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Monday, August 10, 2020

King Edward II & Queen Isabella of France

 2954848. King Edward II & 2954849. Queen Isabella of France

4/25/1284, Edward II born in Caernarfon Castle, Wales; s/o 5909696. King Edward I & 5909697. Leonor of Castile.

8/19/1284, Edward became heir to his father when his older brother Alfonso died; and was taken from Caernarfon to Chester. [Edward had 3 older brothers who all died as children.]

5/1286, Edward’s parents left for what would be a 3-year trip to Gascony.

7/1289, Edward and 4 of his 5 sisters taken to Dover to greet his returning parents.

1290, Edward received 6 herons as a gift from a man from Caernarfon. [About this time Sir Guy Ferre would become his tutor. Since Edward’s sisters could write it is believed that Edward also learned to write.] Edward also had in his household Maud de Chaworth (5909947), Eleanor de Burgh (30422603), and Humphrey de Bohun (5909948).

7/8/1290 at Westminster, Prince Edward with a train of 80 knights attended the wedding of his sister Margaret.

9/1/1290, King Edward I received a letter from his mother, Queen Eleanor, asking that he not take young Edward II on a trip to the north of England for fear of his getting sick from the cold.

11/28/1290, Edward II’s mother, Queen Eleanor died; leaving Edward her only surviving son as Count of Ponthier and Montreuil at age 6. [His mother was half Spanish, half French.]

6/26/1291, Edward’s grandmother, Queen Eleanor died.

11/23/1292-4/13/1293, Edward lived at Langley, near St. Albans.

2/1293, Edward, with a large retinue and his brother-in-law John of Brabant (husband of Margaret), attended a tournament being held at Dunstable.

5/17/1293, Edward was visited by Edward Balliol, s/o the King of Scotland.

6/17/1293, Edward, sent on a royal tour of southern England, was at Mortlake, Surrey.

8/1293, Edward attended a hunting match in the forest of Ashley.

9/20/1293, Edward was in Bristol for the marriage of his sister Eleanor to the Count of Bar.

10/1293, Edward, holding a separate court at Montlake, visited by his new brother-in-law Henri III of Bar (married eldest sister Eleanor).

1295, Isabella born in France, d/o 5909698. King Philip IV & 5909699. Jeanne of Navarre. [The Knight’s Templar Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, was Isabella’s godfather.]

1/18/1297, Edward II attended his sister Elizabeth’s (5909949) wedding at Ipswich.

8/23/1297, Edward II left England with his father and 500 ships to attack France and assert England’s land rights. Because of the refusal of many barons, King Edward only had a small contingent of knights. The army sailed for Flanders to seek additional support. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000, P146.

8/27/1297, After the king’s crossing to Flanders, Edward, the king’s son, supplying the king’s place in England, in the castle of Tonebrigge, in his chamber there, in the presence of Sirs Reginald de Grey, … and Guncelinus de Badelesmere, knights, and of … delivered to the said Sir John de Langeton, the chancellor, the seal … [patent roll records then “tested” by Edward, the king’s son.] (S) CPRs.

10/9/1297 in Ghent, Edward II was with his father when King Edward I and King Philip IV agreed to make a truce. The next day King Edward I agreed to recite the Magna Carta, which was sealed with the Great Seal on the 11th of November.

3/29/1298, Edward II arrived back in England with his father.

6/19/1298, Treaty of Montreuil, which provided for King Philip IV’s daughter Isabella's future betrothal to Edward of Caernarvon. Philip was to give Isabella a dowry of £18,000.

9/10/1299 at Canterbury, King Edward I married 2nd Marguerite of France (11820333, age 17). [Edward age 15.]

1300, Edward received 2 greyhounds from the constable of Conwy, Wales.

1300, King Edward sent “Perrot Gaveston”, one of his squires, to the household of his son Edward [Piers was about a year older than Edward].

6-7/1300, Edward with his father at the siege of Caerlaverock castle in Scotland.

2/7/1301, Edward created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester during the parliament at Lincoln. [The first instance of English royalty officially having the title of “Prince”.]

3/1/1301, Mandate to purvey … wheat … oats … malt for the use of the army against the Scots assembling at Midsummer partly at Berwick-on-Tweed under the king and partly at Carlisle under Edward, the king’s son … (S) CPRs.

1302, Edward granted his childhood home of Langley.

1303, Piers de Gaveston described in the royal household records as Edward II’s “socius” [companion]. Gilbert de Clare and Hugh le Despenser (2954874) were also members of Edward’s household.

[––Edward & Isabella––]

5/20/1303, Edward betrothed to Isabella.

1304, In a letter from her brother Edward II, Elizabeth is aked to send her white greyhound to mate with Edward’s. The same year Edward sent Elizabeth 2 mares from his stud and their foals.

9/27/1304, Appointment of Edward, the king’s son to go to Amiens to do homage to Philip, king of France, for the duchy of Aquitiane. (S) CPRs.

7/1305, King Edward, during a falling-out with his son Edward II, sent many of his son’s household away, including Piers.

8/4/1305, Edward II wrote a letter to his sister Elizabeth asking her to get Queen Margaret to intercede on his behalf and get his friends returned.

10/13/1305, Edward the father and son reconciled at a banquet.

11/27/1305, Pope Clement V signed a dispensation to allow Isabella to marry at age 10. [King Edward rejected the proposal for the early marriage.]

5/22/1306 at Westminister, Lord Edward, Hugh le Despenser, Piers Gaveston, Roger de Mortimer (1249358),  Earl Edmund fitz Alan (5909944) and others [267 total] were knighted by King Edward I.

2/26/1307, King Edward I banished his son’s “companion”, Piers Gaveston, telling him to return to Gascony, until recalled; and granting him 100 marks a year. [Prince Edward gave Piers £260 and many gifts on his departure.]

[––King Edward II––]

7/7/1307 at Carlisle, Edward II became king on the death of his father (learning of the death 4 days later). Edward effectively abandoned the war with Scotland. [Over the next 7 years Robert the Bruce would drive the English out of all castles north of the Tweed except Berwick and Stirling.] On his ascension Edward was described as “handsome in body and great in strength.”

7/11/1307, King Edward II recalled Piers to England; reuniting at Dumfries in August.

8/6/1307, Edward made Piers Earl of Cornwall, arranged for him to marry Margaret de Clare (60845659, married 11/1/1307 at Berkhamsted castle), and awarded him a salary of £4000 a year.

12/26/1307, Edward appointed Piers as Regent while he was on his trip to marry Isabella. [This was very unpopular.]

1/10/1308, Edward, having to comply with a papal bull, ordered he arrest of all the Templar knights in England. [Edward arranged for the Templars to be paid 4p a day. The papal bull was rescinded 3/1312.]

1/22/1308, King Edward left for France from Dover.

1/25/1308 in Boulogne, France, Prince Edward married Isabella (age 12). [Besides Edward and Isabella, 4 Kings and 3 Queens attended.]

2/7/1308, Edward and Isabella arrived back in England at Dover. [They arrived on separate boats. Edward is said to have displayed ‘improper familiarity’ when greeting Piers.]

2/24/1308 at Westminster, Edward crowned King Edward II of England. As custom, the Earls wore cloth-of-gold; except Piers, who wore regal purple trimmed with pearls. Piers also was last in the procession before the royal couple and carried the crown. Edward had ordered tapestries for the occasion with the arms of himself and Piers, not those of Isabella.

5/14/1308, Edward granted Isabella the country of Ponthieu, worth about £1300 yearly. [Likely due to pressure from her father.]

5/18/1308, The barons led by Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, again had Piers banished from England. (6/16) Edward named him as Lord Lt. of Ireland. [Edward gifted Piers and Margaret with 1180 marks.]

12/1308, Edward and Isabella spent Christmas day and New Years day at Windsor with Isabella. [He was in residence at Langley.]

Winter 1308-09, The Thames river was frozen to the point that bonfires could be built on the ice.

2/1/1309, A total solar eclipse was seen in England.

3-4/1309, Edward granted Isabella lands in Cheshire and North Wales as well as a cash grant of £1,122.

6/27/1309, Piers returned to England; his lands and titles restored soon afterwards (8/5).

10/18/1309, The Earl of Warwick (1249356), Thomas – earl of Lancaster (1st cousin), Henry – earl of Lincoln, the  Earl of Arundel (5909944) and Robert – earl of Oxford refused to attend a called parliament to be held at York because of Piers Gaveston’s presence at the side of King Edward. Later Gilbert – earl of Gloucester, Aymer – earl of Pembroke, and John – earl of Richmond would also refuse claiming their approach would be unsafe. When King Edward moved the parliament to Westminster, the earls of Lancaster, Hereford (5909948), Warwick and Pembroke agreed to attend, but said they would come armed.

3/16/1310 at London [not Westminster, where parliament was held], Edward agreed “of his free will” [historically known to be “under duress”] to the formation of the Lords Ordainer, a group of 8 earls  11 bishops, and 13 barons, during the period of their authority, lasting 1 year from 29 September 1310. The Ordainers were to have full powers to reform the states both of the kingdom and of the king's household. (S) Parliament Rolls, 2005, Edward II.

3/20/1310, 21 Ordainers sworn in: Bishops: Canterbury, London, Salisbury, Chichester, Norwich, St. Davids and Llandaff. Earls: Gloucester, Lancaster, Lincoln, Pembroke, Hereford, Warwick, Richmond and Arundel. Barons: Hugh de Vere, Hugh de Courtenay (15210464), Robert de Clifford (1249352), William Marshal, and William Martin. (S) Parliament Rolls, 2005, Edward II.

10/1309 & 2/1310, Edward called for parliaments, but the magnates refused to attend.

8/1310, Edward left for Scotland with Piers and the earls of Gloucester and Surrey. His expedition would last a year.

11/1310, Queen Eleanor, spending several months with the king at Berwick-on-tweed, ordered 5000 pieces of fruit in Nov., 1300 in Dec., and 9800 in early 1311.

1/18/1311, Edward revoked Piers exhile.

8/16/1311, Having been recalled by the Ordainers, and leaving Piers in the north, Edward was presented with the restrictions imposed by the Ordainers; much of it based on accusations about Piers.

10-11/1310, Edward gave Isabella the palace of Eltham and lands in Kent and Lincolnshire.

10/28/1310 at Eltham, Isabella wrote a letter to Edward.

10/29/1310, Isabella wrote a letter to the receiver of Ponthieu about the affairs of Piers.

11/1311, Edward gave into the barons and again banished Piers; who was required to leave through Dover. [Piers’ wife Margaret was pregnant and did not accompany him.]

11/23/1311, King Edward paid a messenger of Piers a pound for carrying the messages to him.

12/25/1311, Edward and Isabella spent Christmas at Westminster.

1/1312, Edward departed for Yorkshire, picking up his pregnant niece Margaret, wife of Piers, along the way at Wallingford. [Margaret delivered her daughter Joan (by 1/12). (1/13) Piers, still officially exhiled, arrived at Nottingham.]

1/18/1312, King Edward revoked Piers’ exiled and declared him “good and loyal.” [The revocation was written in French, likely by Edward himself. Piers’ lands and titles restored 2 days later.]

2/1312, The Ordainer barons revolted, including Earl Humphrey de Bohun. They created a plan to capture Piers involving the earls of Pembroke [John de Hastings] and Surrey [Edmund FitzAlan], and Robert de Clifford and Henry de Percy.

2/20/1312, Edward, Piers & Margaret celebrated Joan’s birth at Scarbarough castle, York.

2/24/1312 at York, Queen Isabella was present for the christening of Margaret’s infant daughter Joan. [Isabella had been travelling for over two weeks.]

3/1312, Piers excommunicated by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

4/22/1312, Edward, Isabella, Piers and Margaret were together at Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

4/25/1312, Edward bought Isabella large white pearls for £40.

5/5/1312, Edward, after hearing of the approach of the Earl of Lancaster with is forces, and decided to return Piers to Scarbarough castle. Edward and Piers travelled by sea (for 5 days), while Isabella travelled by land to Knaresborough castle. (Edward met her there on the 14th.) [In the meantime, the Earl of Lancaster had captured Edward’s baggage train at Tynemouth, and captured Margaret at Newcastle.]

5/19/1312, Robert de Clifford, Henry de Lacy, and the earls of Surrey and Pembroke involved in the capture of Piers Gaveston, besieging him at Scarborough castle. Piers was placed in the custody of the Earl of Pembroke.

6/10/1312 at Deddington priory (Oxfordshire), Amyer made no resistance when the Earl of Warwick seized Gaveston and carried him off, turning him over to 3 other earls at Warwick castle.

6/19/1312, Piers Gaveston, sometime Earl of Cornwall, King Edward’s favorite, was executed at Blacklow Hill, Warwickshire, by the earls of Lancaster, Hereford and Arundel. [Piers, apparently a good soldier and administrator, would be replaced by “favorites” who were vicious and power seekers – the law of unintended consequences. 7 Earls would be executed in a short 18 year span  – the last English earl having been executed 236 years before. 1–Piers (who would have been an earl at his death if not forced out), 2 by Edward II, 3 by Roger de Mortimer, 1 by Edward III. In addition, 2 earls would be killed in battles.]

7/1312, Edward sent an escourt retinue to bring Isabella back south where they would take up residence at Windsor castle.

10/20/1312, King Edward granted Isabella authority to write her will [in case she died in childbirth.]

12/1312, Edward and the earls of Lancaster, Warwick and Hereford signed a peace treaty.

1/1313, Edward, Isabella, and their son Edward were entertained by multiple pagents at Westminster.

2/23/1313, Edward received the possessions that the Earl of Lancaster had captured at Tynemouth.

5/23/1313, King Edward and Queen Isabella left from Dover for a trip to France.

6/2/1313, Edward and Isabella arrived in Paris where 3 of Isabella’s brothers were to be knighted. King Edward participated with King Philip IV in knighting 200 plus.

6/5/1313, The silken pavilion in which Edward and Isabella were sleeping caught fire. Their possessions were destroyed and Isabella received burns to her arms.

6/19/1313 at Pontoise, France, Edward had 54 people dance naked for entertainment. [Anniversary of Piers’ death.]

7/15/1313, Edward and Isabella arrived back in England at Dover.

10/13/1313, The Barons involved with the death of Gaveston, after submission before the king, were pardoned by Edward II with the “kiss of peace”. [Partly due to renewal of the war with Scotland – Edward II needed the support of the Barons. 350 adherents of the earls were also pardoned.]

1313-14, The Scots made many raids on English castles held in Scotland, including a siege of Stirling castle (6/1313). [Perth, Edinburgh, Roxburgh and Dumfries castles were destroyed.]

2/28/1314, Queen Isabella went to France from Sandwich to present petitions of Edward to her father concerning Gascony. [Edward gave her £5,000 for the trip. She travelled with a large retinue.]

1314, Isabella testified in the adultery case in France involving the wives of her brothers Louis and Charles and two d’Aulnay brothers.

1314, Edward banned in London the playing of “rumpuses with large footballs”, [Possibly the precursor to modern soccer.]

6/1314, Robert the Bruce was besieging the castles of Berwick and Stirling. King Edward marched north with an army of 15,000 including 2000 armored knights. Queen Isabella accompanied King Edward as far as Berwick.

6/24/1314, King Edward II lost the battle of Bannockburn. Robert Bruce had deployed 8000 spearmen on a hill overlooking Bannock burn [brook], a tributary of the Forth. Robert held 500 mounted knights in reserve. As the English attacked across the brook, Robert counter-attacked along a 2000-yard front. Edward attempted to flank the Scot’s left with archers, but they were driven back the Scot cavalry. The English front broke against the Scottish spearmen. It was the largest loss of English knights in a single day (over 500 knights and noblemen). 4000 Scots were killed. Stirling castle then fell to Robert. King Edward escaped with a small retinue and managed to reach the safety of Dunbar castle (60 miles from the battle). From there Edward took a fishing boat to Berwick where Isabella was waiting. [Edward’s valuable baggage train was captured by the Scots.]

8/1314, The Scots invaded, plundered, and set fire to vast areas of northern England.

9/10/1314, Edward held a parliament at York to propose a peace settlement with the Scots, which included an exchange of prisoners.

11/29/1314, King Philip of France died, succeeded by Louis X, age 25 [who would died within 2 years].

12/1314, The royal family spent the Christmas season at Windsor castle.

1/2/1315, King Edward buried Piers in the Dominican church at Langley after Piers’ excommunication was lifted.

4/1315, Due to a famine in England caused by year-long rains and flooding, King Edward ordered the regulation of food prices. [The regulations were suspended in the parliament of 1316.]

5/1315, King Edward learned that most of Ireland had been taken by the Scots. [Roger Mortimer still held Dulbin and a few castles for the King, which would be lost in December.]

By 1315, Hugh de Audley (60845658) with Roger Damory (30422770) and William Montacute (2495306) highly influential with the king. [All 3 had fought at the Battle of Bonnackburn.] (S) Edward II, Warner, 2017.

6/5/1316, Isabella’s brother, King Louis of France died; followed soon by her infant nephew the heir.

7/23/1316, Edward and pregnant Isabella left for her Eltham Palace in Kent.

12/25/1316, Edward and Isabella were at Nottingham.

3/1317, King Edward with Roger de Amory traveled to Amesbury to arrange Roger’s marriage to widow Elizabeth de Clare (2498691). [He was a younger s/o a minor lord, and she was the granddaughter of a king.]

1317, Hugh de Audley, Roger Damory and William Montacute at multiple parliaments during the year continued to raise animosity between Edward and the Earl of Lancaster.

7/7/1317, Edward founded King’s Hall at Cambridge [the 2nd college at Cambridge] to educate clerks for his Chancery. Its 32 members were known as King’s scholars.

3/15/1318, King Edward attended his stepmother Queen Marguerite’s funeral at Greyfriars Church. Queen Isabella and daughter Eleanor also attended. [Isabella received her dower lands.]

8/1/1318, King Edward assigned dower to Isabella, daughter of Philip, king of France, to the value of £18,000 of petty money of Tours. (S) CPRs.

8/7/1318, King Edward and the Earl of Lancaster exchanged the kiss of peace, and agreed to the Treaty of Leake.

10/1318, Hugh le Despenser, the younger, confirmed as Chancellor by parliament.

1318-19, Scottish allies of Robert Bruce invaded York and nearly captured Queen Isabella who was visiting the Archbishop. Learning of the invasion by a captured Scot, Isabella escaped by ship to Nottingham. The Scots wasted the countryside to the city gates of York, burning Ripon, Knaresborough, Skipton, ... (S) Gentleman’s Mag., V26, 1902, P131.

1-7/1319, King Edward was at York.

9/7/1319, Edward besieged Berwick-upon-Tweed. He had not brought siege engines and had to have them brought by ship. Learning of the invasion of York and the defeat at Myton of the Archbishop, Edward abandoned the siege and returned to England. [The Scots escaped by a western route which avoided Edward’s large army.]

12/21/1319, Edward signed a 3-year peace agreement with Robert Bruce.

6/1/1320, Edward granted High Peak in Derbyshire to Isabella to aid in the expenses of son John and daughter Eleanor.

6/19/1320, King Edward traveled to France to perform homage (at Amiens on 6/29) for his French lands in Gascony and Ponthieu to his overlord and brother-in-law, King Philip V. [Edward and Isabella returned in August.]

10/6/1320, King Edward called a parliament at Westminster. Bishop Thomas Cobham wrote to Pope John, “the king, in the parliament summoned to London bore himself splendidly, with prudence and discretion, contrary to his former habit rising early and presenting a nobler and pleasant countenance to prelates and lords. Present almost every day in person, he arranged what business was to be dealt with, discussed and determined. Where amendment was necessary he ingeniously supplied what was lacking, thus giving joy to his people, ensuring their security, and providing reliable hope of an improvement in behavior.”

10/26/1320, Edward ordered the Gower peninsula in South Wales to be taken into his own hands, prior to awarding it to his favourite Hugh le Despenser and trampling over the rights of the Marcher lords, specifically John de Mowbray (5910160).

2/1321, Edward issued writs forbidding unlawful assembly because he knew Earl Thomas of Lancaster was meeting with large groups of norther barons.

5/4/1321, the “Marcher lords” of northern Wales attacked the Despenser’s estates in southern Wales; beginning the “Despenser War”. The forces opposing Hugh le Despenser and King Edward II were Roger de Mortimer, Earl Humphrey de Bohun, leading the Marcher forces; Earl Thomas of Lancaster, leading norther barons; and supporting barons including Roger de Armory, Hugh de Audley, Roger de Clifford and John de Giffard.

5/1321, Edward confiscated the lands of his former favorite Hugh de Audley, the younger, who had attacked the Despenser estates at Newport [which Audley had previously held].

8/1/1321, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, entered London with a large force and took the lead in denouncing Edward’s favorites [the Despencers.]

7/28/1321, Edward created his brother Edmund of Woodstock (2954858) as the 3rd Earl of Kent.

8/3-24/1321, King Edward granted Isabella custody of the Great Seal. [Also in Oct. & Nov.].

8/14/1321, Under pressure from the rebelling magnates, Edward agreed to exile the Despensers. [The person most attributed with convincing Edward was Queen Isabella.]

10/1321, King Edward implemented a plan to draw the revolting barons into war. He sent Isabella on pilgrimage to Canterbury, during which trip she would request accommodations at Ledes castle (in Kent) of Bartholomew de Badelesmere (5909950), his former steward who had joined the revolt and was at Oxford with the rebels. Bartholomew’s wife, Margaret de Clare (5909951), refused the Queen’s entry. King Edward then began a siege (10/23) of Ledes castle (castle falling 11/11.)

12/1321, Edward issued safe conducts for Hugh and his father Hugh le Despenser (5909748) to return to England.

1/3/1322, Isabella’s brother King Philip V of France died without a male heir; her brother Charles succeeding.

2/26/1322, King Edward captured Lancaster’s Kenilworth castle.

3/3/1322, King Edward was reunited with the Despensers who also brought a large number of men to his aid. The same day Edward seized all of Lancaster’s lands.

3/10/1322, King Edward defeated the forces of Earl Thomas of Lancaster on the river Trent.

3/16/1322, At the battle of Boroughbridge, northwest of York, King Edward defeated the forces of the Marcher lords and Thomas of Lancaster.  The royalist forces were defending their position with dismounted men-at-arms and archers against an attacking calvary.

3/22/1322, Edward executed Earl Thomas of Lancaster for treason at his castle of Pontefract [This complicated Edward’s French connections because Thomas was the uncle of King Charles IV of France, Edward’s brother-in-law.]

1322, King Edward marched his forces into southeastern Scotland, but was immediately sent into retreat.

10/14/1322, Edward, fought the battle of Byland [20 miles north of York] against Robert Bruce, and was nearly captured by the Scots invading south at Rievaulx abbey; primarily by treachery of Andrew Harclay. This defeat compelled Edward to recognize Scottish independence [which would become official in 1328.]

2/1323, Queen Isabela and Eleanor de Clare both petitioned King Edward II on behalf of Joan, “our dear and well-beloved cousin”, wife of Roger de Mortimer(1249358), who had been imprisoned with his whole family. [Roger escaped and fled to France.]

3/3/1323, Edward had Andrew Harclay, Earl of Carlisle, executed for collusion with the Scot Robert Bruce; and then had his head placed on London bridge.

3/18/1323, Writ … for Edmund, earl of Kent, the king’s brother, appointed as lieutenant on this side of Trent against the incursion of the Scots … as the king proposes going South of Trent for recreation. (S) CPRs.

4/1324-1/1325, Pope John XXII wrote multiple times to Queen Isabella requesting her help in peace negotiations between King Edward and her brother King Charles.

8/1324, King Edward began the “War of Saint-Sardos” with his brother-in-law King Charles of France, who had invaded Aquitaine.

9/18/1324, Edward seized Isabella’s lands into his own hands. [Supposedly due to the war.] Queen Isabella was granted a little over £7 daily for her expenses.

10/1324, Queen Isabella smuggled a letter to her brother, the King of France, in which she accused Hugh le Despenser of depriving her of her husband’s love.

3/9/1325, Isabella sent to France to negotiate with her brother, King Charles IV, left from Dover. [Edward gave her £1000 for immediate expenses, and the ability to borrow money while in France. Before her departure Edward asked the Dominicans of Venice to pray for her and his family during her trip. In May, Edward documented that he had sent Isabella at the Pope’s urging.]

3/31/1325, Isabella wrote to Edward from Paris, addressing him as ‘mon tresdoutz coer’.

6/13/1325, King Edward and his brother-in-law King Charles signed a truce agreement. [Not very favorable to Edward.]

9/1/1325 in Paris, Queen Isabella met with Archbishop John Stratford (4211200) and others. The next evening, the Queen met just with John at dinner and suggested that her son, Prince Edward, be given all his father’s lands in France, and then the Prince would be able to do the homage that King Edward was reticient to perform. Together, the Queen and John took this suggestion to King Charles. King Charles accepted this idea, and the Archbishop was sent back to England to obtain King Edward’s approval.

9/12/1325 sailing from Dover, Edward (1477424), age 12, sent by his father to do homage to King Charles IV for his French lands. Archbishop John Stratford had in his possession a “safe conduct” letter for the Queen from King Edward commanding her to return “without delay” once the Prince had done his homage. [The Despensers requested King Edward not leave them unprotected in England, and he was worried about his numerous enemies gathered in France.]

By 10/1325, Apparently King Edward was in an affair with his niece Eleanor de Clare (2954875), wife of his favorite Hugh le Despenser.  King Edward frequently visited Eleanor, 11 times during the final year of his reign. His household accounts show he sent her gifts of jewels and golden chaffinches, and gave her lots of money. “Privy dining” is mentioned in the accounts, as well as medicines brought to them “when they were ill.” [There is also circumstantial evidence for a relationship during the same time between Edward and Hugh.]

11/1325, Queen Isabella sent word that she would not return to England until the “intruder” [Hugh le Despenser] between her and her husband had been removed. The same month Edward cut off Isabella’s access to his money.

11/25/1325 in Paris, Queen Isabella and Roger de Mortimer attended the coronation of Jeanne of Evreux as Queen of France. Roger carried Prince Edward’s train.

12/1/1325, Edward wrote what would be his last letter to Isabella defending Hugh le Despenser.

12/1325, King Edward arranged for 4 of his 30 sergeants-at-arms to sleep outside his bed chamber, and the rest to remain in the hall ‘to be nearby.’

12/8/1325, Queen Isabella wrote a letter to Edward stating that she would not return until the intruder who had come between Edward and her [Hugh, who she referred to as a Pharisee] was removed. Queen Isabella started wearing the clothes of a mourning widow. Many of Isabella’s servants returned to England where King Edward paid them for their service.

12/16/1325, Jeanne de Valois (2954851), Countess of Hainaut (and Isabella’s 1st cousin), and her daughter Philippa traveled from Hainaut to Paris for her father’s funeral. [Likely the meeting with Isabella that would eventually lead to Philippa marrying Isabella’s son Edward.]

12/31/1325, Isabella borrowed 1,000 Paris livres from her brother King Charles. [This would usually cover about a month of her expenses.]

1/3/1326, King Edward wrote to the Pope asking that no dispensation be given to his son Edward’s marriage to anyone in France without his permission.

1/21/1326, Edward founded Oriel College at Oxford; the 5th college at Oxford.

1/22/1326, Edward sent a letter to Count William of Hainaut about settling issues the Count had with the treatment of his subjects by Englishmen. [The Count would soon support Isbella’s invasion of England.]

2/5/1326, Isabella wrote a letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury say that she had not left her husband without a very great and justifiable cause.

By 2/8/1326, Isabella was in a relationship with Roger de Mortimer. [Date of a proclamation of King Edward to the fact of the relationship.]

1326, Isabella traveled to Hainault where she found support from Count William of Hainaut against King Edward. [William’s daughter Philippa (1477425) would marry Isabel’s son King Edward III.] (S) The Political History of England, Poole, 1905, P298. [Note that her brother King Charles did not provide support.]

4-5/1326, King Edward resided at Kenilworth, Gloucestershire, and Wiltshire. [During this time Edward is known to have spent a lot of time playing his favorite games – ‘cross and pile’, and dice.]

8/1327, King Edward sent an unsuccessful invasion fleet to Normandy, which suffered heavy losses. [Likely sent to retrieve his son Edward.]

8/27/1326 at Mons, Edward [III]’s marriage contract with Philippa finalized, which included marrying within 2 years. Roger de Mortimer (1249358) and Edmund (2954858), earl of Kent were guarantees. (S) Edward III, Ormrod, 2013, P39.

9/24/1326, Roger and Queen Isabella invaded England, landing at Orwell in Suffolk, Edmund, earl of Kent arriving with the Queen. Isabella was accompanied by her son and flew the royal banners. [Isabella was sure few forces would attempt to attack her forces with her son in the retinue.]

9/27/1326, King Edward and both Despensers were in the Tower when they heard that the Queen had landed in England with a great army [which was incorrect – she only had 700 mercenaries, and was joined by about the same number of rebels.]

9/28/1326, King Edward offered a reward of £1000 for the head of Roger de Mortimer.

9/29/1326, Isabella took £800 from the abbey of St. Edmunds, 40 miles NW of where they landed to pay her soldiers.

10/2/1326, King Edward and Hugh le Despenser sailed west from Chepstow. Edward left his niece Eleanor de Clare in custody of the Tower.

10/9/1326, Isabella offered a reward of £2000 for the head of Hugh le Despenser.

10/15/1326, Isabella and her forces were at Wallingford, 45 miles west of London, where her reward offer was publically read.

10/18/1326, Queen Isabella and her forces arrived outside of Bristol, which was being held by Hugh le Despenser, the elder.

10/20/1326, King Edward was at Chepstow in Conwy castle. [15 miles north of Bristol, across the Severn river.] From there they again set sail, but were forced to put in at Cardiff [due  west of Bristol.]

10/26/1326, Queen Isabella and her forces captured Bristol where Edward of Windsor, s/o Edward II, was named regent of England.

10/26/1326, The day Bristol was captured, Archbishop John Stratford arrived at Bristol and joined a council of supporters in proposing an alternative government under the rule of  Prince Edward as “Keeper of the Relm”.

10/27/1326, Hugh le Despenser, the elder, executed at Bristol. The same day, King Edward and Hugh the younger arrived at Caerphilly castle, Wales.

11/2/1326, Edward and Hugh left Caerphilly castle and went to Margam abbey and Neath. [When the castle fell the following March, it was found that Edward had left behind a list identifying all the items he had taken from London, including 279 silver saucers, and £14,000 which was hidden in 27 barrels.]

11/16/1326, Hugh le Despenser with King Edward and others captured at Llanstrisant, Glamorgan, Wales. [There is a supported theory that Hugh at this time was holding the King captive.]

11/20/1326, Edward gave up the Great Seal to the Bishop of Hereford.

By 12/5/1326, Edward imprisoned at Kenilworth castle.

12/1326 at Wallingford castle, Queen Isabella and Roger kept a “ryall Christmasse”.

1/7-13/1327, ‘Parliament’ [the legality of this conclave is debated] deposed Edward II; Edward initially refusing their proposals.

1/13/1327, The lords mentioned came to the Guildhall, and in the presence of the Mayor, Aldermen and a great Commonality to the oath to safeguard Isabella, Queen of England, and Edward, eldest son of the king of England and heir-apparent, in their cause against Hugh le Despenser the younger and Master Robert de Baldock, … Earls: Thomas, earl Marshall, Edmund, earl of Kent, John, earl of Hereford; John, earl of Warrene … (S) CPR&Ms.

1/20/1327, Edward abdicated in favor of his son.

2/1/1327, Edward [III] of Windsor crowned King of England. The same day Queen Isabella granted herself 20,000 marks yearly, a third of the royal annual revenue. [11/1326, there was about £80,000 in the treasury. Isabella and Roger would spend it all by 12/1330.]

3/1327, There was an attempt to rescue Edward II from Kenilworth castle.

4/2/1327, Thomas de Berkeley and his brother-in-law John Mautravers (the younger, 5910508) received charge of deposed King Edward II from Henry, earl of Lancaster. [Both had been imprisoned in the Tower by Edward II.] Removed from Kenilworth, Edward was taken to Berkeley castle. [Roger de Mortimer waited near Kenilworth with an armed escort retinue.]

5/15/1327, Berkeley and Mautravers were given £500 for Edwards needs. [They were allocated £5 daily.]

6-7/1327, There was a [possibly] successful, but short lived rescue of Edward II from Berkeley castle. [Multiple attempts were supported by Welsh barons.]

7/27/1327, Berkeley wrote a letter to the Chancellor saying ‘some people indicted ... for coming towards the castle towards the castle of Berkeley with an armed force, for having seized the father of our lord the king out of our keeping, and feloniously robbing the castle.’

1327, Roger instigates a plan to have Edward II murdered.

9/21/1327, Edward murdered  in Berkeley Castle, Gloucester, England. William Beaukaire, a royal seargent-at-arms, was assigned to guard King Edward’s body. Later joined by other watchers, initially William was the only person who stayed near the body. [There is circumstantial evidence he actually escaped.]


10/21/1327, King Edward’s body was taken to Gloucester Abbey.

12/20/1327, Edward was buried. [For the first time in history a wooden effigy was used for royalty, and barriers were placed around the casket so no one could get close to the body.]

2/1/1328, Isabella’s brother King Charles IV of France died. His wife later gave birth to a daughter. A 12-year-old law in France prevented a daughter from succeeding, but did not disallow succession through a daughter – thus setting up the claim to the throne of Edward III and the beginning of the Hundred Years war.

3/17/1328, The Treaty of Northumberland recognized Scottish independence.

4/1/1328 at Wodestok, Queen Isabella granted for life to Reynaut de Belou, her yeoman, all the lands in Rue sur la mier which came to her by forteiture of Henri de Botiller, … (S) CPRs, 5/9/1328.

6/1328, Roger and his lover Queen Isabella, stayed with Roger’s wife Joan at Ludlow castle after the wedding of 2 of their daughters. [Roger held a tournament for the celebration which involved him dressed as King Arthur. King Edward III was given a role as Sir Lionel, knight of Arthur.]

9/14/1328 at Guildhall in London, Archbishop John Stratford came out in opposition to Queen Isabella and her extravagences. [Learning that Roger de Mortimer was plotting to have him killed, the Archbishop hid with the nuns in Wilton Abbey.]

9/1329, Isabella made a will settling some of her properties on Roger. [There is evidence that she was pregnant with a child of Roger.]

[––Edward II (again)––]

10/10/1329, William Melton received a letter from William Kingsclere saying that Edward II was alive. [Documents support the story that Edward had killed a sleeping porter, used the keys to escape the castle, and spent a year and a half in Corfe castle. The porter’s body was buried in place of Edward. Queen Isabella would have benefited from Edward being alive because she could not then be held responsible for his death.]

Late/1329, Scot Donald, earl of Mar, promised to come to England to release Edward from captivity.

6/1329, Edmund, earl of Kent, visited Pope John XXII to discuss the ‘deliverance” of Edward II.

1/14/1330, Letter from William Melton, Archbishop of York, to Mayor of London: “We have certain news of our liege lord Edward of Caernarfon, that he is alive and in good health of body, in a safe place at his own wish ... procure for us a loan of £200 in gold ... for the comfort of and in secret, ... (multiple articles of clothing) ... come as soon as you can to advise us ....” [The Archbishop also pledged as much as £5,000 to help the former king. The gold would be helpful for traveling abroad.]

[3/1330, Edward left corfe castle for Ireland after hearing of his half-brother Edmund’s execution.]

3/14/1330, Roger executed Edward II’s half-brother, 28-year-old Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent. [This act by Queen Isabella and Roger, execution of a King’s son, would quickly lead to their downfall.]

3/31/1330, Roger, in the name of King Edward III, ordered the adherents of the executed Earl of Kent to appear before the King [i.e. Roger and Isabella.]

5/19/1330, Queen Isabella wrote to Archbishop Stratford, starting with “Greetings and true love”, requesting money for Queen Philippa [wife of Edward III] who was about to give birth.

10/18/1330 at Nottingham castle, King Edward III, along with his courtiers John, Humphrey and William de Bohun [sons of Humphrey (5909948)] captured his mother Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer [who was soon executed.] Isabella was escorted to Windsor where she was placed under house arrest.

11/1330 at Parliament, Thomas Berkeley, one of Edward II’s keepers, was asked how he can defend himself from responsibility in the death of Edward II (since his was ‘responsible’ for Edward II.) Thomas replied that he had never heard of the death of Edward II until he had heard it at this parliament. [The men actually convicted were never executed. Thomas had apparently only been told of the king’s death, but did not actually know that he had died.]

12/1/1330, Isabella surrended her estates to her son.

12/21/1330, Isabella was escorted from Berkhampstede to Windsor to spend Christmas with her son. Isabella remained there for 3 months or more, sometime under the care of a physician.

4/19/1331, Isabella spent Easter with the court at Peterborough abbey.

1/1331, Edward III granted Isabella £3000 a year for life to provide for her estate. [Higher than what she had as the reigning queen. £40 qualified a male for knighthood.]

7/11/1331, Edward III granted his mother Isabella the castle and town of Hereford.

1/1332, Isabella wrote he son requesting money owed from 2 of her manors.

1332-37, Isabella took up residence at Castle Rising. Isabella carpeted her rooms in black, but otherwise decorated them in bright colors. She also had 8 ladies-in-waiting and 33 clerks to handle her affairs. An avid reader, she had a library with books of Arthurian romances, as well as astrology and alchemy.

1337, Queen Isabella’s yearly allowance raised to £4500; and she was given permission to make her will; most items going to Edward of Woodstock, her eldest grandchild.

6/1338, Queen Isabella with Edward III at Pontefract.

9/1338, A man calling himself “William the Welshman” met King Edward III near Koblenz in Germany, spent some time with him then, and a further 3 weeks with him in Antwerp in December. Edward III's Wardrobe accounts state: “William le Galeys who asserts that he is the father of the present king” and “William Galeys who calls himself king of England, father of the present king”. William Norwell, keeper of the Wardrobe accounts, served Edward II from 1313 until the end of his reign. [Additional note, Edward II, born in Wales, never gave up his title of Prince of Wales to his son.]

11/13/1340, Queen Isabella with Edward III at the Tower in London for his birthday.

12/1340, Queen Isabella in London to witness the transfer of the great seal to the new Chancellor.

1/1344, Queen Isabella at Edward III’s King’s Round Table feast at Windsor.

11/13/1344, Queen Isabella with Edward III at in Norwich for his birthday.

9/22/1345, Queen Isabella attended the funeral of Henry, Earl of Lancaster.

1348, King Philip VI of France suggested that Isabella and Jeanne d'Évreux, the widow of Isabella's brother King Charles IV, act as mediators between England and France in the hope of reaching a peace settlement between the countries. [King Edward refused to involve Isabella.]

1349, The Black Death entered the west countryside of England [likely entering through Bristol].

11/1349, The Black Death reached London where and estimated 30,000 died.

12/1354, Isabella spent Christmas at Berkhamstede with her grandson the Black Prince.

1356, Queen Isabella ordered renovations to her palace of Sheen.

10/1357-4/1358, Isabella visited by her relatives, and captured King John II of France, her cousin; as recorded in her household book.

3/1358, Isabella became seriously ill.

1358, Queen Isabella spent £1400 on jewelry, almost half her allotment.

4/23/1358, Queen Isabella at Edward III’s jousting tournament at Windsor wearing a silk dress threaded with silver on which were 300 rubies and 1800 pearls. (S) The Black Prince, Jones, 2018, P233.

6/13/1358-7/2/1358, Queen Isabella at Leeds castle, Kent, with her daughter Queen Joan of Scotland.

8/22/1358, Isabella died Hertford Castle; buried in her wedding cloak, in Grey Friars, Church, London. King Edward II’s heart was placed on her breast in a silver casket. Queen Isabella left all of her properties to her grandson, the Black Prince.

(S) Queen Isabella, Weir, 2005. (S) The Lives of the Princesses of England, V2, Green, 1854. (S) Gentleman’s Mag., V26, 1902, P131. (S) Edward II, Warner, 2014.

Family notes:

·         In the 1330’s Manuele Fiesch, a papal notary, distant cousin of Edward II, and future Bishop of Vercelli, wrote a letter to King Edward III claiming that King Edward II had escaped in the fall of 1327, spent time in Corfe castle in Dorset, and in Ireland, took a ship to northern France, traveled on foot through France and eventually spent 2 weeks with Pope John XXII at Avignon, about 15 miles from “Beaucaire” – similar to the name of the guard of the Edward II’s body. Edward then went to the hermitage of Milasce where he lived 2 years. Edward then lived at the hermitage of Cecima in the diocese of Pavia for 2 years. [Fiesch said Edward II told him the information himself. Some details of the letter are suspect, but may be errors in knowledge or scribal errors. There are other details that very few persons other than Edward II would know.]

Children of Edward and Isabella:

i. King Edward III (1477424), born 11/13/1312 in England.

ii. Prince John of Eltham, born 8/1316 in England.

7/19/1333, John fought at the Battle of Halidon Hill.

9/14/1336, John, Earl of Cornwall, died of a fever at Perth after leading a raid into Scotland.

iii. Princess Eleanor, born 6/18/1318 at Woodstock in England.

6/16/1329, King Edward III proposed his sister Eleanor in marriage to the eldest son of King Philip of France.

1330, Eleanor moved into the household of Queen Philippa, her sister-in-law.

5/1332 at Nijmegen, Eleanor married Reginald II, Count of Gelderland [died 1343.] Reginald sent a wild bear to Edward III as a gift.

1342, Reginald attempted to divorce Eleanor.

1343, Reginald died; Eleanor took the veil.

4/22/1355, Eleanor died; buried in Deventer abbey.

iv. Queen Joan, born 7/5/1321 at the Tower of London, England.

1328, Joan sent to Scotland to be married.

1329, Joan married to David II, King of the Scots [1324–1371].

1362, Joan died.

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