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Thursday, April 23, 2020

King Æthelred II of England & Queen Aelfgifu of Northumbria

3025764408. King Æthelred II of England & 3025764409. Queen Aelfgifu of Northumbria
~960, Aethelred ‘the Unready’ born in England, s/o s/o §§King Edgar ‘the Peaceful’ of England (`d.7/8/975) & Queen Aelfthryth Ordgar.
~965, Aelfgifu born in Northumbria, d/o §§Earl Thored of Northumbria.
7/8/975, Aethelred’s father died, his brother Edward succeeding. The same year a comet appeared in the sky.
976, Famine and “great disturbances” in England.
3/18/978, King Edward murdered at Corfe [Dorset], Aethelred succeeding his brother.
4/979, Æthelred crowned King of England at Kingston. 2 archbishops and 10 bishops were present. During the year a “cloud red as blood” was seen some nights around midnight, taking the form of rays of lights of various colors, and disappearing at dawn.

[––Aethelred & Aelfgifu ––]
~983, Aethelred married Aelfgifu.
986, Aethelred laid waste the diocese of Rochester. [It was also the year of a pestilence in the cattle of England.]
991, Aethelred lost the Battle of Maldon, and agreed to paid tribute, ‘Danegeld’, to King of Denmark.
992, Aethelred assembled a fleet of ships at London to attack the Danes’ ships, but the Danes escaped.
994, Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark attacked London with 94 ships, but was soon driven from London. [The Dane ‘host’ of ships would continue to attack various parts of England over the succeeding years. Their successes were largely due to information from Danes living in England, and Englishmen opposed to the king.]
1000, Aethelred laid waste to Cumberland, a Danish foothold in the north.
1001, Aethelred lost the battle of Pinhoe, supported by men from Devon and Somerset, to the Danes. Aethelred’s sea forces did drive the Danes from the Isle of Wight.
By 1002, Aelfgifu died.
[––Aethelred & Emma––]
1002, Aethelred married Emma of Normandy, d/o 3025764384. Duke Richard I of Normandy & 6051528721. Duchess Emma ?.
11/13/1002, Aethelred orderd the St. Brices’ Day massacre of Danish settlers.
1003, The Danes attacked Wiltshire and Hampshire.
1004, The Danes sacked Norwich, but suffered heavy losses against the English at Thetford.
1005, A great famine in England. During this time the harassing Danes returned to Denmark, returning in the fall to the Isle of Wight.
12/25/1006, Aethelred was in Shropshire for Christmas. The kings council advised paying tribute to the Danes in order to have peace.
1008, Aethelred ordered ships to be built throughout England. There was to be 1 large warship built for each 3 smaller ships.
1009, Aethelred assembled his fleet at Sandwich near the narrowest point of the English channel. In-fighting broke out among the commanders and many ships were lost in a storm.
8/1009, The Danes sacked Canterbury and took the archbishop captive [eventually killing him.]
5/1010, The Danes attacked Ipswich. [Due to information from locals they avoided conflicts with the assembled English forces.]
1011, Aethelred again agreed to pay tribute to attain peace with the Danes who by this time had overrun much of southern England.
4/13/1012, Aethelred assembled his leaders in London to give the tribute to the Danes. The tribute was opposed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was captured by the Danes and executed.
1013, Emma sent to the court of her brother, Richard II, after the invasion of England by Svend King of Denmark. The Danes fleet entered on the Humber river, then south on the river Trent, landing at Gainsborough.
1013, England successfully invaded and subjugated by Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark, who was crowned King in London. Aethelred fled to Normandy.
2/2/1014, King Sweyn died, leaving his son Cnut as king.
3/1014, Aethelred returned to England with Emma.
By 6/1014, Aethelred’s 2 elder sons had died.
1014, Sweyn’s son Canute defeated in battle by King Aetherlred, returned to Denmark.
1015, Many of the English that had sided with the Danes were punished, some killed and their possessions taken.
8/1015, Canute of Denmark invaded and pillaged England.
1016, Son Edmund, referring to himself as Earl of the East Midlands, helped his father Aethelred defend London.
4/23/1016, King Aethelred died, buried in Old St. Paul’s cathedral, London. Emma again returned to Normandy. [Aethelred’s 37 total years as King would not be surpassed until King Henry III.]
10/18/1016, King Edmund of England [s/o Aethelred], defeated at the battle of Ashingdon.
11/30/1016, Canute became King of Denmark and all of England.
1017, Emma, living in Normandy, betrothed to King Canute of England.
[––Emma & King Cnut––]
7/10/1018, Emma married King Cnut.
1028, King Canute became King of Norway.
11/12/1035, On the death of King Canute, his son Hardicanute became King of Denmark and South England, [his half-brother Harold became King of North England.]
1037, Emma was driven from England by King Harold.
3/17/1040, Hardicanute became king of both Denmark and England on the death of Harold.
1040, Emma acted as Regent in Wessex.
6/8/1042, King Hardicanute died.
4/3/1043, Emma’s son Edward the Confessor became King of England, crowned at Winchester on Easter Sunday.
1044, Another year of famine in England after a sever winter.
3/14/1052, Emma died, buried in Winchester cathedral, London, England.
(S) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Garmonsway, 1972. [Excellent history of early England.]
Family notes:
§§King Edgar ‘the Peaceful’ (fl.955); s/o King Edmund I (killed.5/26/946) & Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury; s/o King Edward ‘the Elder’  (d.7/17/924); s/o King Alfred the Great (d.10/26/899); br./o King Aethelred of Wessex (fl.865, d.4/23/871); s/o King Aethelwulf of Wessex (d.1/13/858); s/o King Egbert of Wessex (d.839); s/o King Ealhumd of Kent (fl.784).
Child of Aethelred and Aelfgifu:
i. Edmund II of England (1512882204), born ~990 in England. [3rd son]
Child of Aethelred and Emma:
i. Edward the Confessor of England, born ~1004 in England.
4/3/1043, Edward crowned King of England.
1/5/1066, Edward died. [The last king of the House of Wessex.]
Child of Canute and Emma:
i. King Hardicanute of Denmark and England, born ~1019 in England.
3/17/1040-42, Hardicanute King of England.
6/8/1042, Hardicanute died at Lambeth.

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