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Sunday, November 28, 2010

Earl Richard Neville, “the Kingmaker”

1901430ii. Earl Richard Neville, “the Kingmaker”

11/22/1428, Richard born in England, s/o 1901430. Earl Richard Neville & 1901431. Alice de Montagu.

1434, Richard bethrothed to Anne Beauchamp, d/o 369358. Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick & [2nd wife] Isabel le Despenser.

6/11/1446, Richard’s brother-in-law, Henry, 1st Duke of Warwick, died, leaving as his heir his 2-year-old daughter Anne. [Henry married to Richard’s sister Cecily, Richard married to Henry’s sister Anne.]

5/22/1455, Richard fought with his father at the 1st battle of St. Albans. Richard led mounted knights in an attack on the Lancastrian rear.

1/3/1449, Richard’s neice Anne, a minor, heir to the Duke of Warwick, died.

Anne, Richard’s wife, named as heir to her brother Henry. [Her 3 half-sisters protested to no avail, Anne was the rightful heir due to her being the only full sibiling.] Richard now owned land in 18 counties and over 20 castles; with his seat at Warwick castle, a massive fortress. The greatest concentration of his lands were in the western midlands and south Wales. An import lordship was that of Glamorgan, Wales.

1449, Richard made 16th Earl of Warwick and named the Constable of Calais.

1453, A dispute began between Earl Richard and the Duke of Somerset over ownership of Glamorgan in Wales, which the king had just granted to Somerset. This caused the Neville clan to side with the Yorks against the Lancasters. [As with most families, there were some members on both sides.]

8/1453, Members of Richard’s family and of the Percy family, the two most powerful families of the north, happened upon each other and a war broke out between the clans.

1454, The Duke of York named protector of the Realm while King Henry was “seized with madness”.

By 3/1455, King Henry had recovered and Salisbury [Richard’s father] was removed as Chancellor.

1455, Richard of York [white rose] formed an army of 3000 in the north, Richard [Salisbury] an army of 2000, and his son – Richard [Warwick] an army of 2000, and marched towards London. Lancastrians [red rose], King Henry VI, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, Humphrey Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, with a smaller force of 2000-3000 left London to intercept Yorkist forces.

5/20/1455, The forces of York arrived at Royston, Hertfordshire, where they released a letter stating that they meant no harm to the King, and had raised an army and moved south in self defense against the Duke of Somerset.

5/22/1455, Richard fought at the 1st battle of St. Albans [with his father Richard], and became very powerful after the victory. The Yorkists initiated an assault. Richard led mounted knights in an attack on the Lancastrian rear. The royalist lost 300 including Somerset and Thomas de Clifford, and many other nobles. This was the opening battle of the 30-year, Lancaster-York, War of the Roses. King Henry submitted to Yorkist control.

4/20/1456, King Henry appointed Richard the Captain of Calais, the highest military appointment due to its strategic location.

8/1456, After helping suppress a Scottish invasion, Richard went to Calais.

1457, Richard used his 10-ship fleet to suppress piracy in the channel and to defeat a Spanish fleet. [During this time Richard also built a “lavish” home in London where he was gaining popularity.]

2/1458, York [Lieutenant of Ireland], Richard [Salisbury] and Warwick [Captain of Calais] were commanded by King Henry to endow a chantry for the souls of those killed at the battle of St. Albans. Warwick also paid the Clifford family 1000 marks.

3/24/1458, “Loveday”, the King and Queen and Yorkist leaders walked hand-in-hand through the streets of London.

1458, Richard began negotiations with Philip, Duke of Burgundy.

Warwick was called to London by the Queen to respond to accusations of piracy against the Germans. Richard arrived with 600 armed soldiers.

7/31/1458, A formal inquiry into Richard’s actions was started by the Council. [The next day Londoners rioted against the Queen, and in support of Richard.]

Fall/1458, Richard was in London when a possible attempt on his life was made [it may have been an accident.] Richard was accused by the Queen of starting the incident and ordered his arrest. Richard escaped back to Calais.

11/1458, The Queen attempted to revoke Richard’s appointment at Calais. Richard returned to London and defended his appointment on the grounds that only the Parliament could revoke his assignment. On leaving the council, Richard was attacked by men of Somerset and Wiltshire, but again escaped.

9/21/1459, Warwick, with 200 men-at-arms and 400 archers – mostly professional soldiers, entered London in support of his father and the Duke of York. From there, with a larger army, Richard headed for Warwick castle to rendezvous with his father. The Queen’s forces were already at Warwick castle, and Richard turned to head for Ludlow and meet up with York.

9/1459, Warwick met his father and York at Ludlow castle.

The Yorkists, 25,000 strong, made an advance on Worcestor. They encountered a superior royalist force and withdrew to Ludford bridge near Ludlow. King Henry sent an offer of pardon to York at Ludford, which did not include pardons for Salisbury and his associates.

10/10/1459, The royal forces appeared opposite the forces of York.

10/12/1459, During the night, Andrew Trollope, the Yorkist vanguard commander and his forces deserted. Salisbury made his way, with Warwick and the Earl of March [s/o the Duke of York and future Edward IV], to Devon, then by sea, to Guernsey [a channel island] and Calais, where Richard was still Captain. The Duke of York made his way to Ireland.

11/20/1459, Warwick and his father attained.

In response to an attack by the Duke of Somerset, Richard attacked Sandwich. Then Somerset, with 1000 men under Trollope attacked and captured Guisnes castle. Richard, in return, captured Somerset’s commanders Lord Audley and Humphrey Stafford.

1/28/1460, Lord Rivers, his wife the Duchess of Bedford, and their son Anthony Wydville were brought before Salisbury, his son Wawick, and March in Calais; having been captured in Sandwich.

3/1460, Richard traveled to Waterford, Ireland to meet with the Duke of York where they planned a two-pronged invasion.

6/1/1460, Richard arrived back in Calais by sea.

6/1460, Warwick and Salisbury sent forces to capture Sandwich and establish a beachhead for an invasion.

6/26/1460, Warwick recrossed the Channel back to England with his father and Marche, and landed at Sandwich with 2000 men. From there they went to Canterbury.

7/2/1460, The Salisbury-Warwick-March army reached London with a force of 40,000, of which 500 were mounted.

7/5/1460, Lord Fauconberg, brother of Salisbury, left London heading north with 10,000 men. Soon after Warwick and March followed, leaving Salisbury in London with 2000 men.

7/10/1460, Richard attacked the royalist forces at Northhampton. Lord Grey of Ruthin [later Earl of Kent], commanding a Lancastrian force, turned sides and helped the Yorkists. The Duke of Buckingham and many Lancastrian nobles died. King Henry was taken to London under Yorkist control. The Queen fled Coventry for Scotland.

10/28/1460, Henry named as his successor Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, who had returned from exile in Ireland. [The Yorkist attainders were also erased.]

12/9/1460, Warwick remained in charge in London while his father and York left northward to meet the advancing army of the Queen.

12/30/1460, Richard’s father captured [and later killed] at the battle of Wakefield. [The Duke of York was also killed.] Richard became 6th Earl of Salisbury, and the richest magnate in the history of England, owning twice what any other had possessed. March became the 4th Duke of York.

2/2/1461, March defeated Lancastrian forces at the battle of Mortimore’s Cross. Owen Tudor, Henry VI’s stepfather, was captured and executed.

2/17/1461, The forces of Queen Margaret made a surprise attack on Richard’s forces at the 2nd battle of St. Albans. In a snow storm, half the Yorkist forces were killed. Richard, and John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, escaped. King Henry VI was left sitting under a tree for the Lancastrian forces.

2/27/1461, Edward of York, s/o the slain Duke, joined with Richard’s remaining forces of about 4000, returned to London.

3/14/1461, Edward [earl of March] proclaimed himself King Edward IV as the rightful heir.

3/28/1461, Richard defeated by a Lancastrian army commanded by Lord Clifford at the battle of Ferrybridge. Richard was wounded in the leg. Afterwards, Warwick killed his horse in full view of his soldiers, saying he would rather die on foot with his men than give another inch. With Edward’s support the tide turned and Lord Clifford was killed [Clifford had murdered Edward’s younger brother.]

3/29/1461, March and Warwick’s forces, with a wind at their back in a blinding snow storm giving their archers and spearmen a significant advantage, began the battle of Towton, Yorkshire. In 10 hours thousands fell to the sword, lance, and spear. Both March and Warwick were involved in hand-to-hand combat. About dusk, Yorkist reinforcements, fresh to battle, arrived, sent by the earl of Norfolk. The arrival sent the tired Lancaster forces fleeing. In the aftermath, the bridge over the river collapsed killing many from both sides. This battle was the largest and bloodiest fought on British soil. As many as 28,000 died at the battle, 8000 Yorkists. [Another estimated 12,000 Lancastrians died in the aftermath of the main battle.]

King Henry, Queen Margaret, and Prince Edward fled to Scotland.

6/28/1461, Edward IV crowned at Westminster, beginning the House of York.

7/1461, Richard suppressed a Lancastrian incursion in Northumberland, capturing the castles of Alnwick and Bamburgh.

5/1462, Warwick seized a castle in Scotland. [Queen Margaret were now in France.]

10/1462, Queen Margaret landed at Bamburgh with a small invasion force, retaking its castle as well as Alnwick. The Queen then traveled north to Berwick to meet up with King Henry and the Lancastrian supporters.

11/1462, The Lancastrians in retreat, Warwick captured Warkworth castle to use as a base or operations in the north.

By 1/6/1463, Richard had captured Alnwick and Dunstanburgh. [These were soon back in Lancastrian hands due to their governors switching sides.]

7/1463, Queen Margaret returned to France to seek support from the Duke of Burgundy.

6/23/1464, Warwick again appeared before Alnwick castle demanding its surrender. Warwick proceeded to take Dunstanburgh and Norham.

9/4/1464 at Reading, with Warwick putting pressure on Edward IV to conclude a marriage alliance with France, Edward announced that he was already secretly married to Elizabeth Wydville – a marriage disliked by most nobility.

Warwick wrote a letter to King Louis XI telling him that he and the King were not on good terms.

7/13/1465, King Henry VI was captured. He was then taken to Islington to Warwick, who took him to the Tower.

1/1466, Warwick was in disagreement with Edward IV over foreign alliances. Warwick wanted an alliance with France, Edward with Burgundy.

4/14/1466, Richard sent to Burgundy to investigate a potential marriage of King Edward’s sister Margaret. While in France, Warwick met with King Louis XI at Calais and signed a 2-year truce.

1466, Edward IV replaced Warwick’s uncle as Treasure of England with his stepfather, Earl Rivers.

1467, Warwick proposed his daughters as brides of Edward IV,s brothers. [King Edward refused.]

1469, Warwick and King Louis XI had a secret agreement that Warwick would be given Holland and Zeeland if he could overthrow Edward IV.

1469, Warwick and his family returned to Calais.

6/28/1469, Warwick, back in England, raised an army to march against northern rebels.

7/4/1469, Warwick, with a papal approval for his daughter to marry Clarence, brother of the King, returned to Calais.

7/16/1469, Warwick returned to England, going 1st to Canterbury.

7/26/1469, Warwick’s forces, meeting up with those of Sir John Conyers, defeated the forces of Pembroke at the battle of Edgecote. The earl of Pembroke was captured and executed. The earl of Devon fled but was later captured and executed. Soon after, King Edward was captured at Olney.

8/12/1469, Warwick executed captured Sir John Wydville and Earl Rivers [brother and father of the Queen.]

10/1469, Warwick released Edward IV from captivity.

3/8/1470, Both Warwick and Clarence were given commissions of array to raise armies to suppress a revolt [which they had secretly instigated.]

3/12/1470, King Edward defeated Sir Robert Welles at the battle of Empingham and captured documents showing Warwick and Clarence were behind the uprising.

3/25/1470, Edward removed Warwick’s brother as earl of Northumberland; offering a Marquess title [with no land] and the marriage of his eldest daughter to John’s son [George Neville] in replacement.

4/3/1470, Warwick and Clarence put to sea from Exeter [having had most of their ships captured at Southampton.]

5/1/1470, Warwick landed at Honfleur and was greeted by the royal Admiral of King Louis XI.

6/8/1470, King Louis began negotiations between Warwick and Queen Margaret at Amboise on the Loire. Louis would support Warwick if they restored Henry VI and pledged support of England against Burgundy.

7/15/1470, at Angers, France, Warwick met with Queen Margaret, offered apologies, and was pardoned. It was agreed that Prince Henry would marry Warwick’s daughter Anne.

9/9/1470, Warwick with a fleet of 60 ships sailed from La Hogue, Normandy for England. [A storm had scattered the Burgundian fleet guarding the coast of France, and the English fleet guarding the channel.]

9/13/1470 Warwick’s invasion force landed at Plmounth on the west part of the southern coast. [Soon afterwards Warwick’s brother, John, Marquess of Montague, changed sides back in support of Warwick.] King Edward IV, realizing his position, headed for Norfolk, from which he sailed for Holland [Burgundian territory.]

10/6/1470, Warwick’s forces entered London unopposed [and by messenger had already released Henry VI from prison.]

10/13/1470, Henry VI restored to the throne, Warwick carrying the king’s train in the procession.

3/14/1471, Edward IV landed his forces at Ravenspur, where he burned his ship to indicate he did not plan to retreat.

3/23/1471, Warwick forced Clarence to deliver some of his property to Queen Margaret and Prince Edward.

3/29/1471, Edward IV and his army arrived at Coventry where Warwick had his forces.

4/3/1471, Some of Edward’s forces intercepted the earl of Oxford at Leicester and defeated him. Clarence decided to return support to his brother Edward IV, and arrived at Coventry with 12,000 men. Not able to lure Warwick out of Coventry, Edward decided to take London. [Warwick followed 2 days later.]

4/11/1471, Edward IV entered London and took King Henry prisoner.

4/13/1471, Edward moved north out of London. His advanced forces skirmished with Warwick’s advanced forces at Barnet, 10 miles north of London. Arriving at night, the two main forces unknowingly camped next to each other.

4/14/1471, Richard, Earl of Warwick, “the King maker”, age 42, now head of the Lancastrian army, killed at the battle of Barnet against royalist forces of Edward IV. A heavy fog limited visibility. A combined total of 1000 knights died. Both handguns [relatively new] and cannon were used during the fight.

Richard buried at Bisham, Berkshire.

(S) Warwick the King-maker, Philippe de Comines, 2005. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Weir, 1995.

Children of Richard and Anne:

i. Isabel, born 9/5/1451 at Warwick castle, England.
7/11/1469 in Calais, Isabel married George, Duke of Clarence, brother of King Edward IV.
12/22/1476, Isabel died.

ii. Queen Anne, born 6/11/1456 at Warwick castle, England.
7/25/1470, Anne betrothed to Prince Edward, s/o King Henry VI, in Angers Cathedral, France. [Both great-grandchildren of John of Gaunt – a dispensation would be required to consummate the marriage.]
12/13/1470 in France, Edward and Anne married by the Grand Vicar of Bayeux.
5/4/1471, Edward killed at the battle of Tewkesbury.
7/12/1472, Anne married 2nd, Richard [later King Richard III], Duke of Gloucester, brother of King Edward IV.
3/1485, Anne died.

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