1400, Richard born in England, s/o 7605706. Ralph Neville & 3802861. Joan Beaufort.
1406, Alice born in England, heir & d/o 3802862. Thomas Montague & 3802863. Eleanor Holand.
Bef. 2/1420 at Orleans, France, Richard married Alice.
2/1421, Richard a carver at the coronation feast of Queen Catherine, wife of King Henry V.
8/31/1422, Henry VI (an infant) succeeded Henry V as King of England.
4/17/1424, IPM of Lucy widow of Edmund Earl of Kent. Essex: … of the inheritance of the following kin and heirs of the late earl: … Alice now wife of Richard Nevill, chevalier , and daughter of Eleanor who was the wife of Thomas earl of Salisbury, and 4th sister; … She died on 14 April last. …, Alice 17 years and more, … (S) MMC, E-CIPM 22-328.
1424, Richard involved in the liberation of King James I of Scotland from England. [James I, then age 12, had been captured with his father by pirates off the coast of England 3/22/1406. His father soon died, leaving James as King. James accompanied Henry V on his campaigns in France. James was ransomed for £40,000.]
1/1425, Richard appointed Constable of the royal castle of Pontefract.
10/21/1425, Richard’s father, Earl of Westmoreland, died. [Richard, a younger son by his father’s 2nd marriage, was not the heir.]
1426-7, “Thomas Womewill, esquire to Sir Richard Nevill, knight, Warden of the West March: Indenture of military service: Yorks.” (S) UKNA.
1428, Alice age 22 heir to her father’s lands and titles.
5/3/1429, Richard created 5th Earl of Salisbury in right of his wife.
11/6/1429, Richard the Deputy Constable at the coronation of King Henry VI. [The Duke of Bedford was not present.]
1/3/1430, Thomas Haryngton esquire, son of William Haryngton knight, to Cuthbert abbot of Coverham and the convent … Quitclaim with warranty of the advowson of a mediety of the church of Sedbergh in Lonesdale co. York … Witnesses: Richard Neville earl of Salisbury, William lord Fitz Hugh, William Haryngton, Thomas Tunstall knights, … (S) CCRs.
12/16/1431, Richard with King Henry VI at his coronation as King of France at Notre Dame, Paris. [The only English king to be crowned king in England and France.]
2/1435, Richard resigned the Wardenship of the East March and the Captaincy of Berwick.
4/22/1435, “This indenture made betwixt Richard [Neville] Erle of Salisbury.. and Thomas Dacre, Knygth, son and heire to ye lorde Dacre …” (S) UKNA. [Thomas is Richard’s nephew.]
12/9/1435, Richard and his brother William attended parliament at Westminster. (S) CPRs, 3/11/1436.
3/10/1436, “… to Richard Nevill, earl of Salisbury and Alice his wife and her issue, …” (S) UKNA.
3/11/1436, In the parliament … the king (age 14) desired Richard, earl of Salisbury, and William, lord of Fauconberge, ‘chivaler’ to cross into France and serve him there, which agreed to do to certain conditions, and particularly to the consent of their mother Joan, countess of Westmoreland, … unlawful entries … likely to be done in their absence by Ralph, earl of Westmorland, John and Thomas his brothers, … £4000 … bond … (S) CPRs.
5/1436-11/1437, Richard with Richard, Duke of York [his brother-in-law] in France.
11/1437, Richard, named to the Privy Council, took up residence in London at ‘The Harbour’ in Dowgate. [The main home of the Nevill’s, Bisham Manor, was a days ride from London.]
1438, Richard appointed as a Knight of the Garter.
11/1440, Richard, on the death of his mother, took possession of his father’s lands in Yorkshire.
5/4/1442, King Henry VI confirmed Richard’s title of Earl for the dignity of his life.
11/7/1444, Richard and other members of a royal embassy left for France to escort [Queen by proxy wedding] Margaret back to England.
1446, Alice an executor of the will of her kinswoman Maud Clifford, widow of Richard, Earl of Cambridge.
1447, Richard assisted in the arrest of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, at Bury St. Edmonds.
9/1449, Richard retained the services of Sir Walter Strickland and 290 men for the term of his life against all folk, saving allegiance to the King.
2/1452, Earl Richard and many other magnates assembled with Henry VI at Northampton to council the King on how to handle the Duke of York who was leading a force towards London. [Duke Richard of York, s/o Richard of Conisburgh – Earl of Cambridge (1415, beheaded as part of the ‘Southampton’ plot), s/o Edmund of Langley – 1st Duke of York, s/o King Edward III.]
1453, Warwick, Richard’s son, had his lordship of Glamorgan, Wales taken away by the king and given to the Duke of Somerset. This caused the Neville clan to side with the Yorks against the Lancasters. [As with most families, there were some members on both sides. The Duke of York’s claim to the throne was actually stronger than that of the King.]
8/1453, Younger members of Richard’s family and of the Percy family, the two most powerful families of the north, happened upon each other and a war broke out between the clans.
1454, In support of the Duke of York as protector of the Realm while King Henry was “seized with madness”, Richard brought “seven score knights and squires besides other many” to London.
1454, Sir Thomas Stanley, knight, by fine, received Harwarden, Wales from Richard Nevill, earl of Salisbury and his wife Alice. (S) A Tour of Wales, Pennant, V1, 2014, P94.
4/1/1454, The Duke of York gave Richard the Great Seal, making Richard the Chancellor of England. [The King was incapacitated.] (S) The Wars of the Roses, Neillads, 1993, P70.
4/10/1454, The Duke of York, as Protector, named Richard as Chancellor of England.
1454, “Petitioners: Mayor of Calais; … [Richard Nevill], Chancellor of England.” (S) UKNA.
By 3/1455, King Henry had recovered and Richard was removed as Chancellor. The king pardoned all who had benefited from the Duke of Somerset’s imprisonment [which included Richard.] Richard returned to his castle at Middleham.
1455, Richard of York [white rose] formed an army of 3000 in the north, Richard [Salisbury (1901430)] an army of 2000, and his son – Richard [Warwick] an army of 2000, and marched towards London. Lancastrians [red rose], King Henry VI, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset (184678), Humphrey Stafford, Duke of Buckingham [commander], with a smaller force of 2000-3000 left London to intercept Yorkist forces. [The King’s request for support had been sent out too late. Many arrived after the battle.] The Yorkists also had advantages in cannon and archers.
5/20/1455, The forces of York arrived at Royston, Hertfordshire, where they released a letter stating that they meant no harm to the King, and had raised an army and moved south in self defense against the Duke of Somerset.
5/22/1455, Richard fought at the 1st battle of St. Albans, Hertfordshire [with his son Richard]. York and Salisbury attacked from the East with little success. Warwick led mounted knights in an attack on the Lancastrian rear by breaking into the town from the side. The royalist lost 300 including Somerset and Thomas de Clifford [commander of the vanguard], and many other nobles. King Henry, wounded, submitted to Yorkist control. Queen Margaret and 2-year-old son Edward went into exile. This was the opening battle of the 30-year, Lancaster-York, War of the Roses. [Abbot Whethamstead of St. Albans gave and eyewitness account of the events.]
5/23/1455, Richard with the Duke of York and Earl of Warwick escorted the captured king back to London. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Neillads, 1993, P78.
7/9/1455, At parliament called by the Duke of York, again Protector, the York-aligned magnates renewed their oaths of allegiance to the king.
2/1456, Henry VI revoked the Duke of York’s appointment as Protector.
8/1456, Richard returned to Middleham castle.
2/1458, York [Lieutenant of Ireland], Richard [Salisbury] and Warwick [Captain of Calais] were commanded by King Henry to endow a chantry for the souls of those killed at the battle of St. Albans as well as compensate financially the families of Clifford, Northumberland, and Somerset.
3/24/1458, “Loveday”, the King and Queen and Yorkist leaders walked hand-in-hand through the streets of London. Richard and the Duke of Somerset walked together. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Neillands, 1992, P83.
11/1458, Richard’s son met with him at Middleham before returning to Calais to inform him of the Queen’s attempt on his position as Captain of Calais and on his life.
11/23/1458, soon after All-Saints day, Richard at castle Middleham met other powerful men. They agreed to support the Duke of York’s claim to the throne. (S) Journal of the Architectural, … Historical Society, 1857, P83.
5/10/1459, Richard wrote his will.
5/20/1459, To the receivers, farmers or other the occupiers for the time being of the lordships, manors, lands etc. of Richard late duke of York, Edward late earl of March, Richard late earl of Warrewyk, Richard late earl of Salisbury, Edmund late earl of Roteland, Alice late countess of Salisbury, … (S) CCRs.
6/1459, Richard summoned to a Great Council at Coventry, a Lancastrian stronghold. Instead, like other Yorkists, he did not attend and went initially to Middleham castle, Yorkshire. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Neillands, 1992, P85.
9/1459, The Yorkists then decided to concentrate their forces at Ludlow castle. Richard was intercepted on his way to Ludlow castle.
9/23/1459, Richard [Salisbury] fought the battle of Blore Heath in western England [Shropshire], where his opponent Lord Audley [James Touchet] was slain and two of his sons captured. Richard faced a superior force in numbers, but one which did not have the experience of his forces. Richard strategically pinned Audley’s forces on a steep brook embackment and decimated them with arrows, causing many others to flee. 2000-3000 were slain in a prolonged battle, mostly on Audley’s side.
9/24/1459, Richard, having travelled overnight to evaded other royal forces of the Queen, went to market Drayton [where he learned that his sons Thomas and John had been captured at Acton Bridge], and then and met up with York, reached Worcester, where they swore oaths to the king, but received no reply. The Yorkists, 25,000 strong, made an advance on Worcestor. They encountered a superior royalist force and withdrew to Ludford bridge near Ludlow.
10/10/1459, The royal forces appeared opposite the forces of York.
10/12/1459, King Henry sent an offer of pardon to York at Ludford, which did not include pardons for Richard and his associates. During the night, Andrew Trollope, the Yorkist vanguard commander and his forces deserted. Salisbury made his way, with his son Warwick and the Earl of March [s/o the Duke of York and future Edward IV], to Devon, then by sea, to Guernsey [a channel island] and then Calais, where Warwick was still Captain. The Duke of York made his way to Ireland with is son Rutland.
11/20/1459, Richard and his son, the Earl of Warwick, attained for high treason. [23 lords, ladies and gentlemen attained.] (S) The Wars of the Roses, Neillands, 1992, P89.
1/28/1460, Lord Rivers, his wife the Duchess of Bedford, and their son Anthony Wydville were brought before Salisbury, his son Wawick, and March in Calais; having been captured in Sandwich.
6/1460, Warwick and Salisbury sent forces to capture Sandwich and establish a beachhead for an invasion.
6/26/1460, Richard recrossed the Channel back to England with Warwick and March, and landed at Sandwich with 2000 men. From there they went to Canterbury.
7/2/1460, The Salisbury-Warwick-March army reached London with a force of 40,000, of which 500 were mounted. They were welcomed by the citizens of London.
7/5/1460, Lord Fauconberg, brother of Salisbury, left London heading north with 10,000 men. Soon after Warwick and March followed, leaving Salisbury in London with 2000 men to lay siege to the Tower.
7/18/1460, Richard captured the Tower.
9/8/1460, The Duke of York returned from Ireland.
10/10/1460, During parliament, York rode into London at the head of a large retinue. York decared himself king. Ultimately, York was named successor to Henry. [The Yorkist attainders were also erased.] Warwick and Salisbury did not support York’s claim to the throne. The Queen quickly raised an army in response to her son being disinherited.
11/1460, The Queen’s army of 20,000 marched south through York ravishing the countryside.
12/9/1460, York and Salisbury rode north out of London at the head of 6000 men heading for Sandal castle near Wakefield, arriving on the 21st. There they would wait for March and reinforcements from Shrewsbury.
12/29/1460, The Lancastrians infiltrated 400 men into the ranks of the Yorkists.
12/30/1460, Richard, captured at the battle of Wakefield, his sons Thomas and Rutland killed. The Duke of York was killed, as well as his son Edmund, Earl of Rutland. About 1000 were slain, evenly split between the sides.
1/1461, Richard , 5th Earl of Salisbury, was taken to Prontefract castle where he was killed by commoners while escaping.
5/19/1462, Geoffrey Beauchamp 'yoman,' Thomas Kenegy 'stacioner,' Richard Haydyff 'draper' and Richard Wright 'goldsmyth,' all of London, to Alice countess of Salisbury. Recognisance for £100, to be levied etc. in the city of London. … (S) CCRs.
5/31/1462, William Plompton of Plompton and George Darell of Sesay, both co. York knights, to Alice countess of Salisbury, late the wife of Richard earl of Salisbury. Bond in £1000 payable at Easter day next. (S) CCRs.
1462, Alice died; buried with Richard at Bisham Priory, Berkshire.
(S) Magna Carta Ancestry, P579. (S) Dictionary of Battles, Eggenberger, 1967. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Weir, 1995.
Children of Richard and Alice: [6 sons, 6 daughters]
i. Cecily Neville, born 1424 in England. [Eldest daughter.]
1434, Cecily married Henry de Beauhamp, s/o 369358. Earl Richard Beauchamp & 369359. Elizabeth Berkeley.
7/28/1450, Cecily died.
ii. Earl Richard Neville, born 11/22/1428 in England.
1435, Richard, age 6, betrothed to Lady Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, & Isabel Despenser.
1449, Richard made 16th Earl of Warwick and named the Constable of Calais.
5/22/1455, Richard fought with his father at the 1st battle of St. Albans. Richard led mounted knights in an attack on the Lancastrian rear.
11/20/1459, Warwick and his father attained.
12/30/1460, Richard’s father captured at the battle of Wakefield, and killed soon after. [The Duke of York was also killed.] Richard became 6th Earl of Salisbury, and the richest magnate in the history of England, owning twice what any other had possessed. March became the 4th Duke of York.
3/29/1461, The Earl of March and Warwick’s forces, with a wind at their back in a blinding snow storm giving their archers and spearmen a significant advantage, began the battle of Towton, Yorkshire. This battle was the largest and bloodiest fought on British soil. As many as 28,000 died at the battle, 8000 Yorkists.
4/14/1471, Richard, Earl of Warwick, “the King maker”, age 42, head of the Lancastrian army, killed at the battle of Barnet against royalist forces of Edward IV. A heavy fog limited visibility. A combined total of 1000 knights died. Both handguns [relatively new] and cannon were used during the fight.
iii. Alice Neville (950715), born ~1430 in England.