1125-6, Frederick “Red Beard” [Barbarosa] born in Germany; s/o 378236600. Duke Frederick II Hohenstaufen & 378236601. Judith of Bavaria.
3/7/1138, Frederick’s uncle Konrad elected King of Germany on the death of Lothar. Civil war broke out between the Ghibellines [Hohenstaufen] and the Guelfs [Welfs].
Frederick 1st married to Adelheid of Vohnburg [no children.]
5/1142, King Conrad III [never crowned Emperor] and Welf leader Henry the Lion reached a peace agreement.
1143, Beatrice born in Burgundy, heiress & d/o 378236602. Count Renaud III of Burgundy & 378236603. Countess Agatha of Lorraine.
1143, Rebellious Roman citizens reconstituted the Senate and formed a commune [leaving the Pope his sanctuary in the Vatican – 12/25/1145 reinvested as head of the church after recognizing the republic.]
1143-47, Frederick the Red denounced as his enemy Henry of Wolfrathshausen [young Henry the Lion, who’s father had died in 1139] and invaded Bavaria [Welf lands]. Frederick captured Conrad of Dachau [who he later released without a ransom demand.]
Bef. 1147, Frederick captured the town of Zurich in Swabia.
2/1147, Frederick took the cross of a crusader in Bavaria.
4/6/1147, Frederick became duke of Swabia on the death of his father, Frederick the One-Eyed.
6/1147, Frederick attended the 2nd crusade with his uncle King Konrad III.
1147, King Conrad’s crusader army left from Nuremberg going southeast to Regensburg, where they boarded ships to travel down the Danube.
9/7/1147, The crusaders reached the town of Cherevach west of Constantinople. The army camped to await those trailing behind. They were surprised by a sudden storm that caused loss of life and supplies.
10/25/1147, The Germans were ambushed by Turks [probably with help from the Greeks] at Dorylaeum. Most of the foot soldiers were killed or captured.
1/22/1148, Beatrice’s father died; she became “suo jure’ countess of Burgundy.
4/1148, The German crusaders left Constantinople before the French. They were carried in Turkish ships.
6/24/1148 at Acre, at a High Court of Jerusalem, King Louis of France, Emperor Conrad III, and Baldwin, King of Jerusalem met. The Council decided that the best move in defense of the holy lands would be to retake Damascus.
1148, At Damascus, due to heat, lack of water, and disagreements on plans, the seige failed after 4 days.
1148, King Conrad led the Germans in an attack on Ascalon which failed.
1148, The Germans returned by ship, landing at Thessaly, Greece; where King Conrad sent Duke Frederick ahead to assess the condition of empire. Frederick traveled through Bulgaria and Pannonia.
4/1149, Frederick reached Germany; where he had several of the ministers of state executed.
1150, King Conrad’s eldest son Henry died; leaving as heir the younger brother Frederick, age 4.
2/15/1152 at Bamberg, Frederick with his uncle Konrad at his death; given preference over Konrad’s own 6-year-old son to succeed.
3/4/1152 at Frankfurt, Frederick elected King of Germany. The Welf faction was headed by his maternal 1st cousin Henry the Lion.
3/9/1152 at Aachen [Aix-la-Chapelle], Frederick crowned King of Germany.
3/1152, Frederick advanced on the lower Rhine and attacked the city of Utrecht.
4/1152, Frederick celebrated Easter at Cologne [the largest city of western Europe at the time].
3/23/1153, Frederick concluded the Treaty of Constance with Pope Eugene III.
5/1153, Frederick held a general assembly at Merseburg on Whitsunday. Peter, king of the Danes, attended.
7/8/1153, Pope Eugene III died; succeeded by Pope Anastasius IV.
12/1153, Frederick held court at Speyer.
10/1154, Frederick assembled an army near Augsburg; then crossed the Alps, camping near Verona [in Lombardy, west of Venice, east of Milan – the capital], which was in rebellion. [Of modern Italy, the north part belonged to Germany, the middle to Rome, and the south was Sicily – land of King William I of Norman descent.]
11/30/1154, Frederick stopped for 5 days on the plain of Roncaglia, on the Po river, near Piacenza.
12/3/1154, Pope Anastasius IV died; succeeded by Pope Hadrian IV.
12/25/1154, Frederick celebrated Christmas near Milan.
1154-55, Frederick burned the fortress of Rosate; and then destroyed 3 other fortresses around the city; then marched through Vercelli and Turin [cities west of Milan.]
1155, Frederick attacked Chieri and Asti, which was burnt [the populace had abandoned the town on his approach].
2/1155, Frederick then laid siege to Tortona [southwest of Milan ]. The fortress fell in 4 days.
4/10/1155, The city of Tottona surrendered. Frederick set the city in flames. [The city of Pavia asked Frederick to come to celebrate the victory.]
[––King Frederick of Germany & Italy––]
4/17/1155 at Pavia [half way between Tortona and Milan], Federick crowned King of Italy [they celebrated for 3 days.]
1155, Frederick proceeded through Lombardy, to Romagna and Tuscany, to Rome; where he gained entry to St. Peter’s at night. [The army was encamped at Tivoli, east of Rome.]
[––Holy Roman Emperor Frederick––]
6/18/1155 in Rome at St. Peter’s Basilica, Frederick crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV. The same day, Frederick had to suppress a revolt, killing over 1000 Roman citizens who believed he should have received the crown from the people, not the Pope.
6/1155, Frederick moved his army to Albano.
7/27/1155, Frederick captured Spoleto [NNE of Rome, which had failed to pay their tribute], destroying the city.
9/1155, Frederick captured Verona [half way between Milan and Venice] with an army of 1800.
10/1155, Frederick invested Henry the Lion with the duchy of Bavaria.
[––Frederick & Beatrice––]
6/9/1156 at Wurzburg, Frederick married to Beatrice.
7/1156, Frederick held court at Nuremburg.
9/1156 at Cologne, Frederick settled a long-term dispute between Henry Jsomirgott, his paternal uncle, and Henry the Lion, over the duchy of Bavaria. [This created the duchy of Austria.]
4/1157, Frederick guraranteed the rights of Jews in matters of law, and declared that none should be forcibly converted to Christianity.
1157, Frederick, by the grace of God emperor of the Romans .. to his beloved uncle Otto [bishop of Friesing – one of the primary biographers of Frederick] … briefly compiled … the things performed by us since our accession to the throne, …
8/22/1157, Frederick invaded Poland, which was in rebellion – not attending diets [similar to a parliament, but included heads of churches] and not sending an annual 500 mark tribute. Duke Bołesław eventually submitted to large penalties and swore to come to the diets. [Duke Bołesław a half-brother of King Władysław (378220582), who was in exile.]
9/1157 at Wurzburg, Frederick knighted by an embassy from his aunt, the Empress of Constantinople [Bertha, sister of Conrad III].
10/1157, Frederick held a diet at Besancon in Burgundy; where he received an embassy and letter from Pope Hadrian claiming indirectly that he held his empire by the grace of the Pope.
1/13/1158, Frederick held a diet at Regensburg where he delt with issues about Hungary.
6/1158, Frederick, from the city of Augsburg, invaded Italy, supported by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria. Frederick crossed the Alps arriving northwest of Verona. They then traveled south to Modoena to await additonal soldiers from south of the Alps.
7/4/1158, Frederick and his army moved towards Milan and crossed the Adda.
8/5/1158, Dividing his army into 7 divisions, Frederick began a siege of Milan.
9/8/1158, The Milanese and Emperor Frederick made peace; the Milanese agreeing to swear fealty, to erect a royal palace, to pay money owed amounting to 9000 marks of silver or gold, and to provide 300 hostages.
11/11/1158, Frederick held a diet for all Italian cities and nobles at Roncaglia.
2/2/1159, Frederick celebrated Candlemas in the town of Oxximiano, where many of the nobles of Italy attended the ceremony.
4/12/1159, Planning another attack on Milan, Frederick spent Easter at Modena, where he learned the Milanese had captured his fortress at Trezzo [on 4/13/1159] where he kept a large treasure.
5/30/1159, King Władysław (378220582) died in Poland, succeeded Frederick. [Frederick the nephew of King Władysław.]
6/1159, Frederick dismissed most of his Italian troops at Lodi, awaiting German reinforcements crossing the Alps.
7/15/1159, Frederick laid a trap for Milanese forces and killed or captured about 750.
7/20/1159, Duke Henry [the Lion] arrived with the forces from Germany.
7/1159, Frederick besieged Crema, aligned with Milan, at the instigation of the city of Cremona. Because of attrocities commited by the city’s soldiers, Frederick executed his hostages, including a nephew of the archbishop of Milan. [During this time Frederick visited Beatrice who was staying in the fortress of San Bassano.]
9/1/1159, Pope Adrian IV [Hadrian] died; Pope Alexander III and Antipope Victor IV both elected by rival factions [and who later excommunicated each other].
9/1159, The Duke of Spoleto arrived with more forces.
10/23/1159, From Crema, Frederick wrote a letter to the Bishop of Brixen about the papal schism.
1/27/1160, Crema surrendered. About 20,000 were allowed to leave the city with what they could carry before it was looted and burned to the ground.
2/5/1160 at Pavia, Frederick called a diet at which he recognized Victor IV as Pope.
7/25/1160, Frederick held a diet at Erfurt, at which he requested reinforcements to attack Milan.
5/1161, Frederick launched an attack on Milan, after 1st offering surrender terms which were rejected.
3/6/1162, Frederick captured and destroyed Milan; “of the entire city, not a fiftieth part was left standing.”
5/1162, Piacenza surrendered to Frederick; which was required to destroy it walls.
5-6/1162, Frederick made agreements with the cities of Genoa and Pisa, maritime cities of the north. [Fredrick was planning a maritime invasion of Sicily.]
7/1162, Frederick crossed the Alps into Burgundy.
8/29/1162, Emperor Frederick and King Louis, their armies camped on opposite sides of the Saone river between Dole and Dijon, “missed seeing each other” at the bridge of St. Jean de Losne. [They did not want to meet as arranged because of continuing disagreement over who should be pope.] Count Henry I “the Liberal”, Count of Champagne and Troyes, the primary mediator between Emperor Frederick I and King Louis VII of France. [Soon after King Louis and King Henry II of England gave their support to Pope Alexander III.]
4/16/1163, Abbess Hildegard of Bingen [mystic, writer and composer] given letters of protection by Frederick as she undertook 4 extended missions through Germany. (S) Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, Sadie, 1994, P217.
6/1163 at Nuremburg, Frederick received 4 papal legates, 2 of them Cardinals, from Pope Alexander III.
10/1163, Frederick again crossed the Alps into Italy.
3/1164, Frederick held a diet at Parma and announced his plans to march on Rome. [But resistance was stiffening primarily through the League of Verona: Genoa, Venice, Vicenza, Padua and Verona.]
4/26/1164, Pope Victor IV died.
6/1164, Frederick unsuccessfully attacked Verona.
4/15/1165, at Rouen, Empress Matilda, d/o King Henry I, refuses to see ambassadors of the Emperor Frederick [who wanted to negotiate marriages of King Henry II’s daughters – Matilda’s son. King Henry II, accepted the ambassadors.]
5/23/1165 at Wurzburg, Frederick held court and recognized Paschal III as Pope [replacing Victor IV]. Because they would not support Paschal, the Cistercians were expelled from Germany.
12/25/1165, Frederick celebrated Christmas at Aachen, when he began the process of canonization of Charlemagne.
10/1166, Frederick invaded Italy with Rome and the associated papal states as his target. [Willliam I of Sicily had died the previous May, leaving a minor as his heir; the main papal alliance in opposition to Frederick.]
1167, Frederick laid siege to Ancona.
5/29/1167, Frederick’s forces defeated the communal Roman army at the battle of Monte Porzio, southeast of Rome. [Frederick was still at the siege of Ancona.]
7/24/1167, Frederick and his army arrived at Rome. On the Tiber river they first took Monte Maria, then the castle of St. Angelo, and then set fire to the church of Santa Maria in Turi. Pope Alexander III fell back to a fortified castle near the Coliseum. Eventually, Pope Alexander had to flee [disguised as a pilgrim.]
8/1/1167 in St. Peters, Beatrice crowned Empress of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Paschal. [The next day a severe storm caused the sewers to overflow. Disease then ravaged his army, and Frederick retreated to Germany.]
9/12/1167, Frederick and his army encamped at Pavia.
12/1/1167, The League of Verona combined with the League of Cremona, creating a 16-city alliance against Frederick [seeking independence.]
2/1168, By arrangement of Frederick [in 1165], King Henry II of England’s eldest daughter, Matilda, married Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony [who had not accompanied Frederick on his campaign against Rome.]
1168, Frederick, with only a small force, decided to return to Germany via Savoy [rather than cross the Alps where he could be attacked and have little maneuverability.] Attacked on the way, Frederick fled in disguise.
3/1168, Frederick reached Burgundy, from where he returned to Germany.
1168, Frederick built up fortresses in Dahn and Trifels; and began a 6-year program of construction within Germany.
6/24/1168 at Bamberg, Frederick named his younger son Henry as King of the Romans.
4/20/1169, Frederick celebrated Easter at Alsace.
1169, Frederick granted the city of Poppenhusen important commercial privileges. (S) Families of German Ancestry, Schlegel, 2003, P99.
1170, Frederick limited the powers of church advocates, and barred all but bishops invested with regalia to coin money.
2/1171, Emperor Frederick met King Louis VII of France at Maxey-sur-Vaise to discuss the papal issue, and outstanding issues between the Empire and France.
1172, Frederick planned another expedition into Italy.
1173, Frederick began 4 new 14-day annual fairs, 2 at Aachen and 2 at Duisburg, during which all traders were exempt from paying dues.
1174, Humbert III of Savoy, “the Saint”, siding with the Pope Alexander III, was deprived of many of his titles in war against Emperor Frederick I.
9/1174, Frederick crossed the Alps with an army of mercenaries, mostly from Brabant; attacking Piedmont and Susa. [Christian of Mainz was already in Lombardy with a small army sent earlier by Frederick.]
10/1174, Frederick laid siege to Alexssandria.
4/13/1175, Frederick ended the siege at Alessandria with the approach of a coalition of northern Italian armies; and retreated to Pavia.
5/29/1176, Frederick defeated and wounded at the battle of Legnano near Milan by the Lombar league. Frederick supported by the forces of Count Floris III of Holland.
11/1176, By the Peace of Anagni, Frederick recognized Alexander III as Pope.
12/12/1176, Frederick completed a treat with the city of Cremona. [Which was followed by agreements with many other cities.]
7/21/1177, Frederick signed peace agreements with Sicily and the Lombardy League.
7/24/1177, Frederick brought to San Niccolo del Lido by Venetian galleys where 3 Cardinals absolved him of excommunication.
8/1/1177, Count Floris III of Holland, a guarantor for Emperor Frederick in an agreement with Pope Alexander III [Treaty of Venice – considered the crowning achievement of Frederick’s reign – his imperial majesty was now recognized by all Christendom]. (S) Contemporary Numistatics, Loon, 1995, P35.
12/4/1177 at Osimo, Frederick published an edict on the administration of justice.
1178, Frederick crossed the Alps at Geneva and proceeded into Burgundy.
7/30/1178 at Arles, Frederick crowned King of Burgundy [his 1st visit to that region of Burgundy.]
10/31/1178, Frederick arrived at Spires in Germany. [At this time Frederick came into direct conflict with Henry the Lion.]
1/13/1179 at Worms, Frederick was ready to arbitrate a trial between Henry the Lion and his protesting Saxon nobles. [Henry did not show.]
1179, Frederick bought the extensive “allods” of Count Welf VI in Swabia, and acquired the counties of Salzbach and Pfullendorf [which he gave to a son.]
1/1180 at Wurzburg, After multiple attempts to get Henry to appear at proposed trials; Frederick charged him with treason and declared his fiefs forfeit.
7/1180, Henry the Lion’s town of Lubeck surrendered to a siege of Frederick. Henry the Lion to refuge in the fortress of Stade in northern Saxony.
8/30/1181, Pope Alexander III died; succeeded by Lucius III.
11/1181 at Erfurt, Henry the Lion threw himself on the mercy of Frederick, who banished him for 3 years, and granted him the two cities of Brunswick and Luneburg. [Henry left for England.]
1182, The city of Lubeck submitted to Frederick, who bestowed on it the title of an Imperial city. (S) History of Vandalia, V1, Nugent, 1766, P337.
1182, At a diet at Regensburg, Frederick ordered axes to brought into the hall, threatening the attending Czech magnates with death for their behavior. (S) Ritual and Politics, Dalewski, 2008, P66.
6/25/1183 at Constance, Frederick personally signed a peace agreement with Lombardy made at Piacenza [which also ended the city of Alessandria and constituted the city of Ceasaria.]
1183, Duke Hendrik III of Limburg supported the election of Fulmar as archbishop of Trier [opposed by Emperor Frederick who wanted Rudolf, provost of St. Peter, to have the position.]
5/1184, Frederick at the diet of Mainz. Frederick knighted his 2 eldest sons, Henry VI and Frederick [originally named Conrad].
10/1184, Frederick arrived at Verona to meet with Pope Lucius. Frederick was hoping to settle the disputes between the Church and the Empire, so that he could get his son Henry crowned Emperor; Lucius was looking for help to get back into Rome. [During the same time, Frederick gave Henry the Lion’s estates in Milan and Liguria to Obizzo d’Este.] Neither got what they wanted; but they did agree to another crusade, and to outlaw the Catharist [Albigensian] heresy developing in the church.
11/15/1184, Beatrice died at Jouhe [now in eastern France]; buried at Speyer Cathedral, Bamberg, Germany.
1885, Frederick spent the latter half of the year in Tuscany and central Italy.
11/25/1185, Pope Lucius died; succeeded by Urban III [who retained his title as archbishop of Milan.]
1/27/1186 in Milan, Frederick directed the wedding of his son Henry [without the Pope’s consent.]
5/17/1186, Pope Urban declared Folmar the true archbishop of Treves, in violation of the Concordat of Worms; and urged Cremona to lead a revolt against Frederick [threatened by Frederick, they did not comply].
6/1186, Frederick ordered his son Henry to invade the Papal states and he quickly conquered the north half, and began a siege of Orvieto.
By 11/1186, Frederick returned to Germany where he a diets at Gelnhausen and then Nuremburg.
7/1187, The Christian army of King Guy of Jerusalem was extinguished at the battle of the Horns of Hattin.
1187, Emperor Frederick met King Philip of France on the banks of the Meuse river between Ivois and Mouzon. They renewed their pact of alliance against King Henry of England and the Welfs of Germany.
10/2/1187, Jerusalem fell to Vizier Salah-ed-Din Yusaf ibn Ayub [Saladin].
10/24/1187, Pope Urban died; succeeded by aging Gregory VIII; who immediately sent a letter to Frederick saying it was not the business of the Pope or his Cardinals “to take up arms and give battle”; reversed excommunications of Folmar; and sent a letter to Henry VI addressing it to the “elected emperor of the Romans.”
12/17/1187, Pope Gregory VIII died at Pisa; succeeded by Clement III; who invited Henry VI to escort him to Rome. [Frederick was not unchallenged in all of Germany and Italy.]
3/1188, Frederick took the cross of a crusader at the Diet of Mainz, aka the Diet of Christ. Count Floris III of Holland and his son William joined Frederick.
5/11/1189, 20,000 crusaders assembled at Ratisbon; formed into batallions of 500, departed.
1189, The crusaders traveled overland through Hungary, Serbia and Bulgaria. [English and French led armies were also enroute.]
8/16/1189, Frederick’s army took Trajan’s pass by assault against the Greeks. [Emperor Isaac II Angelus instigated the Greek resistance to the crusader army.]
9/1189, Emperor Frederick sent an embassy to Isaac; which Isaac took hostage. Because of this, Emperor Frederick threatened to attack Constantinople.
10/1189, Frederick’s forces to captured Hadrianople.
1/21/1190, Emperor Isaac II Angelus concluded the Treaty of Anrianople with Emperor Frederick I, agreeing to provide transport for his forces from Hellespont to Asia Minor.
5/18/1190, Frederick and his army reached and captured Iconium [modern Konya, Turkey.]
6/10/1190, Frederick died, drowned in the Saleph river [Turkey] while wading his horse across; buried at the church of St. Peter, Antioch. [Many of the army turned around, but a force of about 5000 proceeded to the Holy land.] Frederick was succeeded by his son Henry VI.
(S) The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, Mierow, 1953. (S) Frederick Barbarbossa, Pacaut, 1970.
The Hohenstaufens aka “Ghibellines”, the Bavarians as “Guelfs” or “Welfs” – the 2 most powerful families in Germany at the time; a collection of 1600 individual principalities.
Children of Frederick and Beatrice:
i. Beatrix of Burgundy (39979494), born 1162 in Germany.
Beatrix married Guillaume II de Thiern, Comte de Chalon-sur-Saône.
1179, Beatrix died in the birth of her daughter.
Daughter: Comtesse Beatrix de Chalon (19989747).
ii. Frederick V, born 7/16/1164 in Germany.
11/28/1170, Frederick, duke of Swabia, died.
iii. Henry VI, born 11/1165 in Germany.
1/27/1186 in Milan, Henry married Constance, d/o & heiress of William II of Sicily.
4/1191 in Rome, Henry and Constanced crowned.
12/25/1194 at Palermo, Henry crowned King of Sicily.
9/28/1197, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI died at Messina of malaria [or poisoned].
Child: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
iv. Conrad [Frederick VI], born 2/1167 in Germany.
1/20/1191, Frederick VI, duke of Swabia, died at Acre from disease.
v. Otto I, born 7/1170 in Germany.
1/13/1200, Otto, count of Burgundy, killed at Besancon.
vi. Conrad II, born 3/1172 in Germany.
8/15/1196, Conrad, duke of Swabia and Rothenburg killed at Durlach.
vii. Philip of Germany (94559150), born 8/1177 in Germany.