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Monday, August 10, 2020

King Edward I & Queen Eleanor of Castile & Queen Marguerite of France

 5909696. King Edward I & 5909697. Queen Eleanor of Castile & 11820333. Queen Marguerite of France

6/18/1239, Edward born in London at Westminster palace, England, s/o 11819392. King Henry III & 11819393. Eleanor of Provence.

1239, Edward moved with his family to Windsor where he would be raised, his father having spent over £10,000 since 1236 renovating the castle. {Edward entrusted to Hugh and Sybil Giffard (birthing midwife).]

9/29/1240, Edward’s new sister Margaret born at Windsor.

1241, Eleanor [English spelling of Leonor] born in Castile, Spain, d/o 11819394. Fernando III & 11819395. Jeanne de Dammartin.

1242, King Henry, Queen Eleanor, son Edward and daughter Margaret at the consecration of St. Pauls’s in London where each made gifts of cloths of gold [each child presented a gift of cloth of arras.]

1246, Queen Eleanor stayed 3 weeks with her sick son Prince Edward in the Cistercian abbey at Beaulieu, Hampshire, against Cistercian rules.

1246, Edward put under the care of Sir Bartholomew Pecche, to learn knightly skills. [Hugh Giffard had died.]

1247, Edward allowed to hunt in Windsor forest.

12/26/1251 at York, Prince Edward with 3 companions, dressed in gowns of gold cloth, accompanied his sister Margaret to the alter to marry Alexander III of Scotland.

4/27/1252, King Henry created his son Edward as lord of Gascony, retaining the title duke of Acquitaine for himself.

5/30/1252, Fernando III, “the Saint”, died in Spain; “Leonor” was with her father when he died.

8/1/1253, King Henry III of England empowered W. bishop of Bath and others to investigate a marriage between Edward, the king’s eldest son, and Eleanor, sister of A. king of Castile, with a dower of 1,000 marks a year. (S) CPRs.

8/6/1253, Edward, age 14, at Portsmouth to watch his father leave to fight in Gascony. [The potential rival being Alfonso X, the King of Castile.] Gascony had been promised to Edward by his parents.

2/14/1254, King Henry gave Lord Edward all of Ireland except Dublin, Limerick and Athlone, and lands in north Wales, and 3 castles in south Wales, 4 castles in Gascony, the Isle of Oleron, and the Channel Isles.

4/8/1254, “Mandate of the king to queen Eleanor and R. earl of Cornwall to cause Edward the king's eldest son and heir to have the homages and fealties due for all the lands which the king has given to him in England, Ireland, Wales and Cheshire, saving to the king the allegiance due to him.” [This was to make Edward marriageable in the eyes of a political match.] (S) Epistol√¶.

5/29/1254 from Portsmouth, Edward set sail for Gascony with his mother.

9/1254 from Bordeaux, Edward left for Spain with a retinue of knights, and sons of knights [to be knighted at the wedding.]

10/18/1254, Edward’s retinue arrived at Burgos, Spain.

[–––Edward & Eleanor –––]

11/1/1254 at Las Huelgas in Burgos, 15-year-old Lord Edward married 13-year-old Eleanor. Edward was also knighted. [Child marriages were the custom of the time and she was then sent to London to live with Edward’s family for further education into customs and language. The marriage would not normally be consummated until the girl was 14 or 15. In Eleanor’s case it would appear that she didn’t live with Edward until she was 18 or 19; as her 1st child [of 15] was not born until she was 20.]

By 11/21/1254, Edward was back in Gascony.

5/1255, King Henry sent mercenary knights to Gascony in support of Edward.

8/17/1255 from Paris, King Henry [who had arranged a 3-year truce with King Louis IV] wrote a letter to Edward telling him to go to Ireland to organize his lordships there. His wife Eleanor was to be sent to England.

10/9/1255, Eleanor arrived at Dover.

10/1255, Edward left Gascony going north through France and then across the channel to England.

11/1255, Edward arrived back in London.

12/25/1255, Edward and Eleanor spent Christmas with his parents. [In the mean time Edward increased his personal retinue to 200 horsemen.]

6/1256, Edward participated in his first tournament at Blyth in Nottinghamshire. [This was a team-type tournament that resembled an actual battle. Some of the participants died from their injuries.]

6-7/1256, Lord Edward visited his sister Margaret, Queen of Scotland.

7/1256, Lord Edward visited Wales. [Soon after Edward left, Llywelyan ap Gruffydd began a conquest of Wales.]

8/29/1256, Lord Edward was back in London for a great feast thrown by his parents.

6/15/1257, Bond by the king, Queen Eleanor and Edward their first-born son, to … citizens and merchants of Florence … in 10,000 marks … satisfy the king’s envoy to the court of Rome to the amount of 10,000 marks … Richard earl of Gloucester (9994764), William de Valencia (11820102), … the chancellor, have sworn on the gospels to see that these conditions are kept. (S) CPRs.

8/25/1257, Admission to the king’s peace of David son of Griffin, … and Oweyn his brother … shall keep the lands … which Llewelin son of Griffin, their brother now holds, … By K. Edward his son, William de Valencia, John son of Geoffrey, Philip Basset, Robert Walerand, Peter de Monte Forti and Roger de Monte Alto, steward of Chester. (S) CPRs.

6/22/1258 at parliament at Oxford, Edward opposed Simon de Montfort and the Provisions of Oxford, which created a new royal council of 15 members taking power from the king. [King Henry had given a lot of power to the Lusignan relatives of his mother’s 2nd marriage, Edward’s paternal grandmother, which included William de Valencia (11820102).]

7/1258, Edward and the Lusignans fled south to the castle of Wolvesey in Winchester. After a short time the Lusignans left in Exile. [A particular provision Edward did not like was that the council held power for 12 years, even if King Henry died.]

8/1258, Marcher lords Roger de Clifford, Hamo Lestrange and John de Vaux were members of Lord Edward’s entourage [the “bachelors of England” including Henry of Almain, John de Warren and Roger de Leyburn], and distrusted and disliked by the Queen, when Edward made an agreement with Simon de Montfort pledging to the furtherance of reform. (S) Eleanor of Provence, Howell, 2001, P163.

3/1259, Lord Edward made a peace agreement in Wales with Marcher lord Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who had decided to stop supporting Simon de Montfort. Roger de Clifford and Hamo Lestrange were instrumental in forging the peace.

6/1259, Lord Edward participated in at least 3 tournaments, including one in France. [It is believed he was also recruiting young knights.]

8/21/1259 at the third known tournament at Warwick, Lord Edward penned a letter which stated that good government must be maintained at all times. [The Royal Council was at the time beginning to show disagreements within the ranks and no new provisions had actually been created.]

10/1259, At parliament a group known as the “Community of the Bachelors of England” demanded that real provisions be enacted. Lord Edward swore support “to the death” to the Bachelors (whom he likely created.) Afterwards, Edward and Simon de Montfort secretly formed a mutual support pact.

11/1259, With his father in France, Edward and Simon de Montfort proposed a parliament meet to address the invasion of the Marches of Wales by Prince Llywelyn. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000, P96. [Edward also quickly began replacing persons appointed by his father and mother as custodians of his lands with his own loyal retainers.]

12/4/1259, King Henry III and King Louis IX signed the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounced all lands but Gascony and part of Aquitiane, and holding the Channel Islands as a vassal. [The peace agreement was not popular with many lords in England who claimed rights to lands in France.]

2/1260, Edward and Montfort were in London preparing to hold the first required parliament of the year. King Henry sent Earl Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, to London to oppose the parliament until he could return.

4/1260, King Henry arrived back in London with a contingent of 100 foreign knights. Edward reconciled with his parents, but at the cost of the control of his castles. [Edward was really at odds with his mother and her family members.]

5/13/1260 at Mortlake, Simon de Monte Forti, earl of Leicester, John, earl of Warren, Roger de Leyburn, Peter de Monte Forti, Roger de Clifford, and Hamo Lestraunge witnessed a charter of Edward, the king’s eldest son, to Robert de Tybetoto for his homage and service. (S) CChRs, 1906, P147.

7/1260 in parliament, King Henry brought proceedings against Simon de Montfort. Montfort denide all the accusations. [During the proceedings they learned that Edward’s castle of Builth had fallen and been destroyed after a 6-month siege in Wales. By Sept. a new truce was made and Edward’s preparations for battle were called off by his father.]

10/13/1260 at Westminster, Edward knighted by his father with 80 other youths of noble birth. [At this parliament Edward, Simon de Montfort, and Earl Richard de Clare formed an alliance that effectively controlled the government.]

11/1260-62, Lord Edward took a group of knights touring tournaments in Europe including: John de Bretange, Henry of Almain, 2 sons of Simon de Montfort, Roger de Clifford, James Audeley, Hamo Lestrange, and William Bassingbourn. The 1st tournament they attended was in Paris, associated with the marriage of Robert of Artois and Amicia de Courtenay. (S) The Tournament of England, 1100-1400, Barker, P115.

12/1260 in Gascony, Edward named his relative Guy de Lusignan as his Lt. in Gascony [showing Edward’s mother that he was determined to control his own lands.]

5/1261, Having returned to England due to needing money, Edward returned his alliegance to his father

6/12/1261, King Henry produced a letter from the Pope absolving him of all commitments to the Provisions of Oxford or any agreements made since it was enacted in 1258. [Soon after Edward returned to Gascony and Simon de Montfort returned to France.]

2/24/1262, Edward, landing at Dover with many French knights, returned to England after the Welsh war restarted with an attack on the Marches. [Edward reached the Marches by April.]

6/1262, There was widespread animosity against the King, and in particular against the Queen and her powerful Savoy relatives. [Many of the 1258 reforms had been generally popular.]

9/1262, Many of those attending mediation sessions between the King and Montfort came down with an illness, including King Henry. Many members of the entourage subsequently died, effectively ending arbitration.

10/1262, Simon de Montfort appeared before Parliament and declared the Pope had reversed his previous decision [the Pope had not.] The King agreed to comply with the provisions and the support turned in his favor.  Simon quickly fled back to France where he won the support of King Louis IX.

4/12/1263, Simon de Montfort returned to England to lead a rebellion of young barons. Henry and family withdrew to the Tower.

6/29/1263, The Manor of Isleworth hosted a gathering of Earl Simon de Montfort’s rebellious noblemen who held a conference with the King that sowed the seeds for England’s first true Parliament. The same day,  Lord Edward, with supporting knights, went to the Temple where the treasury was kept and removed £1000. [Edward was fortifying Windsor castle.]

7/4/1263, King Henry, surrounded in the Tower, agreed to conditions given by Montfort and his supporters.

7/24/1263, Simon, having taken control of London and marching under royal banners headed for Windsor castle. Edward had to concede, and his French knights were put on boats back to France.

8/18/1263, Edward secretly made a pact with multiple powerful English barons. Roger de Clifford (4997408), Roger de Leybourne (121691156), John de Vaux (4997498), Ralph Basset (243382628), Hamo Lestrange and John Giffard (11820106) issued letters patent giving their full support to Lord Edward. (S) Edward I, Prestwich, 1988, P41.

11/1263, Henry & Edward reclaimed Oxford and Winchester, but not Dover or London.

1/23/1264 at Amiens, France, King Louis, in arbitration as agreed to by Henry and Simon, declared the Provisons of Oxford invalid.

1264, Localized warfare began in England between the forces of Roger de Mortimer (4997432), with the King’s permission), and those of Simon de Montfort. (The capturing of each other’s manors or castles.)

4/5/1264, Henry & Edward captured Northampton, and a son of Simon de Montfort.

By 2/1264, Edward had returned to England with his knights and garrisoned the castle of Windsor where Eleanor would deliver her first child. [This would remain the residence of their children except for a brief period before the battle of Evesham.]

By 3/8/1264, King Henry had established his military headquarters at Oxford. Edward was sent to Wales to muster support and attack Simon’s sons.

4/6/1264, King Henry and Prince Edward attacked Northampton, the garrison surrendering the next day.

4/18/1264, Henry and Prince Edward broke Montfort and Gilbert de Clare’s (4997382) siege of Rochester castle.

5/6/1264, Simon marched his forces from London in open opposition to the royal army. Henry and Edward took a defensive position in the castle at Lewes. [Montfort had fewer forces, but held the high ground.]

5/14/1264, Edward and his father captured by Montfort at the battle of Lewes, “at the Mill of the Hide”. An estimated 2700 died. Prince Edward and his knights penetrated the center of Montfort’s army, but was flanked on both sides by armored calvary. Edward was to remain a prisoner as a hostage for the king’s good behavior, but most of the royalist barons were allowed to leave.

5/1264, Sir John de Bassingbourne, Sir Robert Tipetot, Sir John de Mussegros, Sir Pain de Chawurthe, and Sir Robert Walronde in the castle of Bristol, hearing from the Queen that Lord Edward was a prisoner at Wallingford, left Bristol with 300 horsemen on a Friday as the sun rose. They were unsuccessful in capturing the castle, and Lord Edward, from the walls of the castle, commanded them to return to Bristol. (S) Bristol Past and Present, V1, Nicholls, 1881, P135.

8/12/1264, Henry and Edward brought to Canterbury to swear allegiance to the new government, which they did. [Henry was effectively under “house arrest”, but traveled about the country in official capacity.]

1264-65, Simon de Montfort effectively ruled England.

11/1264, An attempt was made to free Edward at Wallingford. It failed, and Montfort had Edward and other hostages moved to more secure Hereford.

1/14/1265, Simon de Montfort held a parliament in London that included 2 burgesses from each town, and 2 knights from each shire. [The first true parliament.]

3/11/1265, Simon released Edward at Westminster Hall. [But like his father he was closely guarded.]

5/28/1265, Lord Edward escaped captivity while exercising horses. He had the help of Thomas de Clare, whose brother Gilbert now sided with King Henry. Edward went to Ludlow where supporters were waiting. They agreed to support Edward only if some of the popular provisions stayed in place.

6/10/1265, Whereas … liberation of Edward the king’s son … has transferred himself to certain marchers and other rebels, and by so doing has shown himself an enemy, … the king commands all persons of Ireland to be indendant to H. bishop of Meath … and not to the said Edward … (S) CPRs.

6-7/1265, Lord Edward, Gilbert and Thomas de Clare, and Edward’s half-uncle William de Valence succeeded in taking over much of the territory north and west of Hereford, and in particular the Severn Valley, splitting Montfort’s forces.

7/31/1265, Lord Edward defeated Simon de Montfort’s son Simon at the battle of Kenilworth, Warwickshire. Most of Simon’s forces were captured, Simon taking refuge in the castle.

8/4/1265, In a early-morning surprise attack, Lord Edward defeated Montfort’s army at the battle of Evesham, ending the Baron’s Revolt and freeing his father, who was wounded. Most of the rebel forces were killed, including Montfort and 2 of his sons. [Simon de Montfort initially thought his son Simon’s forces were arriving because Edward was flying their captured banners.]

10/13/1265 in London at parliament, King Henry had all of his opposing barons disinherited.

10/29/1265, Lord Edward met his mother at Dover on her return from France.

12/1265, Edward captured many of the remaining revolting barons at the Isle of Axholme in the fens of northern Lincolnshire. They surrendered under the promise that their lives would be spared. [Some of the barons that surrendered at Axholme later joined forces with another group at Ely.]

1265, Edward pursued and defeated John de Vesci at Alnwick.

1265, Edward visited his sister Margaret at Roxburgh castle in Scotland. [Alexander III had sent 5000 troops in support of King Henry during the barons war.]

1/8/1266, Whereas certain sowers of discord … declarations, … Edward has been mortally wounded … Edward and Gilbert de Clare … dissension … the king has conferred lands … contrary to justice … which is the reverse of the truth, as the affairs of the king and his son are improving every day ; … (S) CPRs.

8/3/1266, Grant of John de Verdon to Sir Maurice son of Gerald and lady Agnes de Valencia his wife, in free marriage of the latter, all his lands … Witnesses: Sir Edward and Sir Edmund, sons of Henry [III]; … (S) CPRs, 11/1/1299.

5/1267, Edward suppressed the barons  at the battle of the Isle of Ely, in the fens of the Ouse River in northern Cambridgeshire. The rebels were under the leadership of John d’Eyville. [This battle ended the 2nd Barons War.]

6/24/1268, With England essentially at peace, Edward decided to join his uncle by marriage, King Louis, on the 8th crusade. [Louis promised Edward 30,000 marks for his participation. His paternal 1st cousin Henry of Almain as well as his brother Edmund (11819892) also joined.]

1269, Edward visited his sister Queen Margaret of Scotland. [On leaving, Edward left her the knight that had slain Simon de Montfort in battle, who later drowned in Scotland.]

8/2/1270, Lord Edward appointed his paternal uncle Richard of Cornwall (23640580) with 4 others to administer his lands. [Edward also left his children in the care of Richard.]

8/19/1270 from Dover, Lord Edward and wife Eleanor, brother Edmund, and Henry of Almain, left on the 8th crusade. [Lord Edward traveled through 600 miles in France in a month.]

9/18/1270, Grant to Eleanor, consort of Edward the king’s son, gone to the Holy Land, … admitted as his attorney for 4 years … Walter de Kancia. (S) CPRs.

9/1270, The English crusaders reached Aigues Mortes on the Mediterranean coast after the French fleet had departed. [They also learned that the French had changed plans and headed south to the north coast of Africa instead of east to the holy lands.]

11/10/1270, Edward arrived in Tunis to find that King Louis IX had died, the crusader forces had been decimated by disease, and King Charles of Sicliy (23638812), his uncle by marriage, had already arranged a peace treaty with the emir of Tunis. The French fleet returned the next day.

1270, Edward, retreating back to Sicily, sent Henry of Almain back with the French to administer Gascony in his absence [Henry was assassinated on the return trip].

1/15/1271, Edward made a grant in Sicily witnessed by John de Verdun.

2/1271, King Henry wrote Edward of his ill heath and asked Edward to return home. [Edward did not.]

3/13/1271, Henry of Almain assassinated in a church at Viterbo in Sicily by Guy de Montfort, s/o Simon de Montfort. [A priest, atempting to protect Henry, was also killed.]

By 5/1271, Edward moved his forces to Acre; waiting for support to arrive [which never came.]

6/1272, Edward attacked by an Emir, faining an interest in negotiations, with a poisoned knife. Edward was wounded in the arm and forehead. He was saved by the skills of his surgeons.

9/1272, Edward, leaving soldiers to defend Acre, began his journey home.

11/16/1272, King Henry died. [Edward would learn of the death of Henry, his father, and John, his son, before arriving back in England.]

11/19/1272 at Westminster abbey, the magnets swore allegiance to “King Edward”. [It had been prearranged that Edward would immediately become King before returning to be crowned, which had been required of all his predecessors.]

11/1272, Edward arrived at Sicily where he met with Charles of Sicily; who had led the return of the French crusaders in 1270 after the death of his brother King Louis IX. Charles offered condolences on the death of Edward’s father and son.

1273, Edward traveled over land through Italy, across the alps, and into Savoy, where he was met by English prelates and barons.

6/25/1273 in Savoy, Edward was hosted at St. Georges d’Esperanche castle where Count Philip did homage for 4 castles.

8/1273-74, King Edward traveled through Gascony where he had to suppress a rebellion of Gaston, vicomte of Bearn, who took refuge in a fortified castle. [Gaston had rebelled against Edward’s father in 1253.]

5/1274, Edward proceeded through Burgundy, where he was challenged by Piers, count of Chalons, to a tournament. [Tournaments, as opposed to jousting, were armed conflicts between competing teams.] King Edward’s team won the fiercely fought tournament, which became known as the “Little War of Chalons.”

7/26/1274, Edward arrived in Paris where he performed homage to French King Philip III for his lands in France.

8/2/1274, Edward, Eleanor, and Edward’s brother Edmund arrived back in England. Edward had improved his reputation during the crusade. His nickname became “Longshanks”.

8/19/1274 at Westminster abbey, Edward’s coronation as King Edward I of England, and Eleanor crowned Queen. [Edward had arrived the day before and taken residence in the Tower.]

1274-75, King Edward conducted the most complete survey of England since the Domesday survey. [The survey had the additional job of finding out about the conduct of local officials, and became known as the Hundred Rolls.]

4/1275, Based on the Hundred Rolls, King Edward published 51 new articles of governmental administration, primarily focusing on royal rights, and improving law and order. (King Edward had the articles distributed all over England.)

1275, Eleanor loaned £1000 to William de Fiennes, a relative, so that he could provide a dowery for his sister Maud.

1275, As part of his new focus, to raise money King Edward decided to uses custom duties on wool (~£11,000 yearly) rather than direct taxes on individuals. King Edward gave administration of the duties to the Itialian bank of Riccardi of Lucca in return for giving him credit on demand from their bank (at a very high interest rate). [King Edward had returned from the crusade seriously in debt.]

6/1275, King Edward granted Queen Eleanor all the debts of John fitz Alan.

7/1275, The King and his court assembled at Chester where they requested the attendance of Prince LLywelyn of Wales, who had never pledged fealty nor done homage to Edward. The Prince did not appear saying he feared traveling into England – which was an insult to King Edward and his court. [After being ordered again to appear a month later, the Prince again did not show.]

1275, Prince LLywelyn made his final mistake with King Edward in arranging to marry Earl Simon de Montfort’s daughter Eleanor. Edward’s agents captured her boat coming from France and found the arms and banners of the Montfort family hidden in the boat. King Edward then encouraged his Marcher lords to renew attacks against the Prince.

9/11/1275, An earthquake shook southern England.

10/13/1275, King Edward and parliament passed a law saying that Jews could no longer loan money at interest. [Jews were considered the king’s personal property.] In return for this concession, Edward was granted a 6.6% levy which raised ~£80,000.

11/12/1275, The Prince of Wales was declared a rebel at parliament. [Any war would have to wait through the winter before comencing.]

2/1276, Gaston, vicomte of Bearn, having appealed to King Philip III of France, surrendered to King Edward, who immediately sent persons to secure Gaston’s lands in Gascony. [Gaston was imprisoned, set free in 1277, and reconciled to King Edward in 1279.]

1/26/1277, Request [by king Edward] … to not molest … in bringing to the kingdom 18 great horses … bought … for the Welsh war, in accordance with a grant of Philip, king of France, allowing such horses to be bought. (S) CPRs.

2/1277, King Edward’s forces began attacking Wales. Roger de Mortimer (4997432) and Roger de Clifford (4997408) in the middle March, Payn de Chaworth in the south, and Earl William de Beauchamp (11819498) in the north.

3-5/1277, King Edward visited the shrines at Walsingham, Bromholm and St. Faiths. [During this time Edward also ordered 200,000 crossbow bolts.] Edward’s forces significantly decreased Prince Llywelyn’s control of Wales.

7/15/1277, King Edward arrived in Chester. He cleared a road through a dense forest, and started construction on the castles of Flint and Rhuddlan. King Edward made forays into the Welsh lands of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of Wales, capturing the isle of Anglesey (in Sept.) Earl Edmund (11819892) began construction of a castle at Aberystwyth.

11/10/1277, Prince LLywelyn, having surrendered at Snowdonia, was taken to north Wales.

11/11/1277, King Edward began a return trip to London with Llywelyn, who had agreed to do homage for his lands; incorporating Wales into England. (Llywelyn’s homage took place on Christmas day at Westminster.)

4/1278, Queen Eleanor was at Devizes where her daughter, Eleanor – now settled with the kingdom in default of a male heir, joined her.

4/19/1278, At Glastonbury abbey, the supposed tombs of King Arthur (who was Welsh) and Queen Quinevere were opened in the presence of King Edward, Queen Margaret, and many nobles. Edward had new tombs built for their remains.

1278, Edward’s mother and aunt Queen Margaret proposed a marriage between Edward’s daughter Joan and Hartmann, s/o Rudolph of Habsburg, recently made King of the Romans. [Before 5/1282, Hartmann died suddenly, ending the possible marriage.]

10/13/1278 at Worcester, Earl Edmund (11819892) gave away Eleanor de Montfort, d/o Earl Simon de Montfort (deceased rebel leader), at the church door on her wedding to Llywelyn, Prince of Wales. King Edward paid for the wedding feast. [Eleanor was a cousin to Edmund and Edward.]

11/1278, King Edward ordered the arrest of all adult males found clipping coins in England; followed quickly by an order to arrest goldsmiths. [29 Christians and about 300 Jews were hanged.]

3/15/1279, Eleanor inherited Ponthieu, France on the death of her mother.

3/21/1279, Power to Edmund, earl of Lancaster and count of Champagne, the king’s [Edward I] brother, … to exact from Philip, king of France, the king’s kinsman, the county of Ponthieu, which by the death of Joan, queen of Castile and countess of Ponthieu, falls by hereditary right to Eleanor, the king’s consort. (S) CPRs.

5/21/1279, King Edward ordered that no clipped money was to be accepted in the realm. For each pound of clipped coin turned in, the king would give back a pound in new money, and an additional 16 pennies.

5-6/1279, Edward and Eleanor traveled to Amiens, France, where Eleanor did homage for the county of Ponthieu after the death of her mother (d.3/15/1279). [They returned to England in time for Edward’s 40th birthday.]

1280, King Edward ordered all Jews to attend special sermons, preached by Dominican friars, with the hope of persuading them to convert.

6/1280, King Edward began a tour of northern England.

1/1281, Edward visited his favorite places of pilgrimage in east England.

12/1281–2/1282, A heavy fierce winter and heavy snow froze the Thames and collapsed sections of London bridge.

3/1282, The Welsh attacked the castles of Hawardarden, Flint, Rhuddlan and Aberystwyth over just a few days. [These attacks instigated by Prince Llywelyn’s brother Dafydd.]

1282, Marguerite born in France, d/o 23640666. Philip III & 23640667. Marie Brabant, half-sister of Philip IV [father of Isabella of France who married King Edward II].

4/1282, King Edward left for a Wales expedition taking Queen Eleanor and daughter Eleanor. Edward set up residence at Rhudlan castle, Flintshire, where he held court.

1282, Edward’s forces suffered early losses in the south, a major loss at during an attempted attack from the isle of Anglesey, and little success elsewhere.

12/11/1282, King Edward’s forces defeated and killed Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd at the battle of Radnor in eastern Wales. Edward received the head of Llywelyn at Rhuddlan castle.

3/13/1283, King Edward began a new Welsh campaign against Dafydd ap Gruffudd.

4/20/1283, King Edward granted Queen Eleanor all issues of concealed goods and chattles of condemned Jews and from all transgressions of coin. (S) Eleanor of Castile, Parsons, P78.

6/1283, King Edward finished his Welsh campaign, capturing Dafydd, brother of Llewelyn (executed 10/2/1283); and completing the conquest of Wales.

1283, Edward became concerned about the power of Gilbert de Clare who controlled over 500 manors in England, Wales and Ireland. He decided that he had to find a way of guaranteeing his loyalty. Edward suggested that Gilbert divorce his wife Alice, disinherit her children, and marry Joan, his 11 year old daughter.

8/1283, At Caergwrle castle, Wales, a fire broke out in the bedchamber of Edward and Eleanor. (S) Edward II, Warner, 2014, P19.

11/25/1283, King Edward visited the shrine of St. Wulfstan in Worcester.

3/3/1284, Edward implemented the Statute of Rhuddlan. The Statute divided Wales into the counties which were created out of the remnants of Llewelyn’s Kingdom of Gwynedd. It introduced the English common law system, and allowed the King to appoint royal officials.

7/1284, King Edward held a tournament at Nefyn to celebrate the conquest of Wales. [Supposedly where Merlin’s propheys were originally found.]

11/26/1284, King Edward, Queen Eleanor, and daughters Eleanor, Joan and Margaret paid their devotions a the shrine of Saint Thomas of Canterbury [and the following February at the shrine of St. Edmund in Suffolk.]

1285, King Edward is named executor in the will of his maternal granduncle Philip, Count of Savoy.

9/8/1285, Edward created 44 knights at Winchester.

10/5/1285, Marguerite’s father, King Philip III of France died. Marguerite was placed in the guardianship of her half-brother, King Philip IV; and educated by her mother Queen Marie.

6/24/1286 from Dover, Edward and Eleanor traveled to Gascony where they would stay for 3 years. [9 knights were assigned to guard the royal children.]

12/1286, Edward held his Christmas court at St. Macaire, near Bordeaux.

1/1287, Still in Bordeaux, King Edward went hunting for wolves.

4/5/1287 in Gascony, King Edward and many others were in an upper tower room when the floor collapsed due to a lightning strike and they fell an estimated 80 feet. [Edward had a broken collar bone, 3 knights were killed.]

7/11/1287, Edward’s court met with King Alfonso III of Aragon at Oloron, near the southern end of Edward’s domains and made a treaty. [The following February a new Pope revoked the treaty.]

12/1287, King Edward held his Christmas court at Bordeaux.

9/1288 at Jaca in Aragon, Edward and Alfonso III made a new treaty, and Charles of Salerno (Edward’s cousin)  was freed by Alfonso.

3/1289, Edward and Alfonso III met at Peyrenere, the highest of the mountain pass between their countries, and exchanged hostages. [Edward had a large wood cross erected to mark the spot.]

8/13/1289, Edward and Eleanor returned to England, greeted by their children at Dover.

1290, Edward obtained considerable wealth by expelling the Jews from England and seizing their property.

9/8/1290 at Torpel, Queen Eleanor affixed her seal to a document of her son-in-law John of Brabant in lieu of her daughter Margaret’s seal.

11/1/1290, King Edward ordered all Jews to leave the kingdom on pain of death. Edward seized all of their property, and took over all the debts owed to them. [The main benefit was political. Parliament granted the king a 15th of goods, which raised £160,000.]

11/28/1290, Eleanor died of a fever at Harby in Nottinghamshire about 8 miles from Lincoln. Her body was immediately carried to St Catherine’s Priory in the south of Lincoln where she was embalmed. Her viscera was sent for burial in Lincoln Cathedral and her body was sent to London for burial in Westminster Abbey, where she lies at the feet of her father-in-law King Henry III. Her heart, which traveled with the body, was buried in Blackfriars Church. Edward erected 12 memorial crosses, 1 at each site where the body stopped on the way to London [3 of the crosses still exist.]

[––Edward––]

5/10/1290 at Norham [on the Scottish border], King Edward called the Scottish nobles to him, for them to hear records read which documented the Scots’ kings paying homage to the English kings.

6/12/1290 at Berwick, Edward named temporary Guardian of Scotland.

6/26/1291, King Edward’s mother died.

1291, King Edward, on his way to Scotland, stayed for some time in York. (S) Gent.’s Mag., V26, 1902, P131.

3/1292, King Edward at the March of Wales to suppress a local feud between the earls of Hereford and Gloucester.

6/1/1292 at Berwick, King Edward began to arbitrate the dispute over the Scottish crown (disbanded 6/25).

11/17/1292, Edward named John de Ballio the Scottish successor. [John a grandson of the eldest d/o a previous king, vs. Robert Bruce who was the s/o a younger daughter.]

9/20/1293 at Bristol, the royal family attended the wedding of the eldest daughter Eleanor.

10/1293, King Edward named his brother Edmund of Lancaster, already in Paris, to resolve differences with King Philip IV. [A secret agreement was made involving Gascony and a marriage.]

4/20/1294 in France, Edward learned that a secret agreement which involved the surrender of Gascony had been violated by King Philip. [King Edward becamed involved in a long war to protect lands in Gascony from Philip IV of France.]

6/1294, Edward returned to England, arriving at Portsmouth. He seized the wool of the country because his Italian bankers had defaulted on their loan agreement, and he seized church funds because the church in Rome had also defaulted on an agreement associated with crusading. Edward also sent an initial small invasion fleet to France which was dispersed by heavy storms at sea. [Other forces eventually had some successes in France.]

10/15/1294, Edward learned of a new large insurrection in Wales. 3 royal castles had been captured, 3 were under siege, and the largest, Caernarfon, had been destroyed. [Edward mobilized an army of 35,000.]

12/1294, Edward celebrated Christmas at Conwy castle in Wales.

1/7/1295, Edward began his advancement to the west, but his baggage train was attack and he retreated back to Conwy castle, where they encountered “the worst storm in living memory”. [The northern and southern armies were more successful.

3/1295 near Montgomery, The Earl of Warwick won a battle in which 700 Welsh were killed but only 7 Englishmen.

4/10/1295, Edward levelled the town of Llanfaes, the largest town on the isle of Angelsey.

6/30/1295. Edward arrived back at Conwy castle victorious over the Welsh.

8/1295, King Edward’s “Model Parliament” established a pattern for the Commons, with 2 knights from each county and 2 burgesses from each town. [1st implemented by Simon de Montfort.]

1295, King Edward ordered by writ that no one was to take duck eggs.

3/30/1296, Edward captured Berwick-upon-Tweed, an important Scottish port of northeast England, sacked the town and massacred thousands of its inhabitants. [Within days of the event, King John of Scotland renounced his fealty and homage to King Edward.]

4/27/1296, Edward invaded Scotland with a force of 25,000 and won the battle of Dunbar against the forces of John Comyn and his son.

6/14/1296, Edward captured Stirling castle, and then Edinburgh castle in an 8 day seige. The defeat was such that the Scot king, John de Baliol, abdicated and went into exile in France.

8/2/1296, The French attacked Dover and burned the town.

8/23/1297, Edward left England with 500 ships to attack France and assert his rights. Because of the refusal of many barons, Edward only had a small contingent of knights. The army sailed for Flanders to seek additional support.

9/11/1297, English forces under the command of John, Earl of Surrey (23639780), were defeated at the battle of Stirling Bridge by Sir William Wallace (from the movie “Braveheart”).

9/1297, The English nobles rebelled, forcing Edward to grant Parliament control over taxes.

10/9/1297 in Ghent, King Edward and King Philip agreed to make a truce. The next day King Edward agreed to recite the Magna Carta, which was sealed with the Great Seal on the 11th of November.

12/25/1297, King Edward and youngest daughter Elizabeth visited the city of Ghent where he was met by his daughter Eleanor who asked for help for her imprisoned husband; and by daughter Margaret, Duchess of Brabant, and her husband. [After this Edward made a short trip to Brabant to visit his daughter Margaret.]

1/28/1298, King Edward and King Philip agreed to arbitration by the Pope about control of Gascony, and the suspension of hostilities for 2 years. [The Pope eventually ruled in favor of Edward.]

3/14/1298, King Edward arrived back in England at Sandwich.

6/19/1298, Treaty of Montreuil, which provided for King Philip IV’s daughter Isabella's future betrothal to Edward of Caernarvon. Philip was to give Isabella a dowry of £18,000, and once she became Queen of England, she was to have in dower all the lands formerly held by Eleanor of Castile, which were in the interim to be settled by Edward I on Marguerite; who was to marry King Edward I, these amounted to £4,500 per annum. Should Edward I default on the treaties, he would forfeit Gascony; if Philip defaulted, he would pay Edward a fine of £100,000. [The treaty had to be ratified by both kings and the pope.]

6/24/1298, Edward, at Northumberland, created multiple new knights.

7/22/1298, Edward defeated Sir William Wallace at the battle of Falkirk, Scotland. The Scots defensive position was strong, but based on spearmen with support of some cavalry and archers. Edward’s armored knights were repulsed by the amassed spear points. Edward brought up his Welsh longbowmen. They cut gaps into the Scottish ranks through which the mounted English knights could charge. The Scots were routed, but Wallace escaped.

10/1298, After capturing the castle of Jedburgh, fortifying some other captured castles, Edward left Scotland for England.

3/1299, Edward held a parliament at Westminster. He re-issued some royal charters, but made unpopular changes before the re-issue.

6/25/1299, Under pressure from magnates, Edward agreed to a new perambulation of the forests.

7/14/1299, King Edward ratified the treaty of peace he made with Philip, king of France, at Mustroil [Montreuil]. (S) CPRs. [Part of this treaty was that Edward would marry Philip’s sister, and Edward’s son would marry Philip’s daughter.]

1299, King Edward prohibited the use of foreign coins for commercial transactions.

 [–––Edward & Marguerite –––]

9/8/1299, Marguerite, having set sale from France, arrived at Dover.

9/10/1299 at Canterbury, Edward married 2nd Marguerite, a “marriage of peace”. [Marguerite being Edward’s first cousin, once removed.] As a wedding gift, King Edward gave Marguerite a gold coronet and a gold belt that once belonged to her great-grandmother Blanche of Castle, Queen of France. Maguerite’s household was initially merged with that of her stepson lord Edward.

11/1299, King Edward left for Scotland to break the Scottish siege of Caerlaverock castle. [Few supporters arrived at the muster location. The castle would fall to the Scots.]

12/29/1299, Edward called for a parliament and left 3 days later for London.

3/28/1300, At parliament, Edward made substantial concessions. [But the Forest perambulation was still not addressed, and now they wanted the royal ownership reduced.]

6/1300, Edward mustered 1700 mounted men and about 9000 foot soldiers at Carlisle.

6-7/1300, King Edward besieged Caerlaverock castle, which fell within a month.

7/15/1300, Edward moved on Dumfries. [Many of his footmen were deserting.]

2/7/1301, King Edward named his son Prince Edward the “Prince of Wales”. [The first instance of English royalty officially having the title of “Prince”.]

2/14/1301, King Edward held at parliament at Lincoln where he reissued the Magna Carta and the new Forest Perambulation, which reduced the royal holdings almost in half.

6-10/1301, Edward attacked Scotland and removed the Scot’s ancient coronation stone from Scone, installing it at Westminster. Edward left a force of 9000 English and Welsh infantry to occupy southern Scotland.

Winter 1301-02, Robert the Bruce [future King] of Scotland sued for peace. His claims and titles in Scotland were preserved in the agreement. (S) Wars of the Bruces, McNamee, 1997, P27.

1/20/1302, Edward hosted a roundtable tournament at Falkirk.

1302, Edward forbid all tournaments in England [many young knights were killed in tournaments.] (S) Berkeley Manuscripts: Abstracts and Extracts, Fosbroke, 1821, P103.

1/1303, Lord Edward sent his stepmother Marguerite a ruby as a new year’s gift.

3/22/1303, Power [by King Edward]  to … and Henry de lacy, the king’s kinsmen, … to make a treaty of confederacy with the envoys and proctors of Philip, king of France, against all men except the Pope. (S) CPRs.

1303, King Edward again invaded northern Scotland after the Scots captured Selkirk; Queen Marguerite accompanied him on the quest.

6/18/1303, The Scots invaded northern England. Edward then began a war of attrition, moving to the south.

9/7/1303, King Edward’s wardrobe treasury at Westminster was robbed by a team led by a wool merchant. [Gems, gold, and coins, estimated at over £100,000. Most of the stolen treasure was recovered, and multiple persons hanged.].

11/1303, Lord Edward sent his stepmother Marguerite and members of her household gifts worth £50.

1/1304, King Edward gave Marguerite a gold cup and gold pitcher as a new year’s gift.

4/1304, King Edward started the 90-day siege of Stirling castle. King Edward first used the Warwolf siege engine, the largest trebuchet ever constructed, in a successful siege.

7/20/1304, At the fall of Stirling castle, King Edward accepted the surrender without ordering the deaths of any of the resistors, who’s leaders were imprisoned in various castles in England.

11/1304, with Edward in Scotland, Queen Margaret had her step-children Edward and his sister Mary visit her.

12/1304, Queen Margaret kept her Christmas court at Dunfermline.

1305, Queen Margaret became a liason between King Edward and his son lord Edward. Lord Edward wrote letters to his stepmother asking her to intercede, especially with respect to issues of Peter de Gavaston.

8/23/1305 in London, Edward executed William Wallace [Braveheart] at Tyburn, who had been captured in Glascow, Scotland.

12/1305, Queen Margaret visited her step-daughter Mary at Amesbury abbey.

Queen Marguerite’s sister Blanche, duchess of Austria, died.

5/22/1306, 267 men knighted, including his son Prince Edward, by King Edward I in London at Westminster abbey. [A call had been sent out to “all who are not knights but wish to be”.] The King and Queen had hosted a grand tournament at Westminster palace.

3/25/1306, Robert the Bruce had himself crowned king of Scotland. Although 67 and in bad health, Edward marched north with his army.

12/1306, Queen Margaret moved her Christmas court to Westminster, where it would be held in the succeeding years.

2/26/1307, Edward banished his son’s “companion”, Piers Gaveston.

6/25/1307, Aymer, Earl of Pembroke, defeated by Bruce at the battle of Loudon Hill. Edward, confined to a litter, decided to take personal charge of the campaign.

7/7/1307, at Burgh by Sands, near Carlisle, Edward died of dysentery; buried in Westminster Abbey with the inscription “Hammer of the Scots.” King Edward’s dying request was that his son should carry his bones with his army until Robert Bruce was defeated [This did not happen – Scotland remained independent until 1707.]

[––Marguerite––]

1/25/1308 in Boulogne, France, Marguerite present when King Edward married her niece Isabella. Many of Marguerite’s French realtives were present, including her mother.

Bef. 5/1308, Marguerite and King Philippe IV [father of Edward II’s wife] offered monetary support to the barons opposing Piers de Gavaston as earl of Cornwall.

9/1312, Marguerite resided at Windsor castle with King Edward II & Queen Isabella (Marguerite’s niece, who was pregnant with future Edward III), and Marguerite’s brother Louis, count of Evreux.

10/1317, King Edward II confiscated Marguerite’s castles of Gloucester and Berkhamstead [but returned them soon after.]

2/14/1318, Marguerite died at her castle of Marlborough, Wilts. King Edward II appointed her sons Thomas and Edmund as executors of her will.

[––Edward II––]

Aft. 3/8/1318, Marguerite’s body was moved to London.

3/15/1318, King Edward II attended his stepmother’s funeral at Greyfriars Church.

(S) The student’s Text-book of English and General History, Dorothea Beale, 1858. (S) Dictionary of Battles, Eggenberger, 1967. (S) The Lives of the Princesses of England, V2, Green, 1854. (S) Edward I, Prestwich, 1988. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000. (S) A Great and Terrible King, Morris, 2009.

Family notes:

·         In 1296, the royal library had 3 books which were kept with the jewels: a book of chronicles, “Roman de Guillaume le conquerant” – given by Queen Eleanor of Provence, a work of Palladius Ratilus on agriculture. [In 1300 the library received several additions.]

Children of Edward and Eleanor: [15 children]

i. Eleanor Plantagenet, born 6/1264 in Windsor castle, England. [Eldest daughter]

Eleanor 1st pledged to marry Peter of Aragon [then the heir] when her father was returning from the crusades.

Aft. 12/1274, King Edward settled the kingdom on Eleanor in default of a male heir.

2/15/1281, Eleanor sent her own letter to Aragon to establish her wedding plans.

8/15/1282, Eleanor was wed to Alfonso of Aragon [now the hier] by proxy [John de Vescy standing in for Eleanor.]

6/1291, King Alfonso III died before a planned July wedding.

9/20/1293 at Bristol, Eleanor married Henry III, Count of Bar [died in 1302 on crusade; buried at Naples.]

1294, Eleanor, expecting her 1st child, left England for Bar. [An area bordering France and Germany.]

1297, Duke Henri was captured by the French near Comines and imprisoned in France.

8/29/1298, Eleanor died in Ghent; buried at Westminster in England.

Children:

·         Edward I, Count of Bar, 4/1296–1336. [As eldest son of the eldest daughter, he was then 2nd in line for the crown of England. He died on crusade at Famagosta, Cyprus.]

·         Jeanne “demoiselle de Bar”, born 1297. [Returned to England, she married Earl John de Warren, s/o William (11819890).]

ii. John Plantagenet, born 7/10/1266 in Kenilworth castle, England.

1272, John died while his parents were on crusade, leaving brother Henry as heir.

iii. Henry Plantagenet, born 1268-9 in Windsor castle, England.

10/1274, Henry died at Merton.

iv. Princess Joan of Acre (4997383), born 4/1272 in Acre, Palestine.

v. Alphonso Plantagenet, born 11/24/1273 in Gascony, France.

By 12/1274, Alphonso became heir when his older brother Henry died.

8/19/1284, Alphonso died; leaving his baby brother Edward as heir.

vi. Margaret Plantagenet, born 3/15/1275 at Windsor castle in England.

1278, Margaret betrothed to Jan II of Brabant, s/o John, Duke of Brabant.

4/20/1285, Jan, age 15, arrived in England to be educated.

7/8/1290 at Westminster, Margaret married to Jan. [Jan had only 8 knights, but was accompanied by 60 ladies.]

Jan returned with his father to Brabant. [Jan would return to visit England frequently.]

9/8/1290 at Torpel, Leonor affixed her seal to a document of her son-in-law John of Brabant in lieu of her daughter Margaret’s seal.

6/1294, Jan succeeded as Duke of Brabant. [John’s father died in a tournament in Bar associated with the wedding ceremonies of her older sister Eleanor.]

By 2/1297, Margaret joined her husband in the city of Brussles.

12/25/1297, Jan and Margaret met her father at Ghent for Christmas.

2/24/1308 in London, Jan and Margaret at the coronation of her brother Edward II.

10/1311, Jan and Margaret, at the request of her brother King Edward II, received Piers Gaveston in exile.

10/27/1312, Jan “the Pacifist” died; buried at St. Gudule.

1318, Margaret died; buried in Brussels with Jan.

Children: Jan III of Brabant, born 1300 in Brussels.

vii. Mary Plantagenet, born 3/1279 at Woodstock in England.

8/15/1285, age 7, Mary became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire; going with her grandmother Queen Eleanor of Provence. [13 companions of noble birth were also admitted.]

4/2/1290, Mary joined her family to celebrate Easter at Woodstock.

1291, Mary veiled as a nun in the presence of her father and siblings. [Mary, by prior arrangement associated with the death of her grandmother, was supposed to be sent to Fontevraud abbey in France, but Edward did not send her.]

Mary was often at court, or being visited by her siblings, and had an annual allowance of £200.

2/7/1308, Mary was at Dover to meet her returning brother and his new wife.                                        

1327, on the death of her brother, her nephew Edward III recomfirmed the gifts to her from his father.

5/29/1332, Mary died at Amesbury where she was buried.

viii. Countess Elizabeth of Wales (5909949), born 8/7/1282 in Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales.

ix. King Edward II (2954848), born 4/25/1284 in Carnarvon castle, Wales.

Children of Edward and Marguerite:

i. Earl Thomas of Brotherton (5910166), born 6/1/1300 at Brotherton, North Yorkshire, England.

ii. Earl Edmund of Woodstock (2954858), born 8/5/1301 in England.

iii. Eleanora Plantagenet, born 1305-6 in England. [Died a child.]

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