Tuesday, November 8, 2011

G25: 23638794 King James I of Aragon



23638794. King James I of Aragon & 23638795. Yolande of Hungary

2/1/1208, “Jaime” born at Montpellier, s/o 47277588. Pedro II of Aragon & 472775859 Marie of Montpellier.

1211, James a ward of Simon de Montfort [who intended to marry Jaime to his daughter.]

9/12/1213, James succeeded his father when he died at the battle of Muret.

6/1214, James wardship was transferred to a papal legate Peter of Benevento.

8/1214 at Lerida of Catalan, Jaime I acknowledged as soverign. Jaime’s uncle Sanc, count of Rousillon was appointed governor of the realm. Jaime lodged with the master of the Temple at the fortress at Monzon, where his cousin Ramon Berenguer IV, count of Provence, had been since 1209.

1215, By decree of the Fourth Lateran Council of the church, Muslims and Jews were required to wear distinctive dress, a yellow badge for Muslims, and a 6-pointed star for Jews. Jamie I and Fernand III both refused to enforce the ruling.

1216, Yolande born in Hungary, d/o 47277590. Andrew II of Hungary & 47277591. Yolande de Courtenay.

1217, James, in the care of the Knights Templar, brought to Zaragoza.

1221, James, age 12, married Eleanor [about age 30], d/o King Alfonso VIII of Castile & Queen Eleanor Plantagenet. [1 son, later declared illegitimate.]

1224, Jaime released from Monzon to begin reign.

1225, James failed in an attempt to conquer Islamic Peniscola.

1227, James suppressed a revolt of his barons.

1229, James’ marriage to Eleanor annuled on the grounds of consanguinity.

9/10/1229, James completed the conquest of Majorca [and later the rest of the Balearic islands.]

1231, Jamie I of Aragon got Sancho VII of Navarre, having no heirs, to name Jamie as his heir, and agreed to aid each other against Fernando III.

1232, Jamie took the crusader’s vow at Monzon.

1232, James begins the Valencia crusade.

7/1232, The Muslims of Minorca recognized Jaime I as their soverign, surrendering strategic castles to him.

1233, James outlawed any vernacular translation of the Bible.

1234, Sancho VII of Navarre died; but the Navarrese chose Thibault of Champange, Sancho’s nephew, as his successor.

1235, Jaime ceded the islands of Ibiza and Formentera as fiefs to the archbishop of Tarragon.

By 1235, James married Yolande with papal approval.

1236, Jaime renewed his crusader vows at the ‘cortes of Monzon’, announcing his intention to capture Valencia.

1237, Jaime established his siege forces on the Puig de Cebolla, a hill overlooking Valencia.

1238, A “monstrous and inhuman race of men”, with a leader called Kan, began to overun far eastern Europe.

8/1238, A christian blockade of the port of Valencia prevented supplies from reaching the city.

9/1238, Ibn Mardanish, on the verge of statvation, offered to surrender the city.

9/28/1238, James, fighting the Moors, captured Valencia. “We Jaume by the grace of God king of the Aragonese and of the kingdom of the Mallorcas, and count of Barcelona dn Urgell and lord of Montpellier, promise … all the Moors, … may travel and leave safe and secure … who wish to stay … may remain under Our protection …” (S) Medieval Iberia: Readings, Constable, 1997, P213.

10/9/1238, Jamie and his forces entered the city of Valencia.

1239, Jaime ordered a new territorial custom for Valencia, including parishes, published in Latin.

Jaime pushed south occupying Villena, Sax, Borgarra, and Salinas [which had been reserved to Castillian expansion by the treaty of Cazola in 1179.]

3/26/1244, James signed the Treaty of Almizra with King Fernando III of Castile.

1244, Jaime captured Alcira and Jativa.

1245, Jaime captured Biar.

1247, Jaime promulgated the Code of Huesca of Aragonese law in the ‘cortes’.

1248, Jaime suppressed a Muslim revolt in Valencia. Jamie ordered all involved expelled from the kingdom.

10/12/1251, Yolande died.

James married 3rd Teresa Gil de Vidaure [who he left when she developed leprosy].

4/1254, Queen Marguerite of Navarre, regent, visited King Jamie of Aragon at his court in Monteaguado seeking an alliance. (S) Alfonso 10, The Learned, Marta-Nez, 2010, P109.

3/16/1256, King James was meeting with Alfonso X at Soria where a Pisan delegation invested Alfonso as “King of the Romans.” [Both Alfonso and Richard, brother of King Henry III of England, were elected by different groups. Richard eventually succeeded.]

1257, Jaime opposed the election of Alfonso X of Castile as Holy Roman Emperor.

5/1258, James signed the Treaty of Corbeil with King Louis IX of France; ending his claims to Occitania [southern France] except for Montpellier. King Louis gave up his claims to counties of the Spanish March.

1260, Jaime made preparations for a crusade, but a prolonged storm season caused him to abandon his plans.

1261, Jamie had the territorial custom for Valencia republished in Catalan.

1263, James presided over a debate in Barcelona between a Jewish Rabbi and a Christian.

7/1264, Jaime convened an assembly of Catalan nobles and prelates in Barcelona.

11/1264, Jaime convened an assembly of Catalan bishops and nobels in Zaragoza. [Both assemblies were to ask for funds in support of Alfonso X against a revolt.]

1265, The baronial revolt of the Union attacked Jamie’s governmental changes, demanded a baronial council to represent the people.

1265, At the ‘cortes of Exea’, Jaime agreed to the barons insistance that a knight should have jurisdiction over disputes among nobles, or between nobles and the king. [Instead of persons trained in Roman and canon law.]

1266, James, fighting the Moors, and supporting Axfonso X of Castile, captured Murcia.

After Jaime agreed to supporting a crusade, the pope sent a letter to Jaime I of Aragon urging him to terminate his adulterous relations with a Castilian lady.

1268, Jaime sent an envoy to the court of the Mongol Khan about an alliance against the Moors.

12/1268, Alfonso X of Castile [Jaime’s son-in-law], spending Christmas with Jaime, urged him to not trust the Mongols; but at the same time refused any direct part in a crusade. Alfonso X did offer money and knights.

5/1269, James’ envoy to the Khan returned with two Mongols and a representative of the Byzantine emperor, pledging support.

9/4/1269, James’ assembled army sailed on crusade from Barcelona. A storm drove them off course and James abandoned the effort. [2 of his sons did continue to Acre.]

1274, James triumphant at the 2nd ecumenical council of Lyons. [The only monarch to attend the attempt by Pope Gregory X to revive an interest in crusading.]

1275, James’ barons revolted.

7/27/1276, James, the Conqueror, died at Valencia; succeeded by his son Pedro III. [Mallorca islands given to son Jaime II.]

(S) Medieval Iberia, Gerli, 2003. (S) A History of Medieval Spain, O’Callaghan, 1983.         

Family notes:

·         James wrote or dictated at various stages a chronicle of his own life, “Llibre dels fets” in Catalan; and an autobiography “Book of Deeds” that expresses concepts of the power and purpose of monarchy; examples of loyalty and treachery in the feudal order; and medieval military tactics.

·         According to James he was born in the house of the Rornamira, the eve of Our Lady Saint Mary, Candlemas Day, … sent to Saint Mary’s … where the clergy was singing Te Deum Laudamus … then taken to Saint Fermin where they were singing Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel … then back to his mother’s house. … He was named by his mother by lighting candles for each Apostle and seeing which on lasted the longest.

Children of James and Yolande:

i. Violante of Aragon, born 6/8/1236 in Zaragoza, Aragon.

1249, Violante married Alfonso X of Castile, s/o King Fernando III.

ii. Isabella of Aragon (11819397), born aft. 1252 in Aragon.

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