1173, Llywelyn born at Dolyddelan, Wales, s/o 39979460. Iorwerth Drwyndwn ap Owain Gwynedd & 39979461. Marared ferch Madog.
~1180, Gwenliann born in Wales.
11/3/1189, Richard I crowned king of England.
~1190, Joan of Wales born in England, natural d/o 23638784. King John & 39979247. Mistress Clementina.
1194, Llywelyn and his uncle, Rhodri ab Owain, lord of Anglesey and Snowdon, defeated Llywelyn’s uncle, Dafydd ab Owain, at the battle of Aberconwy, and expelled him from all his territory, forcing him to take refuge in England.
1197, Llywelyn, age 24, one of the 2 most powerful prices of Wales after taking Perfeddwland from his uncle. [The other was his cousin Gwenwynwyn of Powys, s/o Owain Cyfeiliog and Gwenllian, d/o Owain Gwynedd.]
[––Llywelyn & Gwenliann––]
~1198, Llywelyn 1st married Gwenliann. They lived at Garth Celyn on the north coast of Gwynedd, between Bangor and Conwy, overlooking the port of Llanfaes.
5/27/1199, John crowned king of England. [And was already lord of Welsh Marsh.]
9/1199, King John confirmed Llywelyn’s possessions.
1199, Llywelyn captured the border fortress of Mold from the English, making him the most powerful magnate in Wales; refering to himself as prince of the whole of north Wales. (S) Welsh National Heros, Roberts, 2002, P21.
4/11/1200, King John, returning to England from the continent, gave Llywelyn the royal manor of Ashford, Derbyshire with leave to hunt in the king’s forest.
1200, Llewelyn sole ruler of Gwynedd after adding Arfon, Anglesey and Arllechwedd. (S) Princes of Gwynedd. [Llywelyn’s cousin Gruffydd ap Cynan had died.]
1201, Llywelyn conquered Lleyn.
7/1201, King John sent the archbishop of Canterbury and his chief justice to arrange a peace agreement with Llywelyn.
7/11/1201, Llywelyn swore fealty to King John in return for recognition as rightful possessor of all his lands, subject only to suits under English and Welsh law.
8/1202, Llywelyn raised an army to conquer Southern Powys; but peace was mediated through the clergy.
1202, King John made peace with Llywelyn and his nobles, abandoning Dafydd ab Owain and his claims. Llywelyn placed his nephew Hywel in Meirionnydd. [This brought him into border disputes with Gwenwynwyn of Powys.]
1203, Llewelyn, ruler of Gwynnedd, accepted as the leader of Wales by the south Wales rulers. [Bef. 5/1203, Llywelyn’s uncle Dafydd ab Owain had died.]
1204, William Longespee escorted Llywelyn, Prince of North Wales, to visit King John.
By 1206, Gwenliann died. [Likely in childbirth of daughter Gladys.]
[––Llywelyn & Joan––]
5/1206 at Chester, King John gave Joan in marriage to Llywelyn. John gave Joan & Llywelyn the lordship of Ellesmere in the Marches of North Wales.
1208, King John and Llywelyn combined forces against Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys. John seized Gwenwynwyn at Shrewsbury, and Llywelyn took possession of all of Gwenwynwyn’s territory and castles in Powys, taking Aberystwyth Castle, and conquering all Ceredigion north of the Aeron.
8/4/1209, Llywelyn commanded his forces in support of King John at the battle of Norham, Northumberland, against King William of Scotland.
10/1209, Llywelyn and other Welsh chiefs did homage to King John at Woodstock.
1/1210, King John sent Llywelyn a gift of falcons.
1210, Llywelyn joined the Welsh uprising against King John while the he was in Ireland.
5/1210, King John and Gwenwynwyn then drove Llywelyn out of Powys. [Llywelyn’s ally, William de Braose had to flee to France. Llywelyn and his forces retreated into the mountains.]
1211, King John defeated Llywelyn, reduced his holdings to Gwynedd and Meirionydd, and imposed a very large tribute. [Llywelyn had to give his son Gruffydd as a hostage.]
4/1212, At the request of Llywelyn, Joan traveled to England to arrange a peace with her father. [In which she was apparently successful. Joan would have been a mature lady by this time, with understanding of the issues.]
1212, Llywelyn, Gwenwynwyn, and Maelgwn ap Rhys formed a confederacy to attack the English. Llywelyn captured Aberconway and several castles in Gwynedd and won back all his previous losses.
1212, During the Welsh rebellion, King John hanged 28 Welsh hostages, including a 7-year-old boy.
1212, King Philip of France made a treaty with Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Wales. (S) King John, the Braoses, and the Celtic Fringe, Holden.
1213, Llywelyn captured the castles of Rhuddlan and Degannwy.
6/1213, By papal intervention, a truce was arranged between the Welsh chieftains and King John. [Which lasted through 1214 while King John was off fighting in Normandy, where he would be defeated at the battle of Bouvines.]
12/18/1214, King John returned 4 hostages to Llywelyn. [King John was making overtures to the Welsh because he was in conflict with his own barons in England.]
5/17/1215, Llywelyn, aligned with the northern English barons, captured the town and castle of Shrewsbury in England.
6/19/1215 at Runnymede near Windsor, King John forced to agree to the terms of the Magna Carta. Under Magna Carta, John promised to release Welsh hostages and restore their lands. [Including Llywelyn’s son Gruffydd.]
7/1215, Llywelyn, escorted by forces of the archbishop of Canterbury, met with King John who set the hostages free and gave Llywelyn the manors of Bidford in Warwickshire and Suckley in Worcestershire.
12/1215, Llywelyn captured the castles of Llanstephan, St Clear’s, Newcastle-Emlyn, Aberteifi, Cilgerran, and Kidwelly, making him prince of all Wales not ruled by the Normans. [England’s only remaining foothold in Wales was around Haverfordwest and Pembroke.]
5/12/1216, Prince Louis [future VIII] of France, after a successful landing, crowned King of England in London. In June, Louis captured Winchester and controlled half of England.
1216, Llewelyn formed a Welsh parliament at Aberdyfi. [The first Welsh parliament.]
1216, Llywelyn the Great divided the kingdom of Deheubarth into 3 parts. Llywelyn captured Hen Domen, which King John had given to Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys.
10/18/1216, King John died.
10/28/1216 at Gloucester, Henry, 9 years old, crowned King Henry III of England.
Aft. 9/12/1217, Llywelyn rejected the Treaty of Lambeth, signed by the French and English, which would have required him to surrender his recent conquests.
3/1218, By the Treaty of Worcester, the English crown recognised Llewelyn's pre-eminence in Wales.
1218, Llywelyn performed homage to King Henry III. He was ordered to restore the lands of some of the king’s servants, and in return was put in possession of English estates including the castles of Cardigan and Carmarthen; but did not regain Caerleon.
7/10/1219 at Shrewsbury, Llywelyn met with the papal legate Pandulf.
5/1220 at Shrewsbury, Llywelyn granted a market in Warwickshire, and his son recognized as his heir by the archbishop of Canterbury.
8/1220, Llywelyn attacked Pembrokeshire, captured 3 castles, and devastated the whole province.
10/5/1220, A declaration by King Henry that the actions of Llywelyn against the earl Marshall were not authorized.
7/2/1221, Llywelyn, Prince of Wales, granted a market at Ellesmere, Wales. (S) Gazateer.
1/1222, Rhys Leuanc died without direct heir and Llywelyn divided the lands between Maelgwn and Owain ap Gruffydd.
1223, Llywelyn crossed into Shropshire and captured the castles of Kinnerley near Knockin, and Whittington, the property of Foulk fitz Warren.
1223, Llywelyn sent his son Guffydd with an army to block the earl Marshall from returning to England [unsuccessfully, because he returned by sea.]
4/15/1223, The earl Mashall landed near St. David’s with an army raised in Ireland.
4/1223, Sir William Marshal, s/o William won back the castles that Llywelyn had captured in Pembrokeshire, including Cardigan and Carmarthen, and retaliated with a destructive foray into Llywelyn’s territory.
9/1223, Llywelyn laid seige to the fortress of Builth. [In response, Hubert de Burgh summoned an assembly at Hereford against the Welsh. Llywelyn lost possessions in South Wales and Powys.]
10/8/1223 at Montgomery, Llywelyn made peace with King Henry, losing his Shropshire conquests; and the earl Marshall returned the lands he had recently captured, but got back his lands including Cardigan and Carmarthen.
2/1225, King Henry gave his sister Joan the royal manor of Rothley, Leicestershire.
6/1225, Llywelyn sent King Henry gifts of goshawks, falcons, and sparrow hawks.
4/1226, Pope Innocent III legitimized Llywelyn’s marriage to Joan.
8/1226, Llywelyn, with his wife Joan and son David, met with King Henry at Shrewsbury, where Joan was given the manor of Condover in Shropshire.
1/1227, King Henry declared himself of age and took over the reigns of England.
4/27/1228, King Henry granted the castle and lordship of Montgomery to Hubert de Burgh, bring him into conflict with the Welsh. [Hubert began clearing forest for protection, and constructing new castles.]
9/1228, Joan met with King Henry at Shrewsbury to arrange a truce between Hubert de Burgh and the Welsh.
1229, Llywelyn captured Llanfair-ym-Muallt [Builth]. Llywelyn paid King Henry £2000 to destroy the Kerry castle being built by Hubert. Llwelyn captured William de Braose (47279586).
1229, William freed on a promise of a ransom of £2000.
1229-30, At Aberffraw, William de Braose (s/o 121685152) was caught hiding in the chamber of Princess Joan. Both were imprisoned.
4/28/1230, Order to the sheriff of Herefordshire to place in respite the demand he makes from William de Braose for [the scutage of] Montgomery, until William is delivered from the prison of Llywelyn, who holds him incarcerated. (S) FRsHIII.
5/2/1230, William was publically executed, Joan was banished [for 1 year]. [William’s daughter had been pledged to marry their son David. Llywelyn wrote a letter to widow Eve stating he still desired the marriage of their children.]
1230, Hubert de Burgh, justiciar of England, who had built up his lordships in Wales including Cardigan and Carmarthen, given the lordship of Gower. [And due to the minority of the hier, the virtual lordship of Glamorgan.]
1231, Hubert de Burgh executed Welsh soldiers captured near Montgomery.
5/1231, Llywelyn marched south through Montgomery and Brecon, buring the towns and razing the castles in his path, including those of the clergy. Llywelyn recaptured Cardigan [which was burned], Carmarthen and Emlyn. He was excommunicated and his lands placed under interdict.
7/1231, King Henry assembled an army and marched on Wales. There was little fighting, but the king built the castle of Painscastel.
11/30/1231, A truce between the Welsh and English for 1 year was arranged. [In England Hubert de Burgh was falling from power.]
1232, Joan granted safe conduct to travel to the town of Salop.
10/1233, Llywelyn alligned himself with Richard, Earl of Pembroke, who’s forces had attacked Usk and Cardiff. Llywelyn laid seige [unsuccessfully] to Brecon. Peter fitz Herbert’s (9994954) castles of Blenlevenny and Dinas attacked by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth and Richard Marshall, earl of Pembroke.
3/1234, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, drove Llywelyn back and strongly fortified Radnor Castle.
3/28/1234, Another truce was arranged between Llywelyn and the king. [Which was lasting partly due to the death earl Richard in Ireland ending hostilities.]
7/7/1234, King Henry made a 2-year peace with Llywelyn, prince of Aberfrau and lord of Snowden, as negotiated by archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund of Abingdon. (S) CPRs. [aka the “Pact of Middle “]
2/2/1237, Joan died at Aberffraw; buried in the Franciscan Friary at Llanvaes in Anglesey. [Now at Baron Hill Park.]
10/19/1238 at Strata Florida abbey, Llewelyn arranged a gathering of all the princes of Wales and had them swear allegiance to his son Dafydd. [Who had already been recognized by the pope and the king of England.] This was in defiance of the Laws of Hywel, the sharing of the inheritance between all the sons.
Aft. 7/4/1238, Llwewlin, prince of Aberfrau and lord of Snaudon, notifies the he has ratified the prorogation for 1 year of the truce between the king and his men of the one part and himself and his men, Welsh and others, of the other part. (S) CPRs.
1239, Llywelyn retired to a Cistercian abbey.
4/11/1240, Llywelyn the Great died at Aberconway Abbey, Aberconway, Carnarvon, Wales. [Remains now at Llanrwst church.]
(S) QI, Weir, P340. (S) A History of Wales from the Earliest Times, V2, Lloyd, 1912. (S) Land of My Fathers, Evans, 1993.
i. Davydd ap Llywelyn, born ~1200 in Wales.
Davydd married to Isabela de Braose, d/o William de Braose.
10/13/1229 at Westminster, David did homage to King Henry III.
1241, Dafydd imprisoned his half-brother Gruffydd in Criccieth Castle together with Gruffydd's son Owain. [Gruffydd died in 1244 in an escape attempt.]
1241 Henry III of England invaded Wales; Dafydd was outnumbered and out-resourced due to a severe drought and Dafydd was forced to submit to the English King.
1246, Davydd died; his nephew Llewelyn his heir.
ii. Wentelina, born bef. 1206 in Wales.
Wentelina married Sir Reginald de Brewes.
iii. Gladys Dhu ferch Llywelyn ab Iorwerth (9994865), born 1206 in Wales.
Children of Llywelyn and Joan:
iv. Margaret of Wales (60842577), born ~1207 in Wales.
v. Helen of Wales (9994811), born ~1215 in Wales.
vi. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, born ? in Wales.
1211, Gruffydd given to King John as a hostage.
6/1215, Gruffydd released by Magna Carta treaty.
1223, Gruffydd given command of forces in Ystrad.
1228–34, Gruffydd imprisoned by his father in Degannwy.
1234, Gruffydd released and given half of Lleyn.
1239, Gruffydd and his son Owain imprisoned by his brother Davydd.