.]
1221, Margaret married Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent.
1227, Hubert created earl of Kent.
1232, Hubert divorced Margaret.
1259, Margaret died, buried at Black Friars, London.
iv. King Alexander II of Scotland (19989510), born 8/24/1198 at Haddington, Lothian, Scotland.
iii. Majorie of Scotland, born ? in Scotland.
8/1/1235, Majorie married Gilbert Marshall, earl of Pembroke. (S) FMG. [Majorie’s dowery, 10000 marks.]
6/27/1241, Gilbert died after falling from his horse in a tournament.
11/17/1244, Majorie died, buried in the Church of Preaching Friars, London.