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Sunday, August 9, 2020

King Edward III of England & Queen Philippa of Hainault

 1477424. King Edward III of England & 1477425. Queen Philippa of Hainault

6/22/1311, Philippa born in Valenciennes, France, d/o 2954850. Count William of Hainaut & 2954851. Jeanne of Valois.

11/13/1312 at Windsor castle, Edward III, born s/o 2954848. King Edward II & 2954849. Queen Isabella.

11/16/1312, Edward chistened at St. Edward’s chapel, Windsor. Hugh le Despenser (Earl, 5909748) was one of Edward’s godfathers.

11/24/1312, Edward given the county of Chester by his father.

1313-19, Edward, his brother John, and sister Eleanor lived at Wallingford castle under the care of Joan de Bois.

1319, Siblings Edward, John and Eleanor lived together.

7-10/1315, Edward’s daily expenses charged to the king were £3.

1320, Edward named Duke of Aquitaine.

10/6/1320, Edward of Windsor, earl of Chester (age 7), summoned to parliament.

3/1323, Edward of Windsor issued a wit to muster at Portsmouth. [Later cancelled.]

1325, Edward Count of Ponthieu and Montreuil.

9/12/1325 sailing from Dover, Edward, age 12, sent by his father to do homage to King Charles IV for his French lands. [His mother Queen Isabel was already in France. King Charles was his uncle.]

9/24/1325, Edward did homage before King Charles at Vincennes.

10/14/1325, Edward dined with his mother at Poissy, then reached Paris the next day.

10/22/1325, Edward was again with his mother at Le Bourget. [Edward would remain with his mother.]

1326, Queen Isabel refused to allow Prince Edward to return to England. She arranged for his marriage to Philippa  and used the dower money to help finance her invasion of England.

8/27/1326 at Mons, Edward’s marriage contract with Philippa finalized, which included marrying within 2 years. Roger de Mortimer (1249358) and Edmund (2954858), earl of Kent were guarantees.

1/7/1327, Parliament deposed Edward II.

1/13/1327, The lords mentioned came to the Guildhall, and in the presence of the Mayor, Aldermen and a great Commonality to the oath to safeguard Isabella, Queen of England, and Edward, eldest son of the king of England and heir-apparent, in their cause against Hugh le Despenser the younger and Master Robert de Baldock, … Earls: … Barons:, … knights and serjeants … (S) CPR&Ms.

1/20/1327, King Edward II abdicated in favor of his son.

1/24/1327, Edward III succeeded Edward II as King of England.

2/1/1327 at Westminster, Edward, age 14, crowned. [On the day of his coronation the Scots attacked Norham castle.]

2/28/1327, Envoys sent to the Pope by King Edward III to obtain the canonization of Thomas of Lancaster.

3/11/1327, Edward took financial control of his household. [A regency council was formed to advised Edward.]

4/19/1327, Edward and Isabella held a great council at Stamford, then went to York.

9/21/1327, Edward’s father, King Edward II [supposedly] murdered at Berkeley castle.

9/24/1327, Letters from Thomas de Berkeley to both 14-year-old King Edward III and his mother Queen Isabella arrived at Lincoln, where parliament was in session, informing them that King Edward II had died. That same day King Edward III wrote a letter to his cousin, John de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, informing him of the death.

9/1327, A Papal dispensation for the marriage of Edward and Philippa received. [Edward and Philippa were both ggchildren of King Philip III of France.]

10/1327, King Edward married Philippa [by proxy, sending the Bishop of Coventry] in his name in Valenciennes, France. [40+ knights escorted Philippa to her wedding, headed by her paternal uncle John of Beaumont.]

11/26/1327, Edward received the great seal sent from his father at Much Marcle, Hereford.

12/1327, Philippa arrived in England at Dover, escorted by her uncle Sir John de Beaumont. She was first housed at Ely Place in London, home of the Bishop of Ely. [King Edward was with his mother were in northern England dealing with the Scots.] Her uncle escorted her to Canterbury, then to Eltham, where they were met by a large company of English knights and ladies. [Sir John and his retinue returned to France.]

12/27/1327, Philippa left London to join King Edward at York.

1/24/1328 at York cathedral, Edward married Philippa. [Edward would authorize lands to Philippa lands valued yearly at £15,000.]

2/1/1328, Edward’s mother Isabella’s brother King Charles IV of France died. Charles’ wife later gave birth to a daughter. [A 12-year-old law in France prevented a daughter from succeeding, but did not disallow succession through a daughter – thus setting up the claim to the throne of Edward III, and the beginning of the hundred years war, the contenders being Edward, Philip of Valoy (succeeding) and Philip of Evreux.]

2/1328, King Edward held a tournament at York to celebrate his marriage, one of the last of the “melees” of groups of knights fighting each other in calvary charges. [1327-57, King Edward held at least 35 tournaments around England, many organize by Roger de Mortimer (1249358).]

3/17/1328, The Treaty of Northumberland with the Scots recognized them as an independent kingdom. [(5/4) ratified by Northampton parliament. Edward would break the peace agreement in 1333.]

4/1328, King Edward and Philippa returned to London.

6/1328, Roger Mortimer and his lover Queen Isabella, stayed with Roger’s wife Joan at Ludlow castle after the wedding of 2 of their daughters. Roger held a tournament for the celebration which involved him dressed as King Arthur. King Edward III was given a role as Sir Lionel, knight of Arthur [Which he continued to use in some later tournaments.]

1328, King Edward III in an expedition against the Scots. [The Scots did not engage Edward’s forces.]

12/1328, Edward and Philippa kept their Christmas at York.

2/22/1329, John Mautravers (5910508) appointed to served as Steward of King Edward III’s household. [The appointment lasted 18 months, and was instigated by Roger de Mortimer to spy on the young king.]

4/1329, Philippa granted 1,000 marks to renovate her bedchamber.

5/19/1329, King Edward about to cross over to the ports of France to do his homage, gave a procalmation that peace was to be preserved throughout the city of London.

6/6/1329 at Amiens, King Edward agreed to do simple homage for Acquitaine, but refused to do liege homage. [A great tournament was held after the ceremony.]

6/10/1329, King Edward returned to England. [Soon after Edward held jousts at Canterbury, Dartford, and Reigate.]

10/1329, Queen Isabella moved the family to the fortress at Kenilworth.

12/1329, It became public knowledge that Philippa was pregnant. [The prince would be born 3 months later.]

2/18/1330, Philippa crowned Queen. As part of the ceremony, Robert de Veer, Philippa’s hereditary chamberlain, received for his services at the coronation the queen’s shoes and 3 silver basins [he was not award the Queen’s bed, as customary, but Edward gave him 100 marks in compensation.]

2/1330, Philippa granted the honour of Pontefract and lordship of Glamorgan.

3/21/1330, Acknowlegment of the king’s indebtedness to … merchants of the society of the Bardi of Florenc, in £1,000 paid by them at this request to Roger de Mortuo Mari, earl of March, in the aid of the marriage of his daughter with the eldest son of Thomas, earl of Norfolk and marshal of England; … (S) CPRs.

1330, King Edward arranged secretly with the Pope to sign ‘Pante Sancte’ in his own hand on any correspondence that he originated or supported. [The original letter still exists.]

10/1330, King Edward arrived at Nottingham castle where Isabella and Roger were to hold a council. Edward was told that he could not enter with his entourage, but only with a few servants.

10/19/1330 at Nottingham castle, King Edward III (age 17), along with his courtiers, William de Bohun (2954974), Robert de Ufford (1249346), William de Clinton (3803074), John de Molyns (2955088) and others (9 total) led by William de Montague (30422278) captured his mother Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer. [They had been told of a secret tunnel that led into the castle keep.]

10/21/1330, Edward stopped at castle Donnington and gave the wife of Geoffrey Mortimer the entire contents of the castle along with his tournament armour. [Geoffrey, s/o Roger, was sent into exile the following March.]

11/26/1330, Edward held parliament at Westminster during which Roger de Mortimer was charged with his crimes. [Roger appeared before parliament bound and gagged, and forbidden to speak.]

12/1330, Edward had Queen Isabella escorted to Windsor where she was placed under house arrest.

12/20/1330, Edward’s first reason for breaking peace with Scotland occurred when the Scots ignored his request to restore some of his magnates’ lands that had been promised by the father of King David.

1/1331, Edward III granted Isabella £3000 a year for life to provide for her estate. [Higher than what she had as the reigning queen.]

4/4/1331, King Edward III on a secret visit to France disguised as a merchant. Edward also met with King Philip VI at Pont-Sainte-Maxence. [Another theory is that he was also visiting his father, who’s death had been faked.] A small entourage included John Stratford (4211200) and William Montague (30422278).

8/10/1332, Henry de Beaumont, with 2000 soldiers in a private invasion in support of Edward Balliol’s claim to the crown of Scotland, in the night battle of Dupplin Moor. The English on the high ground devastated the Scots in an “arrow storm”. The crossfire involving archers would later be successful at Crecy. [Weeks later Edward Balliol crowned King of Scotland at Scone.]

10/17/1332, King Edward held parliament at York.

7/19/1333, Edward defeated David II and the Scots at Hallidon Hill in Scotland. The Scots were led by Sir Archibald Douglas, regent for King David. The attacking Scots were felled by the English archers. The English men-at-arms then mounted their horses and completed the rout. [This would become a favorite tactic of the English forces.] Douglas died in the battle. King David fled to France.

1333, King Edward increased Queen Philippa’s annual income to £17,000. [Some of this came from payments of fines that were made in coinage. Philippa also had access to funds to support her children.]

3/1/1334 at York, Edward de Baliol and other “disinherited” Scots did homage to Edward as rulers of Scotland. [Baliol had commanded Edward’s left flank at the battle of Hallidon Hill.]

1334, King Edward held tournaments at Dunstable (135 participants), Woodstock, and Newmarket.

7/1334-1/1335, King Edward gave 2,500 persons alms associated with festivals, to another 250 he gave alsms because he had failed to fast appropriately, and to another 7,600 he gave alms  ‘at the king’s particular order.’

11/25/1334, King Edward, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, again invaded Scotland, advancing as far as Roxburgh, where he repaired the castle for his use.

12/1334, King Edward at York for Christmas.

5/25/1335, King Edward held parliament at York and planned another excursion into Scotland.

6/24/1335, King Edward, leaving from Carlisle, ravaged towns in Scotland. Going NW he reached Glascow. Then he traveled NE to Airth (near Stirling) and on to Perth. From Perth he went back to Airth, and then went east following the coast around to Berwick.

7/2/1336 at Northampton, Queen Philippa presided at council of 8 bishops, 8 lords, 38 knights. [Edward was in Scotland.]

8/15/1335, The Scots requested a peace meeting with King Edward.

12/1335, Edward celebrated Christmas court at Newcastle upon Tyne.

7/1336, Edward with ~400 men-at-arms and an equal number of hobelars and mounted archers left Perth moving swiftly north to Lochindorb where several ladies were rescued. From there Edward went north to Kinloss, then eastward around the coast to Aberdeen seizing food and torching farms and settlements. Aberdeen and its surroundings was reduced to ashes. He then continued along the coast back to Perth.

9/14/1336, King Edward’s brother John of Eltham, earl of Cornwall, died.

3/16/1337, King Edward made his eldest son, Edward of Wodestok [the future Black Prince], duke of Cornwall. Earls created: William de Montague (Salisbury, 30422278), William de Bohun (Northampton, 2954974), William de Clinton (Huntingdon, 3803074), Robert de Ufford (Suffolk, 1249346), Henry of Grosmont (Derby), and Hugh de Audley (Gloucester, 60845658). [The banquet cost £439, a large sum for a banquet.]

4/1337, King Edward sent embassies to make strategic alliances with Holy Roman Emperor Louis VI of Bavaria [whom he promised £60,000], and numerous vassals in Flanders and Holland, against King Philip VI of France.

5/24/1337, King Philip made a declaration of war and intent to seize King Edward’s lands in France.

6/7/1337, Philippa’s father died.

1337, King Edward organized local groups gentry under “justices of the peace” who could array local gentry, and hear and determine cases.

11/1337, Edward, claiming the throne of France through his mother, began the 100 Years War with the battle of Cadzand, a Flemish island. With 600 men-at-arms and 2000 archers they embarked on the Thames from London. On the third tide they left Margate for Cadsant. The locals and soldiers saw them coming. The French attached the ships with archers. The English landed with battle axes, sword and lances. Wryneck, Earl of Derby, s/o Henry of Lancaster, was wounded. The English archers then decimated the French. More than 3000 French soldiers were killed. Edward III had the village burnt before returning to England. (S) Chronicles of England, France, Spain, and the adjoining countries …, Froissart, P31.

6/1338, From Pontefract, King Edward attacked the castle of Dunbar, held by Black Agnes, countess of March, who successfully defended the castle.

7/16/1338, King Edward left for France with a small army, arriving the next day at the mouth of the Schedlt, then traveled up river to Antwerp (arriving 7/22). (S) Edward III, Ormrod, 2013, P198.

8/23/1338, Edward reached Cologne, then reached Koblenz on 9/5.

9/1338, A man calling himself “William the Welshman” met King Edward III near Koblenz in Germany. [The man referred to in the Wardrobe accounts as “William Galeys who calls himself king of England, father of the present king”] The man was taken back to Antwerp in the king’s train.

10/1338, King Philip’s forces attacked multiple towns of England’s coast and captured the channel islands.

11/1338, King Edward and Queen Philippa in Antwerp where Philippa gave birth to son Lionel.

12/1338, “William Galeys” again met with King Edward III in Antwerp. Edward also hosted a tournament celebrating the birth of his son Lionel.

1339, Philippa commissioned the work ‘Li regret Guillaume’, about her father, by Jean de la Mote. (S) Foreign Women’s Writing, Dijk, 2004, P68. [Her mother had similarly commissioned a work.]

Spring/1339, Scots supplied with French barges attacked English outposts north of the Firth of Forth.

6/30/1339, King Edward acknowledged a debt of £76,180 to William de la Pole (3802372). [Who he paid £46,389 the previous year.]

9/20/1339 from Brussels, King Edward, with a force of 12,000 attacked Cambresis, Tournai, Vermandois and Laon [in what is now far northern France.] Edward was supported by the earls of Salisbury, Suffolk, Derby, Northampton, Pembroke and Warwick (Thomas de Beauchamp, 624678), heading a force of about 4,600.

10/1339 at parliament, Archbishop Stratford, as President of the Home Council, argued in support of King Edward, who was fighting in France, and had accumulated a debt of £300,000.

11/1339, King Edward and the forces of King Philip neared each other at Brabant; however, King Philip retreated without engaging in battle.

1/26/1340 at Ghent, King Edward publically identified himself as “King of France” in the town’s marketplace.

2/1340, Having wintered in Hainault, and the costs of the war, totalling nearly £276,000, King Edward was forced to return to England, leaving hostages for some of the debts incurred. [The King’s yearly income about £30,000.]

4/1340, King Edward hosted a tournament at Windsor where he heard of the capture in France of the earls of Salisbury (William de Montague) and Suffolk (Robert de Ufford), who were captured on 4/11.

6/24/1340, Edward, with a fleet of 200 ships, won the Battle of Sluys against the French. The French navy guarded an inlet used as an approach to the continent. In a 9-hour battle the English attacked 166 French ships at their moorings. From his flagship, the Thomas, Edward directed the attack making maximum use of his archers (the English archers having the greater range.) Most of the French fleet and some Genoese ships were destroyed. (The English men-at-arms were seasoned veterans of the Scottish wars.) Well over 5000 French soldiers were killed. (It was said the sea ran red with blood as bodies wash onshore with the tide. Edward had a sever leg wound.)

7-8/1340, Edward’s expeditionary force landed at Tournai and laid siege. The archers were ineffective against the stone walls, so Edward returned to England with mastery of the English channel.

12/1/1340, King Edward III, residing in the Tower, summoned Sir William Pole [3802372, to whom he owed the most money], Sir John Stonore, Sir Nicholas Beche, and Sir John Molyns (2955088); each put in a separate room in the tower. [Sir John Molyns was imprisoned for stealing from the king.]

12/25/1340, King Edward held a great Christmas feast at Stokebogeys [previously of Sir John Molyns].

4/1341, The special privileges of the peerage descend from an early period, but it was the quarrel of Edward III with Archbishop Stratford that first made the most valuable of them matters of record. In the course of that dispute the lords recorded that “on no account should peers … be brought to trial or lose their possessions, be arrested, imprisoned, outlawed or forfeited, or be bound to answer or to judge, except in full Parliament and before their peers.”

2/1342, King Edward participated as a knight bachelor at the Dunstable tournament. [He did not join a retinue – some knights participated in tournaments as a traveling group.] (S) The Tournament in England, Barker, P86. [Attended by the earls of Derby, Warwick, Northampton, Pembroke, and Suffolk, and 236 knights,]

1342, At the Northampton tournament multiple knights were injured, many horses killed, and Sir John de Beaumont (2955092) died.

10/1342, King Edward left England again for France. King Edward fought an indecisive campaign against the French.

1/19/1343, A truce between King Edward and King Philip made at Malestroit.

3/2/1343, King Edward arrived back in England after a stormy 3-day crossing.

1/30/1344, Edward hosted a King’s Round Table feast at Windsor. King Edward, with a retinue of 19 knights, challenged all others in ‘combat’, winning all the events. [The beginning of the Knights of the Garter.] King Edward had invited noble women and wifes of the aldermen of London to attend. A banquet was held in the hall of the castle for the women. [The men at outside the castle in tents.] The tournament lasted 3 days. [William de Montague (30422278), earl of Salisbury, died from wounds received in the tournament.

3/24/1344, King Edward sent the earls of Aundel (2954972) and Derby, as Lt.’s of Aquitaine, to broker alliances with Castile, Aragon and Portugal.

1344, Queen Philippa funded one of her chaplains, the Bishop of Cardica, to perform a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and to Rome.

11/13/1344, Edward III visited his mother Queen Isabella at Castle Rising in Norwich for his birthday.

2/5/1345, Earl Richard Fitzalan married widow and 1st cousin Eleanor at Ditton church, Stoke Poges, Bucks with King Edward III present for the wedding.

7/3/1345, King Edward left England from Sandwich to join his forces already in France.

7/22/1345, Edward linked up with the remainder of his forces. An invasion force of 10,000 in Normandy, which marched north plundering the countryside. King Philip VI, with 8000 horsemen and 4000 Genoese crossbowmen pursued.

9/26/1345, Philippa’s brother, Count William, killed in battle, leaving no heir. King Edward sent Sir John de Beaumont and 4 knights to take possession of some of his lands. [With little success.]

7/26/1346 at Caen, capital of Normandy, Edward’s forces captured the city, as well as Raoul, Count of Eu, Constable of France, and Jean de Tancarville, Grand Chamberlain of France.

1346, Edward stopped at Crecy and took up defensive positions.

8/26/1346, Edward won the Battle of Crecy in France. The French vanguard attacked without orders, commiting the whole army. The English longbowmen could fire much more quickly than the Genoese, with a killing range of 250 yards. A decisive victory, a third of the French forces lost [mainly to arrows] to less than 100 Englishmen, this started the decline in importance of the mounted knight, and the rise of England as a European power. King Edward also used cannons (ribauldequin) firing bolts and grapeshot to scare the French forces’ horses, which was the first use of cannons in open battle. King Edward let his son, the Black Prince, lead the vanguard in battle.

9/4/1346, Edward started the siege of Calais, France.

9/1346, While King Edward was in France, David Bruce invaded England and burned part of the city of York.

10/1346, Queen Philippa assembled an army at York.

10/17/1346, The Scot army was then defeated by Queen Philippa’s forces at Nevill’s Cross, near Durham, and the capture of their king, David II. [According to Froissart, the squire who captured David II initially refused to give up his prisoner ‘to a woman’.]

10/1346, Queen Philippa join King Edward at Calais.

8/4/1347, Calais fell when King Philip failed to support their siege and retreated. Queen Philippa’s intervention saved the leaders of the city from being executed.

10/12/1347, King Edward returned to England., landing at Sandwich.

1348, King Edward participated in the group of knights of Sir Thomas de Bradstone at the Lichfield tournament.

1348, Edward instituted the Knights of the Garter.

1348, After giving birth to a son William, Queen Philippa, at her “churching”, wore a suit of blue velvet with 400 large pearls, 13 pounds of plate gold, and 11 pounds of gold thread. 

6/24/1348 at Windsor, In celebration of his new son, King Edward hosted a tournament, inviting French nobles captured during the battle of Crecy to take part.

6/1348, the Black Plague began to spread in Europe. [England would lose about a third of its population, France about a fourth.]

4/23/1349, King Edward held a tournament at Windsor to celebrate the founding of the Knights of the Garter. They divided into two groups, one led by Thomas Holland, the other by William Montague; both of whom believed they were the husband of Joan of Kent at the time, who was present at the tournament.

6/1349, The Plague reached Dorset, and had spread across England by the end of 1349.

1/31/1350 at Calais, King Edward laid a trap for French forces attempting to sneak into the city under cover of night. King Edward was nearly captured, but by his own admission he was saved by his son the Black Prince.

4/23/1350, King Edward held a great feast at Windsor castle, founding a chantry, and establishing a hostel for impoverished knights. [Founding of the order of St. George of the Garter.]

8/29/1350, Edward’s naval forces defeated a Spanish fleet at the Battle of Winchelsea, one of the Cinque Ports of southeastern England. Using grappling hooks and bording tactics, the English destroyed most of the Spanish vessels. Edward’s ship was rammed, and sinking, when he and his sons were rescued by Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Edward’s mastery of the English channel was still intact. [Queen Philippa witnessed the battle from the coast of England.]

1351, King Edward instituted the Statute of Labourers to keep wages down [due to shortages caused by the plague], and preventing labourers from moving from manor to manor.

1352, King Edward paroled David, king of Scotland, to return home to negotiate his ransom. [David was not supported in his efforts and returned to London.]

1353, King Edward ordered that all cases in the London Sheriff’s court were to be conducted in English.

1354, King Edward signed the Liberty of Subject Act, the first appearance of ‘due process’: "No man of what estate or condition that he be, shall be put out of land or tenement, nor taken, nor imprisoned, nor disinherited, nor put to death, without being brought in answer by due process of the law.”

9/9/1355, King Edward and Henry, duke of Lancaster, sail for Normandy from Plymouth, with the Black Prince who had been appointed lieutenant in Gascony; to oppose raids by the count of Armagnac.

10/1/1355, Landing in Calais, King Edward proceeds on short raids into Pas de Calais, Artois and Picady.

11/12/1355, Edward returned to England; leaving his son to attack other areas.

12/1355, King Edward started a campaign in southern Scotland in response to Scottish incursions into Northumberland. In what would be called “Burnt Candlemas”, taking Berwick, Roxburgh, the Scottish crown from Balliol with his private estates, then on the way to Edinburgh, buring every town, village and hamlet in their way.

1356, Edward sent his son Prince Edward, the Black Prince, on a raid into the heart of France.

9/26/1356, Prince Edward, the Black Prince, captured King John II of France at the battle of Poitiers. [King John was brought to England by a retinue of about 200 knights.] King Edward agreed to pay his son about £44,000 for the right to ransom some of the prisoners.]

1356, Philippa’s sister, Countess Margaret of Hainault, died.

1357, King Edward set the ransome for King David of Scotland at 100,000 marks.

9/1357, King Edward held a tournament at Smithfield. Edwards Scottish and French prisoners were allowed to watch, including 2 kings.

10/1357-5/1358, Edward III visited his mother Queen Isabella 4 times.

4/23/1358, Edward III held a jousting tournament at Windsor. [Heralds had been sent to France, Germany and the low countries to announce the jousts.]

6/1358, In a triple ceremony performed in the queen’s chapel, daughter Margaret (age 12) promised to John Hastings (age 11); Prince Lionel’s daughter Philippa (7605295, age 3) promised to Edmund Mortimer (7605294, age 6), and son John of Gaunt (738712, age 18) promised to Blanche Plantagenet (age 12).

8/1358, Edward III ordered the streets of London cleaned for his mother’s funeral.

2/1359, Edward III ordered the construction of a tomb for his mother’s body.

1359, King Edward held a tournament in London in which they dressed as the Mayor and Aldermen of London.

10/28/1359, Edward, sailing from Sandwich to Calais with 1,100 ships, again invaded France.

12/4/1359, Moving slowly due to unfamiliar territory and bad weather, King Edward mustered his 3 divisions, each travelling separately, at Reims where they besieged the city unsuccessfully for 5 weeks.

2/19/1360 at Guillon, Edward made a peace agreement with the Duke of Burgundy. [Guillon is the extent of their SE journey before turning back NW in the direction of Paris.]

4/7/1360, Edward reached the outskirts of Paris.

4/13/1360, Edward, deciding a siege was not viable, and that the French king would not come out into battle, Edward decided to move SW. Near Chartres, Edward’s army experienced a severe storm in which 1,000 knights and 6,000 horses were injured.

5/8/1360, Edward, at the Peace of Bretigny, relinquished his claim to the French crown in return for undisputed title to Aquitaine, Calais, and Ponthieu. King John’s ransom was set at 3,000,000 gold crowns. [Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet, came into the king’s service about this time. King Edward had ransomed him after he had been captured in France while in the service of the king’s son Lionel.]

7/4/1360, King Edward presented captured King John of France [who had been transferred to Calais] with a keyboard instrument.

1360, Queen Philippa in a riding accident [which would cause a decline in her health.]

12/1/1360, King Edward returned to England.

1361, Jean Froissart, a native of Hainaut, visited England and Queen Philippa. Froissart presented Philippa a chronicle of the French wars. Philippa made Froissart one of her clerks, in which he spent most of his time writing poetry and composing romances. Philippa eventually funded Froissart to travel to the Continent and spend 2-3 years expanding on his chronicle of the French wars.

1361, There was an outbreak of the plague in London. (S) Black Death in London, Sloane, 2011.

10/8/1361 at Windsor, Edward’s son, the Black Prince, married to Joan of Kent.

1362, King Edward replaced French as the national language with English.

6/22/1362, King Edward made a treaty with King Peter I of Castile.

11/13/1362, for his 50th birthday, Edward created son John the Duke of Lancaster, son Lionel the Duke of Clarence, and son Edmund the Earl of Cambridge.

1363, The Chancellor, for the first time, gave his opening speech to parliament in English.

1363, Sumptuary laws passed: Women were, in general, to be dressed according to the position of their fathers or husbands ... The use of fur was confined to the ladies of knights with a rental above 200 marks a year ... The wife or daughter of an esquire or gentleman not to wear velvet, satin or ermine ... Cloth of gold and purple silk were confined to women of the royal family.

1/1364, French King John II voluntarily returned to London after his son, who was standing in his place, escaped back to France. [King John died in London in April.]

1364, At King Edward’s court were met together: King David of Scotland, King Walder III of Denmark, and Piere de Lusignan, King of Cyprus.

2/4/1365, A letter sent by Joan of Kent to Edward III announces his grandson Edward's birth [died 1370.]

2/22/1366, King Edward granted his esquire Geoffrey Chaucer safe conduct to Navarre in Spain. [Geoffrey would be gone 3 months.]

1366, King Edward founded Queensborough as a free borough on the Isle of Sheppey in honor of Philippa.

9/2/1366, Philippa Roët, demoiselle of the Queen’s Chamber to Queen Philippa; married Geoffrey Chaucer, a Yeoman of the Chamber of Edward III. [1387-1400, Geoffrey wrote ‘The Canterbury Tales.’]

1/6/1367, Edward’s grandson, Richard of Bordeaux [future Richard II] born.

6/20/1367, King Edward referred to Chaucer as “our beloved yeoman”.

7/1/1368, King Edward approved ordinances relating to free trade in the city of London.

1368-69, Tensions between England and France increased, specifically over the sovereignty of Aquitaine, and King Edward began again to use the title “King of England and France.”

3/1369, Due to an outbreak of the plague in London, the royal court was moved to Windsor. [There was also and outbreak in France.]

6/18/1369 at Berwick, King Edward met with King David II of Scotland and extended their treaty from 1370 to 1384.

8/14/1369, Philippa died of the Black Death at Windsor castle; buried at Westminster Abbey, London.  Froissart: “the good Queen, that so many good deeds had done in her time, and so many knights succoured, and ladies and damsels comforted.”

[––Edward––]

1369-70, Edward fell under the influence of his mistress Alice Perrers, a lady of the queen’s bedchamber, who preferred John of Gaunt as advisor to the Black Prince, the heir apparent.

7/1370, King Edward sent 2 expeditions into France. Sir Robert Knolles (312532) led an expedition into Picardy with some success, but lost the Battle of of Pontvallain (12/4/1370). Son John of Gaunt pushed into Gascony as far as Limoges.

1/24/1371, King Edward personally presided over an assembly at Westminster looking for the grant of a direct taxation to amount to about £100,000, of which £50,000 would come from a clerical subsidy.

1371, King Edward gave Alice some of Queen Philippa’s jewels [not Philippa’s personal jewels], and was granted the manor of Wendover.

8/1371, King Edward became ill at Malborough castle. [After 3 weeks of enforced rest, it took 10 days for Edward to travel by litter to Windsor.]

6/22-23/1372, John Hastings, earl of Pembroke, and his fleet of  14 transports and 36 warships was badly beaten at sea by the Spaniards off the coast of La Rochelle, France. This was the first known use of fire ships by the Spanish, which destroyed multiple English ships and resulted in the capture of the Earl. [The earl of Pembroke, son-in-law to King Edward, was captured, as was the earl’s war treasury of £12,000.]

8/1372, Edward III and the Black Prince formed a fleet at Sandwich but were held back by contary winds that held them back for 9 weeks, causing them to abandon their plans.

1373, King Edward allowed Bristol to become the 1st provencial city to be raised to the status of a county with its own sheriff.

1373, Edward gave Alice Perrers possession of Queen Philippa’s jewels.

6/12/1373, John of Gaunt, appointed Captain-Gerneral in France, led an expedition into France. John lost many soldiers in the mountains of Auvergne; and most of Guienne and Gascony were lost to the French, but he held the lands from Bordeaux to Bayonne, and Calais. [Note that the Black Prince did not attend the expedition. He had been ill since 1370.]

4/1374, Only 13 of 24 knights were present for the annual Order of the Garter feast at Windsor.

6/1374, Orders to deliver to the King’s chamber 2 basinets, 3 helmets, 2 crests, 4 coats of mail, a detachale visor, and several sets of body armour.

1375, King Edward held a grand tournament at Smithfield in Alice’s honour.

1/1376, King Edward summoned the “Good Parliament”. During the parliament, Alice’s secret marriage to William Windsor was revealed. King Edward swore an oath by the Virgin Mary that he did not know she was married. King Edward effectively turned over control of the government to his son, John of Gaunt.

4/28/1376, King Edward present at the Good Parliament at Winchester, his son John presiding.

6/8/1376, Edward’s son, the Black Prince, died. [Likely of illness contracted in Spain in 1370.]

10/7/1376 at Haveryngge atte Bower, Edward wrote his will: … to our future heir Richard … and entire bed, marked with the arms of France and England … to Johanna, late the wife of the aforesaid Edward, our eldest son, one thousand marks, … to Isabel, countess of Bedford, … (S) Testamenta Vetusta, V1, 1826, P11.

6/21/1377, King Edward died of a stroke at Sheen; succeeded by his grandson King Richard II. Edward buried in Westminster Abbey. [An inventory of Alice Perres’ possessions showed a stock of over 20,000 pearls.]

(S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000. (S) Gentleman’s Mag., V26, 1902, P131. (S) Philippa of Hainaut, Queen of England, White, 1914, Univ. of IL, Thesis. (S) The Life and Times of Chaucer, Gardner, 1977. (S) Edward III, Ormrod, 2013.

Children of Edward and Philippa: [9 of 12 children surviving]

i. Prince Edward of Wales, born 6/30/1330 at Woodstock castle, Oxfordshire, England.

[See Joan of Kent (1477429).]

ii. Isabella fitz Roy, born 6/1332 in England.

12/1348, Sisters Isabella and Joan received elaborate jeweled clasps for Christmas from their brother the Black Prince.

1351, Isabella pledged to marry Bernard d’Albret of France, which at the last minute before leaving England she changed her mind.

7/27/1365 at Windsor castle, Isabella married Enguerrand de Coucy, a French knight and hostage at Windsor castle. The King granted her a dowery of £4,000 a year and gave Enguerrand his freedom as well as creating him Earl of Bedford.

iii. Joan fitz Roy, born 1333 in England.

7/1/1348, Princess Joan, age 14, died of the plague at Bordeaux on her way to Spain to be married.

v. Lionel of Antwep (15210590), born 11/29/1338 in Antwerp, Belgium. 

vi. Prince John of Gaunt (738712), born 3/1340 in Flanders. 

vii. Edmund of Langley, born 6/5/1341 at Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England.

Aft. 1371, Edmund married Isabel of Castille and Leon. [Sister of Constanza married to his brother John.]

8/6/1385, Edmund created 1st Duke of York.

11/23/1392, Isabella died; buried at the friar’s church in Langley.                              

Edmund married Joan Holland. [No children.]

8/1/1402, Edmund died in Hertfordshire. [Ancestor of the House of York.]

xii. Thomas of Woodstock (3802866), born 1/7/1355 at Woodstock, Oxfordshire.

Children of Edward and Alice Perres:

xiii. Sir John Southeray, born 1365 in England.

2/1374, King Edward grahted John an annuity of £100.

By 10/1375, John was a squire of the King’s chamber.

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