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Monday, August 24, 2020

Earl Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare & Countess Eve MacMurchada

 189118350. Earl Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare & 189118351. Countess Eve MacMurchada

1130, Richard born in England, s/o 378236700. Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare & 378236701. Isabel de Beaumont.

12/22/1135, Stephen crowned king of England. [Usurping Empress Matilda, d/o King Henry I; the next 18 years there would be civil war in England.]

4/15/1136, Richard’s uncle, Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, killed in a Welsh ambush by Mogan ab Owain.

1138, Richard’s father named as Earl of Pembroke by King Stephen.

~1145, Eve [Aoife] born in Ireland, d/o 378236702. Dermot MacMurchada & 378236703. Mor Ni Tuathail.

1/6/1148, On his father’s death, Richard succeeded to the lands and castles.

11/6/1153, Richard, “comes de Penbroc”, witnessed the Treaty of Wallingford [aka Windsor/Westminster], which recognized Henry, Duke of Anjou [s/o Empress Matilda], as heir to the throne of England.

12/19/1154, Henry II succeeded King Stephen of England. [King Henry began a systematic reclamation of demesne lands alienated by King Stephen.]

12/1154, King Henry II did not recognize Richard’s title to Pembroke; inherited by his father from his uncle Walter de Clare and granted by King Stephen, nor as lord of Orbec and Bienfaite in Normandy, inherited by his father from his uncle Roger de Clare and granted by King Henry I.

1155, Richard attended an English royal court [his last recorded until 1168.] (S) Medieval Ireland, Duffy, 2005, P734.

1/1156 at Dover, Richard fitz Gilbert witnessed the King’s creation of Aubrey de Vere as earl of Oxford.

1159, Rhus ap Gruffydd attacked castles in Wales. Reginald of Cornwall, William of Gloucester, Roger of Hertford, Richard of Pembroke [lord of Striguil], and Patrick of Salisbury marched together [unsuccessfully] against Rhys. (S) History of Wales, V2, Lloyd, 1911, P511.

1164, Richard inherited the manor of Fitz Aufculfs [in Mershe] from Walter Giffard, earl of Buckingham. (S) History and Antiquities – Buckingham, Willis, 1755, P238. [Inherited through his mother, Richard should have received more lands, but King Henry refused to release them.]

1166, Richard Strongbow of Strigul, held 83 knights’ fees in England and Wales. (S) War, Government and Aristocracy in the British Isles, Given-Wilson, 2008, P15. [Assessed on the aid of marrying the King’s daughter.]

1167, Norsemen supported Roderic O’Connor of Connaught, claimant to the high kingship of Ireland, drove into exile their overlord, Dermot [Eve’s father.]

8/1167, Dermot MacMurchada, lord of Leinster, arrived in Bristol, along with his daughter Aoife, and went to the home of Robert fitz Harding, a wealthy merchant, money-lender, and favorite of King Henry’s. Dermot had gone to King Henry in Normandy and gained permission to recruit knights from Henry’s lands in Wales and the Marches for his battle to regain his own lordship of Leinster in Ireland. One of those recruited was his future son-in-law Strongbow. [Strongbow was initially reluctant to go to Ireland. Robert fitz Stephen and Maurice fitz Gerald did send forces.]

9/1167, Richard, earl of Strigoil, escorted Princess Matilda to Minden, Germany to marry Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria.

7/1168, Dermot offered Strongbow lands in Ireland, his daughter Eve in marriage, and the lordship of Leinster on Dermot’s death if he supported his battle to regain his own lordship of Leinster in Ireland.

1168, Richard attended royal court to receive permission to marry. (S) Medieval Ireland, Duffy, 2005, P734.

5/1170, Richard, earl of Strangul, giving command to Raymond le Gros, sent many of his vassals from Wales to Ireland [1200 soldiers]. (S) Journal of the Waterford & South-East of Ireland, V6, 1900, P88. [1170 – The forces defeated in battle at Baginbun Head a combination of Irish and Danes.]

1170, Strongbow’s departure from England to be delayed by a messenger of King Henry, who arrived too late. Strongbow left from Milford Haven.

8/23/1170, Strongbow landed with 200 men-at-arms and 1000 archers at Waterford, Ireland.

8/28/1170, Strongbow and Dermot, providing 500 ‘gallowglasses’ – infantry equipped and armed after like the Norwegians, took Waterford from the Danes.

[––Richard & Eve––]

8/29/1170, Strongbow married Eve in the cathedral at Waterford, Ireland.

1170, Strongbow and Dermot marched on Dublin; taking a circuitous route over the mountains that bypassed prepared defenses. Strongbow met with the Ostmen of the city, and at the same time sent Raymond le Gros and Miles de Cogan to attack the city, which was captured. [The English now had a port in which to support a major invasion.]

1170, By the general assembly of Irish clergy at Armagh, it was decreed that all Englishmen who were held in bondage should be freed. [The Irish were worried about an all-out invasion and conquest by the English – which would occur a year later.]

1170–1171, Strongbow’s battles continued; conquering much of southeastern Ireland.

4/1171, King Henry II became alarmed at the success of Richard’s knights; and fearing their growing strength and possible motives, he ordered all his knights in Ireland to return to England on pain of forfeiture of their lands in England, Wales and Normandy.

5/1/1171, Diarmait died at Ferns; leaving no sons, Strongbow, his son-in-law taking the title King of Leinster. [According to Norman law; but by Irish law a king could not name a successor, he had to be elected.]

5/1171, Ruaidri Ua Chonchobhair, King of Connaught, with and army of about 30,000, laid siege to Strongbow and the city of Dublin.

6/1171, 600 of Strongbow’s men, separated into 3 divisions, surprised, defeated and routed the Irish army [who were caught bathing in the river.]

7/1171, Strongbow, King of Leinster, met Henry II at Newnham in Gloucester. King Henry took from Strongbow most of the lands that Strongbow himself had conquered and granted them back to Strongbow as lands held by the grace of the king. Richard granted his father-in-law’s title of King of Leinster.

10/1171, After the English Pope Adrian granted Ireland to King Henry, Henry landed at Waterford. [The English domination of Ireland began.] Strongbow met the King and surrendered the port cities of Ireland. (S) Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare, 2010, P216.

1171-72, Richard, earl of Pembroke, grant lands of Cluenliff to the abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary near Dublin. (S) History of the City of Dublin, V1, 1818, P301.

3/1172 at Wexford, Ireland, Earl Richard fitz Gilbert (of Strigoil and Pembroke), witnessed a royal charter to Hugh de Lacy of the land of Meath.

4/17/1172, King Henry left Ireland leaving Hugh de Lacy as justiciar, holding Dublin and Meath; Robert fitz Bernard in custody of Waterford and Wexford; and Richard, earl of Strigoil, in possession of Leinster.

4/1173, King Henry II’s sons in Normandy revolted, and Strongbow responded to a call for support by Henry. Strongbow intially was assigned to defend the castle at Gisors.

8/9/1173, Strongbow participated in the capture [after a siege] of Verneuil, Normandy.

9/1173, Strongbow participated in the siege of Breteuil, Normandy. [Richard had proven his military skills and his fealty.]

1173, King Henry ordered Strongbow back to Ireland to control it as the king’s representative; granting him the governing of Ireland, the city of Wexford, the castle of Wicklow, and the constableship of Waterford and Dublin.

1174, Richard founded a priory of Knights Templars at Kilmainham. (S) Picture of Dublin, Curry, 1835, P241.

1174, Richard defeated on an expedition into Connaught.

1175, Strongbow returned to England for the signing of the Treaty of Windsor between Henry and Ruaidri Ua Chonchobhair, King of Connaught [and given all of Ireland outside of Leinster, Meath, and Waterford.] (S) Oath of Fealty, Scott, 2009, P99.

1175, King Henry ordered Richard, Norman earl of Lower Gwent, to restore Caerleon to Iorwerth ab Owain. (S) Medieval Boundaries, Kinoshita, 2006, P121.

10/1175 at Marlborough, Earl Richard of Striguil witnessed a royal charter to the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury.

4/5/1176, ‘Richardus comes de Streguel filius comitis Gisleberti’ died of an of infection in a leg or foot; buried in Holy Trinity Church in Dublin with his uncle-in-law Lawrence, bishop of Dublin, presiding.


Bef. 1184, Eve given her dower rights by King Henry.

1185, Aoife [Eve], styled Countess of Ireland.

1185, King Henry granted the lordship of Ireland to his son John, including the lordship of Leinster.

1186, Aoife [Eve], styled Countess of Strigoil.

1188, Eve, “comtissa de Hibernia”, confirmed a charter in Ireland.

1189, Eve, countess of Ireland, held many estates in England in dower. (S) Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood II, Harper-Bill, 1988, P16.

Eve died.

(S) A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares 1217-1314, Altschul, 1965. (S) Strongbow’s Conquest of Ireland, Clare, 1888.

Family notes:

Richard, “Strongbow” [for his skill and use of the long bow of the men of Gwent], Earl of Pembroke and Lord of Leinster. [His father was also known as Strongbow.]

Children of Richard and Eve:

i. Isabel de Clare (94559175), born 1172 in Ireland.

ii. Gilbert de Clare, born ~1173 in Ireland.

1185, Gilbert died while still a minor.

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