~1205, Gruffud born in Wales, s/o 121697000. Gwenwynwyn ap Owain-Cyfeiliog & 121697001. Margaret Corbet.
1207, Gruffud captured with his parents in Wales.
1207-16, Gruffud raised with his mother in England.
1216, Gruffud’s father died in exile [in England].
10/28/1216, Henry III, age 9, crowned king of England.
1218, Gruffud still a minor at the royal court in England; custody of his lands granted by King Henry III’s regency council to Llewelyn ap Iowerth.
1224, King Henry granted a half a mark to “Griffen filio Wenhunweni infirmio”.
~1227, Hawise born in England, d/o 121697006. John le Strange & 121697007. Lucy Tregoz.
1240, Gruffud finally gained control of his father’s lands after Llewelyn ap Iowerth died.
5/15/1240, Gruffudd signed a peace treaty arranged by John Lestrange, a Shropshire baron and justiciar of Chester.
1241, The rights to lands claimed by Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn, lord of South Powis, presented for arbitration to the Papal legate, Otto, cardinal deacon of St. Nicola, in accordance with the peace treaty.
1241, Gruffud and his mother Margaret began a frequent conflict with his uncle Thomas Corbet of Caus [initially over her dower] when King Henry III invested Gruffydd, on strictly feudal terms, with the lordship of the family lands in Arwystli, Cyfeiliog, Mawddwy, Caereinion, Y Tair Swydd, and Upper Mochnant.
8/18/1241, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn has made fine with the king by 300m. for having seisin of all lands formerly of the aforesaid Gwenwynwyn, saving the right of any person, and the king has taken his homage for this. Gruffydd has also promised that he and his heirs will faithfully serve the king … and that on no account will they withdraw from their fealty and service. Gruffydd has further granted, …, that if it happens …, all of his lands, for himself and his heirs, are to be forfeited to the king … he has given the king hostages for this. (S) FRsHIII.
2/11/1242, The king has granted to Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn that, of the 300m. by which he made fine with him for having seisin of all lands formerly of the aforesaid Gwenwynwyn, he may render £50. (S) FRsHIII.
[––Gruffydd & Hawise––]
1242, Gruffydd married Hawise.
2/24/1242, ‘Griffin son of Wenunewin’ was granted the manor of Eshford, co Derby to give as dower to Hawyse daughter of John Lestrange his wife. (S) FMG.
1242, Gruffudd received a royal charter which secured Hawise a dower property in Derbyshire.
1244, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ap Iorwerth died [the heir, he broke his neck trying to escape from the Tower] leaving 4 sons: Owain, Llywelyn, Rhodri & Dafydd to claims in Wales. [At the time the lands were ruled by their uncle Dafydd ap Llywelyn, who had captured his brother Gruffydd and imprisoned him in Criccieth castle, and then sent him and his sons to the King of England who put them in the Tower.]
1244, Gruffydd one of 3 Welsh chieftains who refused to join David ap Llewelyn in arms against the King of England.
11/17/1244, Order … to cause Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn to have respite, …, from the £25 that he ought to have rendered … for a fine that he had made with the king for his land of Wales. … £10 for two tallages assessed upon the manor of Ashford. (S) FRsHIII.
2/19/1245, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, the king’s valet. (S) FRsHIII.
1245, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn took advantage of the collapse of the power of Dafydd ap Llywelyn [died 3/1246]. (S) Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies, Is7-12, 1984. [King Henry was attacking Dafydd who was in revolt.]
3/1246, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, ruler of Wales, died. Gruffydd’s sons Owain, Lewelyn and Dafydd now all claimed Wales. King Henry claimed Wales by agreement with Senena, the wife of Gruffydd [and mother of the sons]. Owain and Lelwelyn, by agreement with King Henry, were given rule in the Snowdon district.
1246, Gruffydd led an army from south Wales, crossed the Dovey, and overran parts of north Wales.
1247, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn founded the town of Welshpool in Powys.
1247, Gruffud in “breaches of peace” with his uncle Thomas [sheriff of Shropshire] over lands from Derbyshire to east Wales.
3/4/1251 at Westminster, Grant to Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn … witnesses William de Valence, … Philip Basset, Paulin Peyvre, … (S) Royal Charter Witness Lists, Morris, 2001, P44.
10/29/1252, The king has pardoned Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn 11 m. … for having a fair at his manor of Ashford in the county of [Derbyshire]. (S) FRsHIII.
1254, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd defeated his older brother Owain and imprisoned him, making him sole ruler in Wales. [Llywelyn’s brother Dafydd fled to England.]
1254, King Henry III granted his son Lord Edward the earldom of Chester and all the lands held by the crown in Wales. [In 1255 Llywelyn attacked Lord Edward’s territory.]
1255, King Henry III ordered a special commission to look into the conflict between Gruffudd and Thomas Corbet of Caus.
1256-57, Much of Gruffud’s lands, an English supporter, were lost to Llywelyn ab Gruffydd’s rise to power. Llywelyn invaded the valley of the Severn, occupied as far as Pool, and burnt the town near Gruffydd’s castle. Gruffydd withdrew beyond the Severn.
1257, Gruffud, a known ally of Lord Edward, called with his brother-in-law John le Strange and John fitz Alan to a council of barons. [They would only agree to defend Montgomery.]
1257, Gruffydd, seriously ill, was a patient in a Cistercisan abbey. [Likely Strata Marcella.]
12/15/1257, Because Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn behaved faithfully and laudably in the service of the king and of Edward, his son, against Llywelyn ap Gruffydd and his supporters, the king’s enemies, and has sustained a most serious loss of his lands and chattels by reason of the war waged there, the king has committed to him his manors of Market Harborough and Great Bowden, to have for his sustenance and that of his wife and children for as long as it pleases the king. (S) FRsHIII.
By 1259, Llywelyn ap Griffith had conquered all of Gruffydd’s territories.
6/29/1260, While James de Audley (47283728) was away at court, Fulk fitz Warin (47281870), Griffith ap Gwenwynwyn (60848500), and John le Strange (121697006) sent Welshmen to ravage James’ lands, burning 3 vills, killing 8 men, wounding 10, taking 10 prisoners, 260 oxen … (S) Le Strange Records, LeStrange, 1916, P125.
1260-1, Gruffud witnessed a deed of his brother-in-law, Robert le Straung.
1262, Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn allied himself with Llywelyn ap Griffith.
4/12/1263, Simon de Montfort returned to England to lead a rebellion against King Henry of mostly young barons.
9/1263, Llywelyn made a truce agreement with Lord Edward.
12/2/1263, Gruffudd through homage changed his allegiance to Llywelyn II and his plan for a new feudal system. Gruffydd was to bound to join Llywelyn’s army as when threatened as long as his own lands were not threatened. [Gruffydd’s lands were between those of Llywelyn and English baron Roger de Mortimer.]
1264, Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn destroyed the castle of Gwyddgrug, a castle of Thomas Corbet. (S) DNB, V12, P16.
5/14/1264, Gruffud, and the Welsh in general, sided with Simon de Montfort at the battle of Lewes against King Henry III [who was captured along with his son Lord Edward.]
1264-65, Simon de Montfort effectively ruled England.
8/4/1265, Lord Edward escaped captivity and defeated Simon de Montfort at the battle of Evesham, ending the barons revolt in England [which had been a respite for English interests in Welsh activities.]
1267, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn destroyed the castle of Mold. (S) Annals and Antiquities, V1, Nicholas, 1872, P436.
5/21/1269, Lord Edward went to Montgomery to work out peace agreements in Wales and the Marches. [The Welsh and the Marchers would acknowledge no law but force.]
9/29/1267, Gruffydd signed the Treaty of Montgomery with Llywelyn and the other Welsh barons. Llwelyn granted the Principality of Wales. Davydd, Llywelyn’s brother to be restored to the lands he had held … If Davydd be not contented with these, he is to receive such additions as shall seem right to Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, Gurffydd and Howel sons of Madog, … Gruffydd was to retain all the lands which he possessed previous to his desertion to the English alliance, but was sworn to the observance of the laws of the Marches. (S) History of Wales, Williams, 1869, P386.
1270, Hawise kept the manor of Stretton for ‘frater suus dominus Hamo Extraneus’ when he left for Palestine, with the consent of ‘mariti sui … domini Griffini’, witnessed by ‘Dominis Rogero Extraneo, Roberto fratre suo.’ (S) FMG.
1271, The abbort and prior of Strata Marcella were present in Welshpool castle when Gruffydd granted the manor of Buttington to his son Llywelyn.
1271, Gruffydd supported Llywelyn on his campaign against Caerphilly. (S) History of Wales, V2, Lloyd, 1912, P748.
11/16/1272, King Henry III died; his son Lord Edward was on crusade in the Holy Land.
5/1274, Llywelyn ab Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, attacked the lands of Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn, capturing Arwystli and those parts of Cyveiliong beyond the Dovey. Llwelyn took Gruffydd’s son Owain as a hostage. (S) DNB, V12, 1909, P18.
1274, As part of an agreement between Llywelyn ab Gruffydd, Prince of Wales, and Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn, issues dealing with the abbey of Aberconwy in Gwynedd and the abbey of Strata Marcell in Powys were addressed.
8/2/1274, King Edward arrived back in England.
8/19/1274 at Westminster abbey, Edward I crowned king of England. [Llywelyn did not appear at the coronation to do his homage, but Gruffydd did.]
12/1274, Llywelyn sent the abbot and prior of Cymer to Welshpool to induce Gruffydd to return to his fealty.
2/1275, Gruffydd, his wife Hawise and his son Owain were all involved with Llywelyn's brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd in an attempt to assassinate Llywelyn. [The assassination was prevented by a snow storm.] The family went in exile again in England at Shrewsbury. [The details of the plot were later revealed by Gruffydd’s son Owain to the bishop of Bangor. The documentation of the agreements were kept in a chest by Hawise.] (S) History of Wales, V2, Lloyd, 1912, P748.
1275, Gruffud again a royal supporter, now of King Edward I, waged continuous conflict with Llywelyn.
12/1275, The sheriff of Shropshire ordered to allow Gruffydd and his familiares to dwell in Shrewsbury until futher orders.
5/1276, Llywelyn complained to King Edward about raids by Roger de Mortimer and Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn in the Marches.
4/29/1277, The castle of Dolovoreyn, surrendered the previous day to William de Leyborne, delivered to Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn to guard and keep at his own cost. (S) History and Law, Is2, 1935, P32.
1277, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, lord of Powys, had a Cistercian monk as his chaplain.
5/12/1277, Provision made for Gruffudd's wife Hawise by a English and Welsh practices. (S) Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, V33, 1986. [Gruffudd's charter made to Hawise his wife granting to her the townships of Buttington, Trewern, Hope and Gungrog as well as property elsewhere and granting to her a free burgage in his new market in Trefnant.]
6/1277, Gruffydd with King Edward in Chester where he cleared a road through a dense forest, and started construction on the castles of Flint and Rhuddlan. King Edward made forays into the Welsh lands of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of Wales, capturing Snowdonia and the isle of Anglesey.
1277, “Y rhai hynny a ddodes Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn I oresgyn ei gyfoeth a Gollasai cyn no hynny gan adael I’r brenhin Gedewain a Cheri a Gwerthrynion a Buellt.” [Then did Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn bring to recover his possessions which he had lost, leaving to the King Cedewain, Kerry, Gwerthrynion and Builth.] (S) Collections Historical of Montgomeryshire, V30, 1898, P7.
1277, Gruffud had the barony of Powys restored by Llywelyn. [Land disputes continued because Gruffud wanted to follow English law, while Llywelyn wanted to follow Welsh law.]
1277, James, abbot of Strata Marcella, present when Gruffydd settled his estates on his eldest son Owain. [This started the court case for Arwystli, between Merioneth and Builth, which the English considered part of Snowdonia.]
11/11/1277, King Edward returned to London with Llywelyn, who had agreed to do homage for his lands; incorporating Wales into England.
7/22/1278 at Oswestry, Llywelyn made a claim against Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of the whole of Arwystli, and whole land between the Dovey and the Dulas, belonging to the land of Meirionydd. (S) The Welsh Asize Roll, Davies, 1940, P134.
8/1278, Llywelyn received the homage of Gruffydd ap Gwen, steward of Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn.
9/1278, The case of Llywelyn versus Gruffydd was heard before King Edward at Rhuddlan.
1/14/1279, Llywelyn required to send to the king attroneys versed in the law [‘Howel Dda’ of the Welsh] … Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn prefers [English law] so that a decision could be made on the law to be used in the Arwystili case. (S) 13th Century England VII, 1997, P192.
4/30/1279, Gruffydd ap Gwenwyn appeared at court, Llywelyn defaulted [did not show.] (S) The Welsh Asize Roll, Davies, 1940, P212.
1279-80, Gruffydd granted a charter “to his beloved and faithful burgesses of Pole”, creating a free borough with many priviledges, “so that the aforesaid burgesses and their heirs shall be free of all customs and services pertaining to me and my heirs in all my lands.”
6/15/1281, The case of Arwystli, initiated by Adam de Montgomery [really representing King Edward and English law] against Owain ap Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, ended with a decision that they should do homage to Gruffydd. (S) History and Law, Is7, 1940, P148. [Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn’s lawsuit regarding Arwystli in Powis was heard before William of Hopton.]
11/10/1281, Maredudd ap Llewelyn of Mechain and his parceners were ordered to do homage to Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn. (S) Calendar of Chancery Rolls.
1282, Gruffud a prominent English supporter in the new English-Welsh war.
12/1282, Llewelyn ap Gruffydd defeated at the battle of Radnor in eastern Wales. Edmund Mortimer, Roger Mortimer, Hugo le Strante and Grufudd ap Gwenwynwyn approached Llywelyn, at the front of his army, on a promise of doing homage. The two forces immediately engaged. Near dusk, Llywelyn was surrounded and killed. [Edward received the head of Llywelyn at Rhuddlan castle.] (S) Find a Keyper, Powell, 2011, P98.
1283, Gruffud died. [Owain ap Gruffud ap Gwenwynwyn appeared at the parliament of Shrewsbury and surrendered his lands and crown to King Edward I; effectively becoming a Marcher Baron of England.]
Aft. 1283, Llandybo was among the lands assigned to Gruffudd's wife Hawise in dower.
1287, Lord Owyn, son of Griffin ap Wenonwen, vs. Griffin, his brother … the land of Meycheyn Hulquoat … Griffin to hold during the life of their mother Hawyse. (S) Collectanea Archaeologica, 1862, P208.
5/17/1290, Final concord between Owen and his brother Griffin, … Griffin should hold … as long as the Lady Hawyse, their mother, should live, … Dendowr … held by Hawyse in dower … or revert at her death to Owen …
1292, Petition by Hawise, wife of Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn, regarding her lands in Wales. In Shropshire her dower was confirmed by the king's attorney, but she could not be endowed in Wales at the time of her marriage. The petition was withdrawn and she was given her husband’s lands in Derby and the manor of Ashford.
1293, Gruffud’s son Owain, Lord of Welshpool [Upper Powys] died; guardianship of his son Gruffud granted to wife Joan [Corbet]. Wardship of the lands was divided between Joan and Owain’s mother Hawise.
6/22/1295, Hawise, widow of Griffin de la Pole, given the custody assigned of the castle of La Pole, and all the lands which had belonged to her son Owen de la Pole, deceased in the king's hand by reason of the rninority of the heir of Owen. (S) CFRs.
1295, Joan, wife of son Owain, asked for commissions of oyer and terminer claiming that Owain’s brothers and mother Hawise were trying to deforce her of her dower.
1298-99, Hawise and her sons asked for commissions of oyer and terminer claiming rights to Joan’s dower.
4/1/1299, Commission … touching a petition of Hawisia de la Pole that whereas she holds, by the king’s commission, the custody of the castle of la Pole, late of Owen de la Pole, deceased, … Roger Trumwyn and Joan his wife [wife of deceased son Owain], under colour of the custody of the lands late of Lewis de la Pole, who held of the said Owen, … have on their authority subtracted some services … (S) CPRs.
1307-08, The king committed to Hawise’s son Griffin custody of Pole castle, previously held by Hawise, until the heir comes of age. (S) Collectanea Archaeologica, 1862, P209.
1310, Hawise died: Hawisia uxor Griffini de la Pole held in Shropshire - Argyngeroyd, Kekidena, Buchegedin, Trenedrit, Bronannyrth, Launrevel, Kenywd, Leffyn, Namneygehand, Botynton & Trewerne, Hope of Gawes barony.
(S) Portraits of Medieval Women, Mitchell, 2003. (S) A Chronicle of the Early Le Stranges, Le Strange, 1916. (S) Edward I, Prestwich, 1988. (S) The Welsh Cistercians, Williams, 2001. (S) Montgomeryshire Worthies, Williams, 1894.
Children of Gruffud and Hawise: [5 sons, 1 daughter]
i. Owain de la Pole (30424250), born ~1245 in Wales.
ii. Mabel de la Pole (121684551), born ~1250 in Wales.
iii. Llewelyn de la Pole, born ? in Wales.
Lewelyn married Sibyl, widow of Grimbald Pauncefot. [No children.]
1295, Llewelyn died.
iv. John de la Pole, born ~? in Mawddwy, Wales.
7/26/1289, John was in holy orders and rector of the church of La Pole. (S) Collectanea Archaeologica, 1862, P207.
1303, John died as the prebend of Hampton episcopi in the diocese of Hereford.
v. Griffin de la Pole, born ~? in Mawddwy, Wales.
Aft. 2/5/1321, Griffin died.
vi. William de la Pole, born ~? in Mawddwy, Wales.
5/16/1290, William relinquished to his brother Owen all right of participation in the lands of their father.
5/24/1297, Mandate to all Welshmen of Powys, Gwenunwyn, Oswaldestre, Ellesmere and Knokyn to give credence to William de la Pole and John de Borham, in the matters which the king has entrusted to them. (S) CPRs. [The king was going beyond seas.]
7/14/1297, Mandate to William de la Pole and Griffin Waghan to cause Welsh of the land of Powys Griffyuth and Powys Madok, who late at the king’s mandate were selected by them to set forth and cross the sea with the king in the king’s service, to come to Whitchurch … to receive the king’s wages and to set forth thence under such good conduct as the said William and Giffin or their deputies shall provide … (S) CPRs.
12/7/1297, Commission to William de la Pole to array 300 Welsh foot in the land of Powys. (S) CPRs.
1299-1300, The manor of Sardon Magna held by Will. de la Pole and Galdowsa his wife.
By 1311, William died.