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Saturday, August 8, 2020

King Henry II & Q.Eleanor of Aquitaine & King Louis VII Capet & Q.Adela of Champagne & Q.Constance of Castile & Ida de Tony

47277568. King Henry II & 47277569. Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine & 189110370. King Louis VII Capet & 189110497. Queen Adela of Champagne & 94555167. Queen Constance of Castile & 39819293. Ida de Tony

1120, Louis Capet, “the Young”, born in France, 2nd s/o 378220740. King Louis VI & 378220741. Adelaide of Maurienne.

1122, Eleanor born in Aquitaine, France, d/o 94555138. Guillaume X & 94555139. Anor of Chatellerault.

Louis le Juene educated in the cathedral school of Notre-Dame, Paris. [Louis, not expecting to be the heir, was being raised for service in the church.]

7/1129, Guillaume X granted privileges to the Abbey of Montierneuf. Witnesses included his wife Anor, his son William, and his daughter Eleanor.

Aft. 3/1130, Eleanor’s mother died.

10/13/1131, Louis became heir to his father on the accidental death of his older brother Philip.

10/25/1131 at Reims, Louis became “rex designatus” in a ceremony performed by Pope Innocent II.

3/5/1133, Henry born in Le Mans, France, s/o 94555136. Geoffrey Plantagenet & 94555137. Empress Matilda.

10/28/1135 at Châteauneuf-sur-Loire, In ill health, Louis VI transferred effective power to his son Louis VII.

4/19/1137, On the death of Guillaume X at 38 years old, 15-year-old Eleanor became Duchess of Aquitaine. Her father had died in Spain on an Easter Pilgrimage. His death was kept a secret because Eleanor, the elder of 2 daughters and the heir, would be a target for capture by Barons wishing to garner her vast lands [equal in size to those of King Louis VI of France.] As a vassal to the King, it was his right to approve any marriage; but if she were captured she could be forced into a marriage.  [Eleanor and Petronilla were wards of the King in Bordeaux.]

1141, Constance born in Castile, Spain, d/o 189110312. Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain & 189110313. Berenguela of Barcelona.

~1142, Adela born in Champagne, France, d/o 378220994. Count Thibaut II of Champagne & 378220995. Matilda of Carinthia.

[–––King Louis VII & Eleanor of Aquitaine –––]

6/1137, Louis was sent with the 500 most powerful knights and officials of France to secure Eleanor and bring her to Paris.

7/22/1137 at Bordeaux in the church of St Andre’, Prince Louis married Eleanor. [Eleanor was later to say she married a king, but wed a monk.]

8/1137, King Louis VI died while the couple were still in transit. They arrived in Paris as King and Queen of France.

1139, Eleanor makes a gift of mills and houses to the knights Templar from her hereditary possessions.

12/28/1140, I Eleanor, queen of the Franks, and daughter of William duke of Aquitaine, have granted and confirmed by this stamp the gift as the king my husband granted it to the church of Blessed Mary of Saintes, to be held in perpetuity by St. Mary and Agnes, my aunt, abbess of that place.

1141, King Louis claims the fief of Toulouse in right of his wife.

1141, Louis lost his dispute over who would become the next archbishop of Bourges to Pope Innocent II.

1142, King Louis excommunicated for approving the marriage of Count Raoul of Vermandois [who put away his wife, Eleanor, sister of Count Thibaut II of Champagne] by Pope Innocent II.

1142, King Louis VII in a war with Count Thibaut II of Champagne, who had the legal and moral high ground over the divorce.

5/1142, Louis VII led an army to the county of Toulouse, which Eleanor claimed in right of her grandmother, hacked off the hands of non-supporting vassals, and established a commune in her capital of Poitiers.

1/1143, Louis VII personally led the assault on the town of Vitry-sur-Marne, where more than a thousand people died in the fires.

1143, Bernard of Clairvaux mediated an agreement between King Louis and Count Thibaut II of Champagne.

6/11/1144, Near Paris, Louis & Eleanor attended the rededication of the royal abbey of St. Denis, patron saint of France.

1145, Princess Marie born to Louis & Eleanor. They assembled their Christmas court at Bourges. Louis proposed a crusade [initially not well received] based on information from a relative of Eleanor.

12/25/1145 at Bourges, King Louis declared his intention to go on crusade.

3/31/1146 at Vezelay, Both Louis & Eleanor “took up the cross”. Eleanor pledged “her thousands of vassals” from Poitou and Aquitaine. Organizing a crusade took tremendous effort and hugh sums of money. Eleanor and other ladies of nobility dressed as Amazons [Eleanor as Queen Panthesilea] and rode the country side recruiting support.

6/11/1147, King Louis [having spent time in a leper colony in preparation], and in the presence of Pope Eugenius III before the altar at St. Denis, was given the prilgrims scrip and received the oriflamme.

6/1147, Eleanor accompanied Louis VII on his crusade, joined by the forces of Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor [of Germany] at Worms. However, the 2 groups were separated at Byzantium, the Germans preceding the French. The Germans were ambushed by Turks [probably with help from the Greeks] at Dorylaeum and suffered great losses.

12/25/1147, On Christmas day on the coast of modern-day Turkey, encamped by a river, a tremendous storm washed away much of the supplies of the French.

1/4/1148, The crusaders fought in a battle at Laodicea against the Turks.

1/7/1148 in the area of Mount Cadmus, at night, Eleanor’s entourage did not like where they were assigned to camp, and moved to another spot leaving a gap in the defenses. King Louis was in the rear guard which was surrounded and attacked. Louis himself is said to have slain an incredible number to Turks, but the French suffered many losses. Eleanor lost her prestige among the French and was severely chastized.

1/20/1148, After additional battles, the crusaders reached Atalya. Louis decided to return to his water route. There was not enough money for ships for everyone, and he left 7000 infantry. [A plague killed many of the 7000, and those not killed by the Turks joined their ranks against the Greeks and helped take Satalia. Nothing else is known of their destiny.]

3/19/1148, The crusaders reached Antioch, who’s ruler was Raymond of Antioch, uncle of Queen Eleanor.

1148, Queen Eleanor met the Sultan Saladin at a tournament at Antioch. [The source of many romantic stories.]

1148, At Antioch, and in the company of her relatives, Eleanor told Louis she wanted a divorce. [Eleanor’s primary defense was that she was related to Louis by a degree not allowed by the church in marriage – a common occurrence in those times – and thus the marriage put her sole at risk.] Eleanor tried to escape. Louis had her moved to Jerusalem, out of reach of her relatives.

6/24/1148 at Acre, at a High Court of Jerusalem, King Louis, Emperor Conrad III, and Baldwin, King of Jerusalem met. The Council decided that the best move in defense of the holy lands would be to retake Damascus.

1148, At Damascus, due to heat, lack of water, and disagreements on plans, the seige failed after 4 days. Louis, sending most of the forces back, decided to stay to celebrate Easter in Jerusalem.

5/1149, Louis & Eleanor returned to Acre together, but left there by separate boats. Eleanor was captured by Greek pirates, but recaptured by Louis with the help of Sicilian boats.

7/1149, Louis reached Calabria [and then met Eleanor at Palermo. Pope Eugenius encouraged them to travel together to try to save their marriage.]

11/1149, Louis and Eleanor arrived back in Paris.

1150, Eleanor gave birth to their 2nd child, Princess Alix. After 13 years, she had provided no male heir.

1151, Louis attended the funeral of his friend and councellor Sugere.

8/1151, At Paris, a peace agreement was made between Henry II and Louis in which Henry did homage to Louis, giving up the Vexin for being recognized as the Duke of Normandy. (S) Henry II, Warren, 1977, P42.

9/1151, Louis & Eleanor made their last trip together through Aquitane, leaving Eleanor in Poitiers in early 1152. [This trip was likely for Louis to establish control of key assessts in her domain.]

By 12/1151, Louis had withdrawn his garrisons from Aquitaine.

3/21/1152 at the king’s castle of Beaugency, the marriage of Eleanor and Louis annuled by a synod of Pope Eugenius III. Louis retained custody of their daughters. Eleanor immediately took flight for Poitou.

4/1152, Near Blois, Eleanor and her escorts were attacked by 16 year old Geoffrey of Anjou [future King Henry II’s brother.] Avoiding capture Eleanor decided to cross the Loire river near Tours. However, she was warned that Thibaut of Blois, 2nd s/o the Count of Champagne was waiting there to capture her; so she proceeded by another route.

5/18/1152 in Poitiers Cathedral, Henry, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, age 19, married Eleanor, age 30, without King Louis’ consent.

6/1152, Louis launched an attack across the Norman frontier. King Henry then counter-attacked the Vexin. Louis soon fell ill and agreed to a truce. (S) Henry II, Warren, 1977, P45-48.

4/1153, Louis repudiated the truce agreement with King Henry, planning an offensive for the spring.

1154, Louis made new attacks on Normandy. (S) Henry II, Warren, 1977, P64.

[–––King Louis VII & Constance –––]

1154 at Orleans, King Louis married Constance. [2 daughters, Marguerite married Eleanor’s son Young King Henry.]

10/1154, Because of rumors that Constance was not legitimate, Louis traveled to Castile under the pretext of a pilgrimage to Saint Jacques, Gallicia. Alfonso met Louis at Burgos and established the legitimacy of his daughter.

10/1154, King Stephen of England died.

12/19/1154 at Westminster, Henry, age 21, crowned King Henry II of England and Eleanor, age 32, crowned Queen.

1155 at the Council of Soissons, Louis granted a charter to the town of Lorris limiting taxes and protecting them from tolls. Travelers to markets and fairs could not be arrested except for something done that day. Corvée labor was limited to twice a year as wine needed to be carried to Orleans. Prisoners were allowed bail; and burghers could sell their own property.

2/5/1156, At the border of Normandy, King Henry II did homage to Louis for Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine. (S) Western Warfare, France, 1999, P48.

2/1157 at Orleans, At the court of King Louis, King Henry is recognized as having custody of the abbey of St. Julian at Tours as Comte of Anjou and Seneschal of France.

1157, King Louis moved an army towards Dijon to meet with Frederick Barbarossa, who was in Burgundy. [The meeting never took place, but their individual emissaries did meet.]

1158, Archbishop Thomas Becket visited the royal family in Paris with 250 “choristers” singing English songs.

11/25/1158, King Henry and King Louis made a joint pilgrimage to Mont-St-Michel and attended a mass of Robert of Torigny. Both kings then travel to Avranches, Bayeux, Caen, Rouen, Evreux, Neufbourg, and finally Bec.

9/1159, Henry, with the support of Malcolm IV of Scotland, attacked Toulouse, which Henry claimed by right of his wife. King Louis VII intervened to defend his sister Constance, wife of Count Raymond V of Toulouse.

10/4/1160, King Louis’ wife Constance died in childbirth; leaving no male hiers for Louis; buried in the Basilica of Saint Denis, Paris.

5/1160, By a peace agreement at Chinon, negotiated by Pope Alexander III, King Louis recognized King Henry’s rights over Normandy and Aquitaine.

[–––King Louis VII & Adela of Champagne –––]

11/1160, King Louis married Adela of Champagne. [Adela the sister of the 2 brothers married to Louis’ daughters by Eleanor.]

1161, Henry, count of Champagne, witnessed the peace treaty between the kings of England and France, as negotiated by Pope Alexander III.

1162, A letter from Pope Alexander III urges Queen Adela to remain devoted to the papacy and to influence the king to do the same. [Alexander also wrote a separate letter to Louis.]

1163, Louis defended the canons of Clermont and Le Puy.

1163-4, Constance, Countess of Toulouse and sister of Louis, asks for the release of hostages taken from viscount Raymond Trencavel, who had supported Henry II against Louis and the count of Toulouse.

1164, King Louis received archbishop Thomas Becket at his court. Thomas had fled England after King Henry had condemned him and confiscated his goods.

12/31/1164, King Louis, with his steward Comte Theobald of Blois, attended the mass of Pope Alexander in the church of St. Columba at Sens.

Aft. 8/21/1165, King Louis wrote to Bishop Arnulf of Lisieux on the birth of his 1st son: “An ardent desire that God would give us progeny of the better sex inflamed us, for we had been terrified by a multitude of daughters.” (S) Queens and Queenship, Duggan, 2002, P153.

1166, Louis confiscated the territory of the Count of Chalon.

4/1167, King Henry II marched an army into Auvergne, where he claimed several lordships. (S) Walled Towns and the Shaping of France, Wolfe, 2009, P23.

4/1167, King Louis, in support of his Suzerain, Comte William of Auvergne, attacked Normandy, pillaging the Vexin frontier for 4 days.

1168-9, Adela wrote a letter to Pope Alexander III for her husband, in support of Thomas Becket, whom the pope had committed to Louis’ protection during his exile after his jurisdictional disputes with the king of England, and whose life Louis fears is in danger.

1169, Richard, s/o King Henry II did homage to King Louis for Poitou.

11/16/1169, Conference of St. Denys between King Louis VII of France and King Henry of England dealing with Raymond, comte of Toulouse, whose fief was claimed by Prince Richard of England.

7/2/1170, King Louis, with the support of Guy, come of Nivernois, destroy the castle of Donzi, its lord in rebellion.

7/22/1170 at Freteval, King Louis along with multiple archbishops and bishops are at a meeting between King Henry of England and Archbishop Thomas Becket; King Henry refusing to give ‘the Kiss of Peace.’

11/25/1170, King Henry, marching eastward arrives at Bourges, the capital of Berri, and finds King Louis with his army arrayed for battle. [King Henry was claiming Berri as an appendage of Guienne. The 2 kings agreed to a truce.]

1171, Louis began an implentation of the “peers of the realm” concept of Charlemagne.

10/1171, After the English Pope Adrian granted Ireland to King Henry, he took a force of 4500 and landed at Waterford. Ireland was already under siege by Normans from Wales. Most Irish kings and bishops submitted to his rule.

11/7/1172, Young King Henry of England and his Queen visit her father King Louis. [King Henry the Young had rebelled against his father and sought refuge with King Louis in Paris.]

1173, King Louis called a national assembly in support of the rebellion of King Henry II’s sons.

7/22/1174, King Louis with Philip, comte of Flanders; Hugh, duke of Burgundy; Theobald, comte of Blois; and Henry, comte of Champagne, laid siege to Rouen.

10/11/1174, Louis VII, stopped supporting King Henry’s sons, effectively ending their rebellion.

1175, King Louis granted charters to southern towns including Berry.

1176, King louis appointed John of Salisbury [an Englishman who was present at the murder of archbishop Becket] as Bishop of Chartres. (S) The Angevin Empire, Ramsay, 1903, P523.

1177, The Pope brought Louis VII and Henry II to terms by the treaty of Vitry. Both agreed to never protect the other’s enemy.

8/23/1179, Louis arrived in England to visit the tomb of Archbishop Thomas Becket in hopes of regaining his health. While on the trip, Louis was stricken with paralysis. Queen Adela became more involved in the everyday affairs of the crown. [Louis only stayed 3 days.]

11/1/1179, Louis’ son by Adela, Philip II Augustus, crowned King at Reims [the last to be crowned in the Capetian tradition of “rex designatius”.] King Henry’s sons Henry, Richard and Geoffrey attended.

4/16/1180, King Henry II, knowing of the impending marriage of Adela’s son Philip to a Fleming, met with Adela and her brother Theobald of Blois and exchanged oaths of allegiance and hostages. (S) Henry II, Hosler, 2007, P82.

4/28/1180 at Bapeaume, Philip married Isabelle, who brought the county of Artois as dowery.

1180, Queen mother Adela, unhappy with the marriage of her son to the detriment of her family, began fortifying the castles in her lands. Acting as King [his father very ill], Philip confiscated Adela’s dower lands and was in conflict with her Champagnois relations. Adela took refuge with her brother Theobald of Blois [who had been a seneschal to King Louis in 1178.]

6/28/1180 at Gisors, King Henry II, making peace with Philip, arbitrated an agreement between Adela and her son over her salary during her regency. Henry received the homage of Philip of Flanders, and Adela was to receive a daily pension of £7 “paris”, and restoration of her dower lands upon the death of Louis.

9/18/1180, King Louis died; buried in Saint Denis Basilica in northern Paris; his son, previously crowned, immediately became king.

[–––Adela of Champagne –––]

1181, Queen Adela of France, Countess Marie, regent of Champagne, Baldwin V, count of Hainaut, and Count Philip of Flanders came to Provens in Champagne and renewed previous marriage pacts. (S) Chronicle of Hainaut, Napran, 2005, P76.

1184, Queen Adela, step-mother of Marie, visited Marie, regent of Champagne, at her court. (S) Queens in Stone and Silver, Nolan, 2009, P102.

1190, Queen Adela became regent for her son who had departed on crusade with his wife. (S) Women, Crusading and the Holy Land, Hodgson, 2007, P176.

1191, Queen Adela, regent for her son Philip Augustus while he was on crusade in the holy land, writes to Pope Celestine III asking him to defer a decision about the church of Tours until the king’s return.

11/1191, Philip returned from crusade, ending Adela’s regency.

1193, Adela pledged special protection for merchants who came to attend the “leprosarium” fair at Chartres [the lepers were exempted from paying taxes and given advantageous purchasing rates.] (S) Difference and Identity in Francia, Cohen, 2010, P153.

1194, Queen Adela again visited Champagne.

1196, Adela attached her seal to a document for the abbey of Saint-Victor in Paris. (S) Queens in Stone and Silver, Nolan, 2009, P92. [She is wearing a tightly laced “bliaud girone” with ling sleeve cuffs.]

7/1/1199 at Chartres, Comte Thibaut of Champagne (47277592) married Blanche of Navarre (47277593). Thibaut invoked a parliament at Chartres to assess the dowry of Blanche. The kings of both England (King John, 23638784) and France (King Philip Augustus, 94555248) attended; as well as Adela (189110497), dowager Queen of France, and Berengeria, sister of Blanche (widow of King Richard I of England). (S) King John, Church, 2003, P188.

4/24/1204, Adela, by a letter from Pope Innocent III, guaranteed her right to be buried at the monastery of Pontigny.

1206, Adela died in Paris; buried in Pontigny abbey, Burgundy, beside her father.

[–––King Henry II–––]

1142-43, A young Henry lived in Bristol, being educated, and trained in combat by his uncle, Earl Robert.

1144, Henry returned to his father in Normandy.

1147, Henry’s father left on crusade [not to return until 1149.]

1147, Henry, age 14, invaded England with a small force and attempted to take Purton castle. Deserted by his mercenaries, King Stephen paid for his return trip to Normandy.

1147, ‘Henricus ducis Normannorum et comitis Andegavorum filius’ confirmed the rights of the abbey of Saint-Oue. (S) FMG.

6/1148, Henry’s mother returned to Normandy and wrote to Henry about taking over the fight for the crown of England.

6/1149, Henry returned to England, and took control of Devizes castle with the permission of the bishop.

1149 at Carlisle, Henry knighted by his grand uncle, Kind David I of Scotland. Henry captured the harbour of Bridport before returning to Normandy.

1150, Duke Geoffrey gave the duchy of Normandy to his son Henry.

1150-1, Duke Henry granted a charter to the citizens of Rouen. (S) Conquered England, Garnett, 2007, P227.

8/1151, Count Geoffrey Plantangenet of Anjou and his 18 year old son Henry arrived in Paris to pay homage to their King returning from the crusades, to get formal approval of Henry as Duke of Aquitane, and to accuse a favorite of the King of “depredations” against him. Some arrangement was made because all charges against the King’s favorite were dropped.

9/7/1151, Geoffrey died; having previously ceded Normandy to his son Henry.

[–––King Henry II & Eleanor of Aquitaine –––]

5/18/1152 in Poitiers Cathedral, Henry, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, age 19, married Eleanor, age 30, without King Louis’ consent. Henry’s acquired lands in south and west France now overshadowed the French King’s in the north. [They also had to have dispensation since she was more closely related to Henry than Louis.] They had never met before Henry’s arrival in Poitiers – this was a marriage of politics and power – and led to many future battles over control of southern France.

1/1153, Henry landed in England with 140 knights and 3,000 infantry in 36 ships. Supported by the Earl of Chester, he captured Malmesbury and relieved Wallingford where King Stephen’s men held the north bank of the Thames. [Henry’s mother and Stephen had been conducting a civil war in England for many years.]

Winter/1153, with Henry and Stephen’s forces facing each other in snow and cold, a peace agreement was made.

8/17/1153 in France, Eleanor gave birth to their 1st son Guillaume [William].

8/1153, King Stephen’s son and heir Eustace died while dining on eel.

11/6/1153, Signed at Westminster, by the Treaty of Wallingford, Henry recognized by his cousin King Stephen of England as his heir. Stephen was to reign without dispute until his death.

4/1154, Henry returned to Normandy.

10/1154, King Stephen of England died.

12/7/1154, After hasty preparations, Henry crossed the English channel when no one else would have considered crossing. Duchess Alianora, and his brothers Geoffrey [died 1158] and William [died 1164] were with him. [In 1120 the famous loss of the White Ship in the channel in winter had caused the loss of King Henry I’s heir & many noble family members.]

12/19/1154 at Westminster, Henry, age 21, crowned King Henry II of England and Eleanor, age 32, crowned Queen. Early legal reforms included the foundation of “common law”, establishing royal courts with precedence over baronial courts. Henry also expelled King Stephens Flemish mercenaries. Henry named his friend Thomas Becket as Chancellor of England.

2/28/1155 in London, Queen Eleanor gave birth to son Henry.

3/27/1155 at London, Queen Eleanor attested 2 charters to the Canons of the Holy Trinity, London.

7/1155, After attempting to fortify castles at Bridgnorth, Wigmore, and Cleobury, Hugh Mortimer surrendered to Henry’s forces.

9/29/1155, At Great Council at Winchester, where King Henry proposed to conquer Ireland and give it to his brother William. Empress Matilda was present and opposed the plan.

1/1156, Henry, on his 1st trip to the continent as king, captured the Plantagenent family castle of Mirebeau in Anjou from his brother Geoffrey. Queen Eleanor, pregnant, remained in England and produced royal writs over the next 6 months.

2/5/1156 on the border of France and Normandy, King Henry made peace with King Louis and was restored his Norman lands previously declared forfeit by King Louis. [Normandy, Anjou, Touraine, Maine and Aquitaine.]

6/1156, Queen Eleanor gave birth to her daughter Matilda.

7/1156, Queen Eleanor crossed to Normady with her children.

8/29/1156 at Saumur, Anjou, Queen Eleanor with King Henry meets with the abbot of Battle.

10/1156, At the request of Queen Eleanor, King Henry sent a force to occupy Thouars.

2/1157 at Orleans, At the court of King Louis, King Henry is recognized as having custody of the abbey of St. Julian at Tours as Comte of Anjou and Seneschal of France.

2/1157, Queen Eleanor and her children return to England, landing at Southampton, then proceeding to London.

1157, Henry reaquired Cumberland, Westmorland, and Northumberland from King Malcom IV of Scotland, age 16.

7/17/1157, At the Council of Northampton, King Henry decided to invade Wales against Owain.

7/1157, King Henry II invaded Gwynedd; where his was nearly killed by the forces of Owain at the Battle of Ewloe. Eustace fitz John, constable of Chester, and Robert de Courcy were slain.

9/8/1157 at Oxford, Queen Eleanor gave birth to son Richard “Coeur-de-Lion”. He was designated by Eleanor as her heir of Poitou and Aquitaine.

By 1158, Henry revised the English Exchecquer and enforced superiority of royal courts over feudal courts.

4/1158, King Henry and Queen Eleanor crowned at Worcester.

8/1158, By the Treaty of Gisors, 3-year-old heir Henry was contracted to marry infant Marguerite, d/o King Louis VII, Eleanor’s 1st husband. Son Richard was pledged to Alys, sister of Marguerite. King Louis VII appointed King Henry as Seneschal of France to pacify rebelling barons.

9/1158 at Westminster, Robert, earl of Leciester, was the only witness to a Writ of the Queen, acting as Viceroy, to the military tenants of Malmesbury abbey.

9/23/1158, Queen Eleanor gave birth to son Geoffrey, subsequently designated Count of Brittany.

10/1158, King Henry captures Thouars in 3 days. Then he meets King Louis, as the Seneschal of France, at Le Mans.

11/20/1158, Alianore, Queen of England, Duchess of Aquitaine and Normandy, and Countess of Anjou, at Salisbury, gives a precept in behalf of Matilda, dowager Countess of Chester.

11/25/1158, King Henry and King Louis made a joint pilgrimage to Mont-St-Michel and attended a mass of Robert of Torigny. Both kings then travel to Avranches, Bayeux, Caen, Rouen, Evreux, Neufbourg, and finally Bec.

12/25/1158, King Henry and Queen Eleanor celebrated Christmas at Cherbourg in Normandy.

9/1159, Henry, with the support of Malcolm IV of Scotland, attacked Toulouse, which Henry claimed by right of his wife. King Louis VII intervened to defend his sister Constance, wife of Count Raymond V of Toulouse. Henry did not challenge his overlord, but Thomas Becket, with his 700 knights, counciled Henry to press his right. Henry acquired Quercy which he assigned to Thomas Becket.

12/25/1159, King Henry and Queen Eleanor celebrated Christmas at Falaise in Normandy.

12/31/1159, Queen Eleanor returns to England.

5/1160, By a peace agreement at Chinon, negotiated by Pope Alexander III, King Louis recognized King Henry’s rights over Normandy and Aquitaine.

9/1160, Queen Eleanor with Prince Henry and Princess Matilda cross to Normandy.

12/25/1160, King Henry and Queen Eleanor celebrated Christmas at Le Mans in Normandy.

1161, King Henry, in France, puts his own lieutenants in the castles of Comto of Mellent and other Norman barons; strenghtens Gisors and other border castles; and builds a palace and park near Rouen.

12/25/1161, King Henry and Queen Eleanor celebrated Christmas at Bayeux in Normandy.

1162, Henry appointed Thomas Becket as Archbishop of Cantebury.

9/1162, King Henry and Queen Eleanor attempt a crossing to England from Barfleur, but the winds are contrary.

10/13/1162 at Domfort, Queen Eleanor gave birth to daughter Eleanor.

12/25/1162, The royal couple spend Christmas at Cherbourgh.

1/25/1163, King Henry and Queen Eleanor land at Southampton. Queen Eleanor went to Hampshire after arriving, then to Wiltshire. [Queen Eleanor appears to have spent the first 6 months in this area.]

1163, Henry demanded that clerics convicted of crimes in ecclesiastical courts be sentenced by secular authorities; but Archbishop Becket complained that God did not judge a man twice for the same offense.

4/1163, Henry marched into south Wales to capture Prince Rhys of Deheubarth who had seized the royal castle at Llandovery.

7/1163, Henry affirmed Overlord of Wales by King Owain Gwynedd.

12/25/1163, Queen Eleanor at King Henry’s Christmas court at Berchamstede.

1/1164, By the Constitutions of Clarendon, Henry tried to subordinate the church courts and came into conflict with archbishop Thomas Becket. [Much of King Henry’s time this year is dedicated to issues with the Pope and Becket.]

2/1165, Queen Eleanor and her younger children resident at Winchester [for 2-3 months], during which time the Queen visited the Isle of Wight and Sherborne castle, Dorset. [Young Henry was no longer a member of the Queen’s household.]

4/1165, The Archbishop of Cologne visited Queen Eleanor [having passed through London and Abingdon.]

4/11/1165, King Henry met King Louis at Gisors.

1165, Queen Eleanor with Prince Richard and Princess Matilda joined the King in Normandy [likely Argentan.]

5/15/1165, King Henry left Queen Eleanor at Angers as regent of Maine and Anjou when he returned to England. [Eleanor would have trouble from William Talvas, comte of Seez; and John, son of Guy of Ponthieu.]

5-6/1165, Henry on campaign in Bredelais [Flintshire], on the border of England and Wales, to go against Rese ap Griffith. Floods and hunger forced Henry to withdraw.

1165, Henry instituted trial by a 12-man jury; and authorized sheriffs to pursue felons on baronial lands.

[About this time Henry started the affair with young Rosamond Clifford, d/o Walter de Clifford of Bredelais. While all nobles had mistresses, this one was publicly flaunted by Henry, and thus hated by Eleanor.]

8/1165, King Henry I invaded Gwynedd again. The battle of Crogen was a defeat for King Henry against much smaller Welsh forces. The weather finally drove Henry’s forces back to England. Back in England, King Henry II ordered 22 Welsh hostages blinded and mutilated. In south Powys, Rhys ap Gruffydd retaliated by killing all Normans in his territory.

9/1165, King Henry arrived back in London, and then went to Woodstock, then Clarendon.

10/1165 in Angers, Normandy, Queen Eleanor gave birth to daughter Joanna.

3/1166, King Henry left England from Southampton [and was accompanied by the King of the Scots.] Queen Eleanor joine the King. Henry proceeded to reduce 2 castles of barons rebelling against Queen Eleanor.

7/1166, King Henry captured Fougeres.

9/1166, Siblings Richard, Matilda, Geoffrey, Eleanor and Johanna are with their mother the Queen at Angers where she is acting as regent of Maine and Anjou.

10/1266, Queen Eleanor, pregnant, returned to England with Princess Matilda.

12/25/1266, King Henry held his Christmas court at Poitiers with his son Henry.

12/26/1266, at Oxford in England, Queen Eleanor gave birth to son John.

4/1167, King Henry invaded Auvergne; King Louis retaliated by raiding the Vexin. Henry then burned the French arsenal at Chaumont-sur-Epte, and Louis sacked Andely. (S) Walled Towns and the Shaping of France, Wolfe, 2009, P23.

1167, A gift of ‘100 marks of gold to the king and one to the queen’ made to King Henry. [Possibly associated with the envoys from the Duke of Saxony arriving to retrieve Princess Matida for her marriage.]

8/1167, A truce was declared between Henry and Louis.

9/1167, Queen Eleanor accompanied her daughter Matilda, going to Saxony, to Dover [and possibly to Normandy.]

12/1167, At the royal palace in Argentan, Normandy, Eleanor told Henry she wanted to return home to Aquitaine. Henry escorted her and 60 women in her entourage to Poitiers.

1/1168, King Henry suppressed a rebellion in Poitou and Guienne, capturing the castle of Lusignan.

2/1168, Queen Eleanor, age 45, sent by King Henry with son Richard to govern her home of Aquitaine. Henry’s older sons remained with him. John was sent to Fontevraud abbey where he was raised by nuns, along with his sister Joan who was born just before John.

3/27/1168, Eleanor was traveling north towards Poitiers under the guard of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury and his soldiers, which inlcuded William Marshall. They were ambush by Guy of Lusignan s/o Hugh who had recently been dispossed by King Henry. Patrick was killed and William captured. Eleanor, execellent with a horse, escaped because William in her behalf had fought “like a wild boar against dogs”. Though injured, William survived and was ransomed by the Queen and royally rewarded for his valiant effort. (S) King John, Morris, 2015, P21.

6/1168, King Henry attacks Dinan, St. Malo, Little Brittany and Leon.

12/1168, Eleanor was still in Aquitaine with son Richard, age 11.

1/1169 at Montmirail, France, Henry [with the agreement of King Louis] assigned his sons their respective inheritances in France: Henry the Young was given Maine and Anjou. Richard’s lands of Poitou and Aquitaine were reconfirmed; and he was given in contract of marriage King Louis’ 9 year old daughter Alais Capet [sister of Young Henry’s consort.] Geoffrey was given Brittany in homage to his brother Henry, and was given as consort the Countess Constance [already a hostage of Henry.] The youngest son John was assigned no lands – thus his moniker “Lackland”.

4/1169, King Henry requested that King Louis to expel archbishop Becket, “that Traitor, Thomas, mine enemy”, from France [refused.]

11/16/1169, Conference of St. Denys between King Louis VII of France and King Henry of England dealing with Raymond, comte of Toulouse, whose fief was claimed by Prince Richard of England. King Henry agreed to send Prince Richard to be educated in the French court.

3/3/1170, King Henry returns to England after an absence of 4 years.

1170, Eleanor established her own separate court at Poitiers, France; which became a center of culture, emphasizing spectacle and courtesy over brute force.

1170, Eleanor at court in Bourdeaux when an embassay arrived to request the marriage of her daughter Eleanor to Alfonso of Castile – which she accepted. King Henry gave the province of Gascony as her dower.

5/1170, Queen Eleanor and her son Prince Richard visited in Limoges where they laid foundation stones for the monastery of St. Augustine.

6/5/1170, Queen Eleanor authorized the detention at Caen of Roger, bishop of Worcester, who was going to London with letters from the Pope. [Touching the coronation of her son Henry. The Bishop of Nevers had also been refused passage.]

6/14/1170, King Henry had his 15 year old son Henry crowned King [thus the name Henry the Young King. A Capetian tradition in France, this was not done in England. Both Queen Eleanor’s encouragement and Henry’s rivalry with Archbishop Thomas Becket likely were involved in his decision.]

7/22/1170 at Freteval, King Louis along with multiple archbishops and bishops are at a meeting between King Henry of England and Archbishop Thomas Becket; King Henry refusing to give ‘the Kiss of Peace.’

12/29/1170, Henry complicit in the murder of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Cantebury by some of Henry’s knights. Pope Alexander prohibited Henry from entering a church until his guilt was absolved.

9/1171, Henry again invades Wales and visits Pembrokeshire.

10/1171, After the English Pope Adrian granted Ireland to King Henry, Henry landed at Waterford with 400 knights, 4000 men-at-arms, and 400 ships.

11/1171, King Henry held court at Dublin. Cork king Dermot MacCarthy of Desmond and O’Brien of Thomond did homage and gave hostages. At Cashel bishops swore fealty to Henry and agreed to conform usage to the English Church. Henry had a royal palace built in Dublin. Henry granted Hugh de Lacey the kingdom of Meath and left him as justiciar of Ireland and constable in Dublin. [The English domination of Ireland began.] (S) Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1859, P89.

12/1171, Queen Eleanor held a Christmas court in Aquitaine.

1172, Queen Eleanor issued 3 charters “to her own faithful followers.”

4/17/1172, King Henry sailed from Wexford for South Wales.

1172, Back in England, King Henry named Rhys ap Gruffydd his Justice of South Wales.

5/1172 at Avranches [France], King Henry absolved of the murder of archbishop Becket after he swears that he will abolish all unlawful customs established during his reign, and other concessions.

6/1172, Queen Eleanor of England, in Aquitaine, received diplomatic visits from King Alfonso of Aragon, and King Sancho of Navarre.

12/1172, King Henry held a Christmas court at Chinon, attended by Queen Eleanor [who he had not seen in two years.]

2/21/1173, Henry and Eleanor held court at Montferrand in Auvergne which was attended by many of the monarchs of Europe. King Henry proposed giving Chinon, Mirabeau and Loudon to Prince John, which was strongly opposed by Henry the young King.

4/1173, Henry’s 3 eldest surviving sons: Henry, Richard & Geoffrey rebelled against him; supported by their mother. The prime motivation was Henry changing his will and including son John in the distribution of lands previously given to the other sons. King Henry hired 20,000 mercenaries and quickly put down the rebellion.

1173, Eleanor was captured trying to flee to Paris disguised as a man.

7/1173, King Henry summoned the barons of Brittany to give the oath of fealty. Ralph de Fourgeres (79959024) refused to attend, and began to rebuild the castle of Fourgeres, which King Henry had previousy destroyed. King Henry sent men to lay waste to Ralph’s lands. Ralph defeated the forces, burning down Henry’s castles of St. James and Tilleul. While in the field, King Henry attacked Fourgeres and took Ralph’s treasury and chattles. Ralph, supported by the Earl of Chester (39979010), then took possession of King Henry’s castle of Combourg and his city of Dol. After another losing conflict, Ralph and the Earl with 60 knights took refuge in the tower at Dol. (S) Chronicles of Robert de Monte, Torigni, 1856, P119.

8/26/1173, The besieged forces at Dol surrendered.

1174, Henry organized a large festival at Beaucaire in an attempt to bring a reconciliation between King Alfonso II of Aragon and Count Raymond V of Toulouse. (S) An Illustrated History of Arms and Armour, Demmin, 1877, P52.

5/1174, Henry went to Poitiers where he disassembled the court of Eleanor taking her treasures back to England. He also seized the children of the royal academy which included the head mistress – his daughter Eleanor, his son John and daughter Joanna, King Louis’ daughters Marguerite [wed to his son Henry] and Alix, Constance of Brittany, Emma of Anjou, and many others. Eleanor was taken to Olad Sarum castle.

6/13/1174, King Henry the younger, allied with King William the Lion of Scotland, were routed while besieging Alnwick castle by forces of Henry II. King William was captured and sent to prison in Normandy.

7/8/1174, Queen Eleanor imprisoned at Wiltshire; Robert Mauduit her gaoler.

7/12/1174, Henry submitted to a penitential flogging by monks at Becket’s tomb in Cantebury.

8/1174, Henry named Overlord of Scotland by the Treaty of Falaise.

9/1174, Henry broke Louis’ siege of Rouen, Normandy.

10/11/1174, Louis VII stopped supporting Henry’s sons, effectively ending their rebellion.

2/2/1175, At Le Mans, King Henry’s sons Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey renew their oaths of fealty to their father.

5/8/1175, King Henry and son Prince Henry return to England.

6/1/1175, King Henry began “Misericordia Regis pro foresta”, prosecution of the abbetors of the rebellion of his sons.

10/6/1175, Henry named Overlord of Ireland by the Treaty of Windsor.

10/1175, King Henry sent envoys to the pope to obtain a divorce from Queen Eleanor.

1/24/1176, At the Great Council at Northampton, King Henry divided his kingdom into 6 circuits with 3 justiciars in each circuit.

1176, Queen Eleanor imprisoned at Winchester, still in the custody of Robert Mauduit.

1176, King Henry said “In one part of the island [of Britain] there is a race of people called the Welsh who are so brave and untamed that, though unarmed themselves, they do not hesitate to do battle with fully armed opponents.”

3/15/1177 in London, King Henry arbitrated a border dispute between Castile and Navarre through emissaries of each king.

1177, Rosamond, mistress of Henry, died at Godstow Priory, near Oxford.

9/25/1177, The Pope brought Louis VII and Henry II to terms by the treaty of Vitry.

7/18/1178, King Henry visited archbishop Becket’s shrine at Canterbury.

8/6/1178, King Henry knights Prince Geoffrey at Woodstock.

4/10/1179, King Henry divides his kingdom into 4 circuits with justices in each.

4/16/1180, On landing in Normandy, the Queen of France and Comte Theobald of Blois solicit aid against King Philip.

9/29/1180, King Henry and King Philip meet near Gisors to confirm a treaty negotiated the previous June.

1180, Queen Eleanor imprisoned at Wiltshire: charges of £121 15s 8d accounted to her.

4/27/1181, King Henry and King Philip meet at the Ford of St. Remigy near Nonancourt. The kings promise to assist Pope Alexander in his crusade.

7/1181 at Gisors, King Henry II arbitrates a settlement between King Philip and the count of Flanders. William, King of the Scots was present. [King Henry returned to England the next month.]

3/1182, King Henry embarks from Portsmouth for Barfleur, leaving Ranulph de Glanvill as Viceroy.

12/1182, King Henry assembled a Christmas court at Caen in Normandy where it is said 1000 knights attended.

4/1183, Young King Henry again rebelled against his father and defended Limoges chateau against a seige. Before Limoges, King Henry is attacked by the garrison of the castle. He retreats with son Prince Richard.

6/5/1184 at Choisi, King Henry of England arbitrates betweeen King Philip and the Comte of Flanders over Vermandois.

6/11/1183, The Young King caught a fever and died at Martel. Richard became the heir to Henry II. [Young Henry was buried at Le Mans.]

6/1183, King Henry sent for Queen Eleanor, who was in prison at Berkshire under the custody of Ralph fitz Stephen.

12/25/1183, King Henry held Chistmas court at Le Mans.

6/10/1184, King Henry returns to England.

1184 at Reading, Henry offered the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Henry did not accept, but agreed to a crusade if his issues with the French king could be worked out.

11/1184, Queen Eleanor, her 3 sons, her daughter Margaret and her husband, meet with King Henry in London to discuss the Primacy of England. [They select Baldwin, bishop of Worcester.]

12/25/1184, King Henry held Christmas court at Windsor with Queen Eleanor, princes Richard and John, and the Duke and Duchess [Matilda] of Saxony, and David, brother of the King of the Scots, in attendance.

1/1185, King Henry sends for Queen Eleanor and the Duke and Duchess [Margaret] of Saxony [who were still at Windsor] with news about reconcilation between the Duke and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick.

3/18/1185, At Clerkenwell [in London] a Great Council decides that King Henry should not go on crusade. William, King of the Scots, and his brother David, both attended.

4/1/1185, Queen Eleanor is released from imprisonment [after nearly 12 years] on the advice of Archbishop Baldwin.

1185, King Henry II ordered the identification of all women and children under his feudal teneants.

5/1/1185, King Henry and King Philip meet with Heraclius at Vaudreuil. The both declaine to attend the crusade, but promise men and money. [Heraclius would reach Jerusalem by August.]

5/1185, Queen Eleanor sent to Guienne as sovereign for her son Richard when King Henry, in France, needs Richard at court in England. [Queen Eleanor accompanied by the Duke and Duchess of Saxony.]

4/27/1186, King Henry and Queen Eleanor return to England, landing at Southampton.

8/19/1186, Prince Geoffrey died while in Paris at a tournament. This left only Richard and John as heirs of Henry II.

10/1186, Queen Eleanor, residing at Winchester, visited by King Henry.

2/1187, Henry sent a ship of money from the estate of Aaron of Lincoln, the wealthiest private person in England, to Normandy to help finance the war with King Philip II. The ship was lost at sea and the war remained a standoff.

4/5/1187, King Henry and King Philip confer at Gue St. Remi, but do not reach an accord and both prepare for war.

1/21/1188 in Normandy, King Henry II met with King Philip II and pledged to take the cross of crusaders. They agreed that French soldiers would wear red crosses, English white crosses, and Flemish green crosses.

8/31/1188, King Henry invades Ivry, France.

11/18/1188, Henry met with King Philip, and his son Richard, for a peace conference in Bonmoulins. Richard wanted to be allowed to marry Philip’s sister Alys [Henry’s lover], and that Richard should be acknowledged as the heir. Henry refused.

12/25/1188, Queen Eleanor in England, while King Henry was in Saumur in Anjou.

6/12/1189 at Le Mans, Henry, with 700 knights, was defeated by his son Richard, aligned with King Philip II of France. His mother held Aquitaine for Richard. Henry escaped because William Marshall attacked and killed the horse of Richard who was in pursuit. Henry escaped to the castle of Chinon. There he was brought before Philip II and Richard to ceded his possessions in France. He asked that in return he wanted a list of all who had deserted him in his defeat. [Part of the defeat was due to a fire set by the English burning part of the town.]

7/5/1189, When Henry received the list, to his surprise his son John headed the list. He handed it back and said it was no longer important who else was on the list.

7/6/1189, a Thursday, Henry died at Chinon; buried at Fontevrault abbey in the Plantagenet mausoleum. His natural son Geoffrey [his Chancellor] attended him at his death. Before death Henry designated Geoffrey the Archbishop of York. William Marshall was assigned to accompany the body to its burial.

[–––Eleanor of Aquitaine –––]

7/1189, William Marshall, now named Chancellor of England by Richard, sped to England to release 68 year old Eleanor from prison at Winchester.

1189, Eleanor began giving edicts to release prisoners and relax forest laws. She also had Alys, Henry’s mistress, confined.

9/13/1189, Eleanor attended her son Richard’s coronation.

10/13/1189, Queen Eleanor, mother of Richard II, confirmed to ‘Maurice de Berkeley’ and his heirs Berkeley and Berkeley Harnesse, will all Appendages, to be holden in Farony7 of the Lord King Richard, My son … by the service of Five Knights … (S) Journals of the House of Lords, V60, 1828, P493.

12/12/1189, Eleanor left England with Richard for Normandy.

Easter Sunday, 1190, Eleanor arrived in Rome, the day of consecration of Pope Celestine III.

10/1190, Eleanor was in Bordeaux.

11/1190, Queen Eleanor of England arrived in Pamplona, Aragon to escort Sancho’s daughter Berengaria to her son King Richard to be married. They had to travel over the Alps in Winter.

1191, Queen Eleanor arrived at Lodi near Milan, where they met King Henry VI of Germany [who was traveling to Rome to the crowned Holy Roman Emperor, and to Sicily to claim it for his wife Constance; sister-in-law of Sicily’s Queen Johanna, d/o Eleanor.] From there they traveled to Naples.

3/30/1191, Queen Eleanor left Naples by ship for Messina, Sicily.

4/1191, Queen Eleanor, having been reunited for a short time with her daughter Johanna, began her return trip to Bonneville-sur-Touques on the Normandy coast.

2/1192, Eleanor, upon hearing of her son John possibly joining King Philip of France against King Richard’s claims in France, landed at Southampton and rallied powerful barons to prevent John from joining Philip.

4/15/1192, A letter from Eleanor sent a letter to her son King Richard, on crusade, arrived in Palestine informing Richard that King Philip of France was threatening to invade his French possessions.

11/1192, Eleanor was in England to prepare for the expected return of her son Richard I before Christmas.

1/1193, Eleanor learned that her son Richard was a prisoner of Holy Roman Emperor Henry. She was also aware of collusion between King Philip and Prince John.

1193, Eleanor’s son Prince John went to France to do homage for English lands in France. Eleanor faced an imminent invasion by John and Philip. Eleanor’s plea [1 of 3 in 1193] to Pope Celestine III for her son had the unusual salutation: “Eleanor, in the wrath of God, Queen of England, duchess of Normandy and countess of Anjou.” Eleanor also sent the Bishop of Bath, cousin of Emperor Henry to him as an emissary.

2/28/1193, Eleanor and the Great Council ordered all barons to renew their fealty to King Richard; and ordered representitives to search for the king.

3/19/1193, Two abbots sent by Eleanor to search for Richard came across him in custody near Oschenfurt, Germany.

3/28/1193, Fearing an invasion, Eleanor closed the Channel ports and ordered a muster of home guards along the south coast of England. [An uprising in Richard’s lands of Poitou was suppressed by Berengaria’s brother Sancho. An advanced guard of John’s mercenaries were arrested as they landed. Some other forces of John were driven back in John’s castles.]

3/30/1193, King Richard wrote from captivity expressing his gratitude to his mother Eleanor for her loyal and effective regency and requesting her action in the naming of his candidate as archbishop of Canterbury. Richard had also proposed a truce of 6 months, which in effect saved John’s forces from defeat, but required John to turn castles over to his mother.

4/19/1193, by letter King Richard asks his mother Eleanor to raise the money, and the justices of England to collect the hostages, he needs for his release from captivity, according to the agreement he has made with the Emperor of Germany.

7/1193, The ransom for King Richard was finalized, as well as agreements between Richard and King Philip II. At Ely, Eleanor and the Great Council started the process of collecting the money through a new organization, “Saccarium Redemptionis”, headed by 5 treasures.

9/1193, German representatives arrived to receive the 1st payment on the ransom. Eleanor’s trip through London with the money was observed by many Londoners.

With not enough ransom money coming in, Eleanor and the Great Council imposed a 2nd tax on property valued over 10 shillings.

12/1193, Eleanor received a letter from the emperor informing her of the process and date of Richard’s release.

12/20/1193, Eleanor set off from Queenhithe with the rest of the initial payment of ransom money and the 67 hostages.

1194, Prince John and King Philip made a counter-offer to the 100,000 mark ransom that would deliver Richard into their hands.

1/17/1194, After traveling down the Rhine, Eleanor and her contingent arrived at the imperial court in Germany. Eleanor advised Richard [advice he took] to pledge homage for all his lands to Emperor Henry his captor. This made the decision in favor of the English ranson.

2/4/1194, King Richard released into the custody of Eleanor in Mainz, Germany. Henry sent letters to King Philip and Prince John that the Holy Roman Empire would enforce all lands taken from Richard be returned.

1194, Richard and Eleanor returned to England  via Cologne, Antwerp, by ship to Zwin [now in Belgium].

3/12/1194, Eleanor and Richard, having once more evaded capture, this time by King Philip II, landed at Sandwich, England.

4/17/1194, Eleanor witnessed the royal procession of King Richard through the streets of Winchester.

5/12/1194, Eleanor sailed with Richard from Portsmouth for Barfleur, then they traveled to Caen. At Lisieux, Eleanor mediated a peace agreement between King Richard and Prince John.

1194, Now in her 70’s, Eleanor moved her chancellery to Fontevrault abbey near her original home in France.

1195, Eleanor arranged for Alais Capet, having been a hostage for years, to be returned to her brother King Philip.

1196, Eleanor arranged for the marriage of her widowed daughter Joanna to Raymond of Toulouse, securing her souther borders.

1197, Eleanor arranged diplomatically for captured Philip, Bishop of Beauvais, to escape from her son Richard’s imprisonment at Chateau Gaillard.

4/6/1199 at Chalus-Chabrol, Eleanor attended King Richard on his deathbed. Eleanor backed son John’s claim to the throne [against Richard’s previously designated heir of Arthur, Duke of Brittany – son of deceased Geoffrey who would have been heir after Richard.]

1199, King John publishes the agreement between himself and his mother Eleanor acknowledging her right to hold her inheritance of Poitou during her lifetime, in fief from him and which will revert to him as her heir.

1199, Eleanor writes to her son King John about the steps she and the Constable of Auvergne, Guido de Dina, have taken to affirm the loyalty of one of his Poitevin lords, Viscount Thoarc, to the king and ensure his support in winning over the other Poitevin barons.

5/4/1199, Eleanor began a “good will” tour through her lands in support of King John. Eleanor to Bordeaux, Soulac in the Gironde, and returned to Poitiers by July 4th.

8/28/1199 at Tours, Eleanor did homage to King Philip for Aquitaine; which she then invested in her son John as a fief to be held of her.

9/1199, Eleanor’s daughter Joanna, who had joined her at Fontevrault, died. [Of her 10 children, only John and Eleanor, in far off Castile, remained.]

1/1200, in Poitou, Eleanor ceded La Marche to the Lusignans as part of a treaty.

1200, Eleanor traveled to Spain to retreive a granddaughter, d/o Eleanor, to be wed to King Philip’s son Louis. She chose Blanche of Castile.

3/1201, Eleanor, ill at the time, summoned Aimery, viscount of Thouars, to Fontevraud to solicit his support for her son King John in the war with King Philip of Spain.

1202, Eleanor left the abbey and went to Mirebeau castle in Anjou to defend it against King Philip, who had declared all of King John’s lands forfeit.

8/1/1202, Arthur trapped Eleanor in her Mirebeau castle in Anjou. She was rescued by her son King John.

3/31/1204, Eleanor died; buried in the Plantagenet funerary at Fontevrault abbey, France.

(S) Four Kings. (S) Epistolæ. (S) Memoires of the Queens of France, V1, Bush, 1843. (S) The Troubador’s Song, Boyle, 2005. (S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007. (S) Court, Household, and Itinerary of King Henry II, Eyton, 1878. (S) She-Wolves, Castor, 2011.

Family notes:

·         King Louis’ seal of 1137 depicted him as a young man with shoulder-length hair. Louis also adopted the fluer-de-lys as the Capetian symbol; which had been used on family seals by his ancestors [e.g. the seal of Philip I in 1060; and as far back as Hugh Capet in 996.]

·         King Henry was described as “a human chariot” because he was constantly on the move.

Children of Louis and Eleanor:

i. Marie Capet (94555185), born 1145 in Paris, France.

ii. Princess Alix, born 1150 in Paris, France.

1162, Alix married Theobald V of Blois, brother to husband of Marie. (S) Henry II, Warren, 1973, P109.

Children of Louis and Constance:

iii. Margaret Capet, born 1158 in France.

1160, Margaret betrothed to Henry, s/o King Henry II of England.

6/11/1183, Henry “the Young King” died. [See below.]

1186, Margaret married King Bela III of Hungary.

iv. Alais de Capet (47277583), born 10/4/1160 in Paris, France.

Children of Louis and Adela:

v. King Philip II Augustus Capet (94555248), born 8/21/1165 in Gonesse, France.

Children of Henry and Eleanor:

i. King Henry Plantagenet, born 2/28/1155 in London.

1160, Henry, 5 years old, betrothed to Margaret, d/o King Louis VII, ex-husband of his mother.

Henry educated by Thomas Becket.

1170, His father had Henry crowned “King of England”.

1172, Henry refused to attend Christmas with his father, and instead invited all knights in Normandy named “William” to a feast.

1173-4, Henry made war on his brother Richard and his father.

1177, Henry married Margaret.

Henry spent much of his time at a succession of tournaments where his protector and Knight, William Marshall, won many victories.

1182, Henry expelled William Marshall for “undue familiarity” with his wife.

6/11/1183, Henry “the Young King” died of fever in Martel, France; buried initially in Le Mans, France; his father moved his body to Rouen – where Henry had wished to be buried.

ii. Matilda Plantagenet, born 6/1156 in England.

2/1168 at Minden, 12 year old Matilda married Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria. [Died 4/1195.]

10/1180, Matilda and Henry took refuge at Henry II’s court, returning to Germany in 1185.

1184-89, Matilda made visits to her “imprisoned” mother at Winchester.

12/25/1184, King Henry held Christmas court at Windsor with Queen Eleanor, princes Richard and John, and the Duke and Duchess [Matilda] of Saxony, and David, brother of the King of the Scots, in attendance.

1189, Matilda died.

Children: Otto, 2nd son, born ? in Germany – became Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.

iii. King Richard I, born 9/8/1157 in Oxford, England. [Richard documented with King John.]

iv. Geoffrey Plantagenet, born 9/23/1158 in Angers, France.

1169, at Montmirail, King Henry designated Geoffrey to be Duke of Brittany.

1173, at Chinon, Geoffrey and his older brothers fled their father in rebellion, going to Paris.

7/1181, Geoffrey married Constance of Brittany (39979511). [See Constance for additional details.]

Children: Arthur of Brittany and Eleanor, see Constance.

v. Queen Eleanor Plantagenet (47277579), born 10/13/1162 in Domfront, Normandy, France.

vi. Queen Joanna Plantagenet, born 10/1165 in Angers, France.

8/27/1176 in Palermo, Joanna married William II, Norman King of Sicily.

2/13/1177, Joanna crowned Queen of Sicily at Panormus.

1189, William II died.

10/1196, Joanna married 2nd Raymond VI, count of Toulouse.

4/1199, Joanna, pregnant and essentially abandoned by her husband, heard of her brother Richard’s death and went to Fontevrault abbey to become a nun.

9/1199, Joanna and her infant son Richard died; buried at Fontevrault abbey.

vii. King John (23638784), born 12/26/1166 in Oxford, England.

Children of Henry and mistress Ykenai:

i. Geoffrey fitz Roy, born 1151-53 in England.

1173, Geoffrey elected Bishop of Lincoln, though not yet a priest. He could not assume the role.

1174, Geoffrey, Elect of Lincoln, besieged and took the castle of Kirkby Malzeard, belonging to Roger de Mowbray, who had embraced the cause of the young King Henry in rebellion against his father.

1182, Geoffrey appointed Chancellor by his father.

7/6/1189, Geoffrey the only son of King Henry at his deathbed.

1189, King Richard I, his brother, named him Bishop of York (not held until 1191), and had him consecrated as a priest.

1212, Geoffrey died.

Child of Henry and Ida:

ii. William Longespee (19989838), born ~1174 in England.

[Sometimes listed as the s/o concubine Rosamond Clifford, he was almost the same age. His mother was  Ida de Tony.]

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