[––King Richard I––]
9/8/1157, Richard born in Oxford, England, s/o 47277568. King Henry II & 47277569. Eleanor of Aquitaine.
5/1/1165, Prince Richard and his sister Princess Matilda are with their parents at Argentan in Normandy.
9/1166, Siblings Richard, Matilda, Geoffrey, Eleanor and Johanna are with their mother the Queen at Angers where she is acting as regent of Maine and Anjou.
5/31/1170 in the church of St. Hilary at Poictiers, Prince Richard installed with ‘lance and standard’ as Comte of Poitevin by the Bishop of Bordeaux. Then, at Limoges, Richard decorated with the ring of St. Valerie and proclaimed Duke. [Richard’s mother Queen Eleanor attended.]
6/14/1170, King Henry had his 15 year old son Henry crowned King. [While this was a common practice in France, it had never been done in England, and was opposed by many nobles and the Pope.]
12/26/1166, John born in Newark castle, Lincolnshire, England, s/o 47277568. King Henry II & 47277569. Eleanor of Aquitaine.
2/1168, Queen Eleanor, age 45, sent by King Henry with son Richard to govern her home of Aquitaine. Henry’s older sons remained with him. John was sent to Fontevraud abbey where he was raised by nuns, along with his sister Joan who was born just before John.
1169, King Henry II and King Louis VII made a peace treaty in which Henry II laid out his plans for dominions going to each of his sons. [John nicknamed “Lack-land” (Sans Terre) because he was the youngest son and received no major continental fiefs from his father.]
1170, King Henry had his 15 year old son Henry the young, John’s brother, crowned King.
1170, John’s mother, Queen Eleanor, established her own separate court at Poitiers, France.
~1170, Adelade born in England, d/o 94559120. Earl Hamelin Plantagenet & 94559121. Isabel Warren.
2/21/1173, Young King Henry and Richard with their parents attend the Council of Limoges. At this time King Henry proposed giving Chinon, Mirabeay and Loudon to Prince John, which was strongly opposed by Henry the Young.
4/1173, King Henry arranged for his son John to marry Alix, d/o Count Humbert of Maurienne in Provence. John was to have Chinon, Loudun, and Mirebeau as a cadet of Anjou. John’s older brother’s objected to the arrangement and rebelled. John’s mother, who supported the rebelling sons, was put under house arrest.
7/6/1173, Young King Henry, Richard and Geoffrey with the Comtes of Flanders and Boulogne [who was killed] lay siege to Driencourt. [The castle surrendered on 7/21.]
9/25/1173, King Henry and King Louis VII meet near Gisors. King Louis was escorted by King Henry’s sons Henry, Richard and Geoffrey. [The negotiations were unsuccessful.]
7/7/1174, King Henry embarks from Barfleur with Prince John and Princess Joan, and his prisoners Queen Eleanor, the young Queen Margaret, the Earl of Chester, the Earl and Countess of Leicester, and the wives of the Princes Richard and Geoffrey. [John now to be raised in King Henry’s household.] Age 7, John given 3 castles in Anjou with £1,000 Angevin yearly, and in England the county and castle of Nottingham, the lordship of Marlborough, and £1,000 sterling yeary.
9/8/1174, King Henry and King Louis agree to a peace treaty that ends King Louis’ support of Henry’s sons in rebellion.
9/23/1174, King Henry forces Prince Richard, age 17, into submission in Poitou.
1175, Prince Richard goes to Poitou to restore castles and fortifications to the same as they were before the rebellion.
5/1176, Prince Richard wins the battle of Buteville in Saintonge.
9/28/1176, At court at Windsor, William, earl of Gloucester, makes Prince John his heir.
12/25/1176, Prince John with his brother Prince Geoffrey celebrate Christmas with King Henry at Nottingham.
1/15/1177, ‘Et in corredio Johannis filii Regis £4 6s 8d per breve Regis.’
6/11/1177, King Henry and his son Prince John attest a grant by Geoffrey de Scalariis to Waltham.
3/1178, Prince John and his half-brother Geoffrey, bishop elect of Lincoln, sent from England to Normandy by Richard de Luci, viceroy of England.
12/25/1178, Prince John with his father King Henry and brother Prince Geoffrey for the Christmas court at Winchester [Prince Richard was in Poitou, and Young King Henry in Normandy.]
9/18/1180, Philip Augustus succeeded as King of France.
3/1182, Prince John left in the tutelage of Ranulf de Glanville.
1182, “John, son of the Lord the King” attested Ranulf de Glanville’s founding of Leystone.
6/1183, John’s brother Henry, the Young King, died of fever in Martel, France.
~1183, “Hugh le Brun” born in France, s/o 94499124. Count Hugh IX de Lusignan.
6/1183, Older brother Young King Henry died; Richard should have been named heir, but was not. Richard went to Paris to enlist the aid of the young French King, Philip II Augustus.
7/3/1183, at Angiers, King Henry and Prince Richard are reconciled with Geoffrey. Prince Richard, age 25, and now the heir, agrees to give Aquitaine to Prince John.
8/1183, Prince John traveled with King Henry to Normandy.
1185, Knighted by his father, John sent to subdue [unsuccessfully] rebellious chieftains in Ireland. He left from Pembroke, Wales “with a great band of armed men, and a multitude of ships.”
4/1185, Charter of Prince John [Johannes filius Domini Regis Anglian et Dominus Hiberniae] to the Irish monastery of Saneta Maria de Valle Salutis witnessed by Hugh de Lacy, constable of Ireland; Bertran de Verdon, seneschal of Ireland, and Gilbert Vipard.
1185-86, Honor of Chester:– Bertram de Verdun, Adam de Almondelegh for him … for the passage of Ireland of 9 ships with men, of John the K’s son, and their harness, £23 5s 4d; … ship to carry supplies … passage to Ireland of William Cumin and his men … of William de Casineto, his associates, and 10 horses …
3/1187, Princes Richard and John meet with their father at Aumale in Normandy. [King Henry is preparing for war with King Philip.] Richard and John are each given command of a fourth of King Henry’s forces.
11/1187 in Paris, Richard “the Lionheart” took the vow of a crusader.
1188, Isabella of Angouleme born in France, d/o 47277570. Vicount Audemar of Angouleme & 47277571. Alice of Courtenay.
8/1188, King Henry, supported by Welsh troops, invades France. Prince Richard, while promising to do fealty to his father, invades Berri.
6/1189 at Le Mans, King Henry defeated by Richard.
7/6/1189, John’s brother Richard became king on the death of their father. [Although there were many barons that would have preferred John. Richard sent William Marshall to free his mother from her confinement. She had been ‘imprisoned’ since 1173.]
9/3/1189, Richard crowned King Richard I of England.
1189, John named Count of Mortain by his brother King Richard I; and given the income from Lancaster, Nottingham, Derby, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall; and named lord of Ireland.
[––John & Isabella de Gloucester––]
8/29/1189 at Marlborough, John 1st married Isabella of Gloucester, d/o William FitzRobert & Hawise de Beaumont. [no children – dissolved in 1199, they were 2nd cousins]. This made John a Marcher lord in Wales. [1/1214, Isabella married as his 2nd wife Geoffrey de Mandeville, earl of Essex, and then in 1217, Hubert de Burgh.]
12/12/1189, Richard departed on the 3rd Crusade. Richard commandeered 63 ships and ordered them to Dover to move his forces to France. The fleet was then to move to Marsailles to meet up with the combined English and French troops. [30 additional ship coming from Normandy.]
1190, Richard’s Chancellor, William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, sent John with an army into Wales against Lord Ryhs ap Gruffydd, who had taken over Cydweli and Carnwyllion. John made a treaty before any fighting took place.
1190, King Richard departed on the 3rd Crusade.
1191, John took an army to the field against William Longchamp, King Richard’s chancellor. Longchamp captured John’s castle of Lincoln, and John captured Nottingham and Tickhill.
1191, Richard captured the city of Messina, Sicily, after they had refused to let the English ships land. [At Sicily, as part of a peace agreement, Richard named the infant son of his deceased brother Geoffrey as his heir. Soon after this news reached John in England.]
6/1121, Gerard de Camville, keeper of the royal castle at Lincoln, under siege, had swore allegiance to John. John then put pressure on Justiciar William Longchamp, whom Richard had left in charge in England, to end the siege. [Disputes between William and John continued.]
7/1191, Richard captured Acre.
9/5/1191, Richard defeated Saladin at the battle of Arsuf.
9/8/1191, Richard arrived at Jaffa and spent 3 months restoring its fortifications.
10/8/1191, John named “Governor of the Whole Realm” by a Great Council at Loddon Bridge; which recognized him as Richard’s heir. John then marched on London. Longchamp fled to the Tower. [Two days later the Tower surrendered. April 5th, this news reached King Richard at Ascalon.]
1/1192, King Philip of France offered John all the Angevin lands in France, and marriage to his sister Alys, if he would join him in his claims of other disputed territories in France. [The fact that John was married did not seem to be an issue.]
2/1192, John’s mother Eleanor rallied the powerful barons to prevent John from joining with Philip.
8/1/1192, Richard conducted a sea assault on Jaffa, which had been recaptured by Saladin.
10/9/1192, Richard secretly left by ship for home in the dead of night.
1/11/1193, Prince John at Cardiff received a letter from King Philip II of France informing him that Richard I was imprisoned near Vienna. John immediately went to France where Richard’s barons refused to do him homage. John then did homage to King Philip for the English lands in France, with a plan to marry Alys, who was imprisoned in Normandy. John also surrendered the Vexin in exchange for Artois.
3/21/1193, Richard’s trial began in Speyer. Richard was charged with betrayal of the Holy Land by making peace with Saladin. Richard was cleared of the betrayal charge. Richard then became a prisoner of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.
4/1193, John’s advanced forces were defeated in England by Hubert Walter, archbishop of Cantebury. Because of a truce requested by Richard in captivity, John’s forces were saved from total defeat, but he had to turn castles over to his mother Eleanor.
6/1193, King Philip sent John the message “Look to yourself, the Devil is loosed”, upon hearing the new terms for King Richard’s release from captivity. John, upon receiving the message, fled to Paris. John’s properties were confiscated; and in France John gave King Philip fortresses in Touraine.
8/1193, As part of a truce agreement between King Philip and King Richard, Prince John was to receive castles in Normandy. When John got to Normandy, the castellans refused to turn over the castles and John returned to Paris.
12/1193, After hearing of Richard’s pending release, King Philip and Prince John sent a letter to Emperor Henry offering £1000 a month, and £80,000 if he would keep Richard in captivity until autumn. They also offered to match the English ransom if he handed Richard over to them.
3/1194, Richard returned to England and quickly reaquired all the lands that self-proclaimed King John had taken. He then raised an army and returned to France to oppose King Philip.
5/12/1194, John arrived secretly at Lisieux, France, where King Richard had stopped in route to Verneuil with his army. Richard forgave John, saying that he was young and had bad advisors.
7/1194, King Richard nearly captured King Philip at Freteval, capturing his wagon train, which had treasure, and a document identifying Angevin subjects prepared to swap sides.
1194-95, Without telling of his secret visit, John returned to Evreux. He invited the town officials to dinner where he had them killed, and then announced that he held the town for King Richard.
1195, Richard restored Prince John as Count of Mortain, and gave him Gloucester and Eye. [He did not give John back any of his castles.]
1197, Richard raided Ponthieu at the mouth of the Somme. Documents about the building of Chateau Gaillard showed John pledging to uphold Richard’s agreements. [Richard had no children, Geoffrey’s son Arthur was in the custody of King Philip, and Arthur’s mother Constance was a prisoner of her 2nd husband.]
9/28/1197, Emperor Henry VI died at age 31 in Messina. On his deathbed Henry released King Richard of his vow as a vassal to the Holy Roman Empire.
1197-8, Richard defeated Philip II near Gisors, 20 miles northwest of Paris.
3/26/1199, Richard wounded at Chalus-Chabrol by a crossbowman shooting from the castle tower.
1199, King Richard showing signs of gangrene designated his brother John as heir over his nephew Arthur of Brittany, next in line of succession, who was only 12.
4/6/1199 at 7 PM, Richard, age 41, died attended by his mother; buried at Fontevrault Abbey, France.
4/14/1199, , Prince John took contol of the treasure fortress of Chinon with permission of the royal families.
4/25/1199, Prince John invested as Duke of Normandy at Rouen. John sent William Marshall and Hubert Walter to England to keep the peace.
5/25/1199, Prince John arrived at Sussex.
5/27/1199 at Westminster, John age 31 crowned King of England. King John publishes the agreement between himself and his mother Eleanor acknowledging her right to hold her inheritance of Poitou during her lifetime, in fief from him, and which would revert to him as her heir. John made Hubert Walter, archbishop of Cantebury, his Chancellor.
6/1199, King John assigned William de Stuteville to defend Northumbria against the Scots. [Brother of Nicholas (39979236).]
7/1/1199 at Chartres, Comte Thibaut of Champagne (47277592) married Blanche of Navarre (47277593). Thibaut invoked a parliament at Chartres to assess the dowry of Blanche. The kings of both England (King John, 23638784) and France (King Philip Augustus, 94555248) attended; as well as Adela (189110497), dowager Queen of France, and Berengeria, sister of Blanche (widow of King Richard I of England). (S) King John, Church, 2003, P188.
8/18/1199 at Rouen, King John allied his French barons against France by the Treaty of Chateau Gaillard. (S) Studies in Peerage, Round, 1901, P177. [15 Counts swore an oath against King Philip.]
9/22/1199, Arthur and his mother Constance were handed over to King John at Le Mans by William de Roches. [They slipped away during the night and returned to Philip.]
5/22/1200, King John made peace with Philip II at the truce of Le Goulet. John was recognized as Richard’s heir and did homage for his French possessions. John’s nephew Arthur was recognized in Brittany as John’s vassal. John ceded Vexin and Evreux to Philip.
[–––King John & Isabel of Angouleme–––]
8/24/1200 in Angouleme, John [divorced from Isabella] married 12 year old Isabella of Angouleme [the same year he met her]. Hugh IX de Lusignan, to whom Isabella had been betrothed, appealed to King Philip of France, who dispossed John of all his lands in France.
10/8/1200, Upon return to England, King John had Isabel “solemnly crowned” Queen. (S) 1203 dower agreement of King John.
12/1200, King John held his Christmas feast at Guildford.
4/12/1201 at Gournay, France, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, presided at a ceremony attended by King John, “Regis Angliae Joannis”, when Hugh de Gournay gave a silver chest to the church of St. Hildevert to store relics he had brought back from the Holy Land.
1201, King John seized the country of La Marche on behalf of his new Queen Isabella; attacking Lusignan castles in Aquitane.
7/1201, Arthur of Brittany led a force into the Norman territory of King John, and was captured along with “Hugh le Brun” (94499124), viscount of Thouars, Geoffrey of Lusignan [Hugh’s uncle], and several other knights. (S) Rigord’s Deeds of Phillip Augustus.
8/2/1201, letter: “John, by the grace of God, etc., to the justiciary and barons of the exchequer of london, etc. Know that it has been agreed between us and Berengaria, once queen of England, wife of king Richard our brother, about her dower, which she asked for; namely that we have assigned her, for her dower, a thousand marks of silver per year.” (S) Epistolæ.
10/8/1201, at Westminster, Isabella crowned Queen of England. (S) Lives of the Queens of England, Strickland, 1881, P78.
1202, King John refused King Philip’s summons to Paris as his vassal. The French court awarded his lands to his nephew Arthur of Brittany. King Philip attacked Norman territories capturing most of Brai.
3/20/1202, King John visited Hugh de Gournay at Gournay.
6/16/1202, Isabel became Countess of Angouleme.
7/16/1202 at Rouen, King John ordered R. de Vipont to deliver all the French prisoners taken in the war to Hugh de Gournay.
8/1/1202, John rescued his mother trapped in Mirebeau castle in Anjou, France. She was beseiged by his nephew Arthur. Arthur was captured, as well as ~6 barons and ~200 knights. [John was later accused of mistreating his prisoners, over which his governor of Anjou, William de Roches (39979486), resigned and led a revolt in Normandy.]
8/10/1202, King John imprisoned Arthur and his sister Eleanor at Falaise, and sent captured Hugh de Lusignan to Caen. [Other prisoners were distributed around France, and some sent to England.]
11/1202, King John, suffering many losses, ordered Arthur mutilated. Arthur would then no longer be a viable governor of any lands. [The Falsise commander, Hubert de Burgh prevented the mutilation, but pretended it had happened, and that Arthur had died in the process – according to the chronicles of Ralph de Coggeshall.]
12/1202, John had to retreat to Normandy, Tours and Angers having been captured. John also arranged for Hugh de Lusignan to be freed and some of his castles returned.
2/1203 at Falaise, King John tried to convince Arthur to return his support. Arthur refused. King John ordered 22 of the dispersed knights and barons from Brittany and Anjou, held in England, to be taken to Corfe castle where they were starved to death.
4/3/1203 at Rouen, King John killed Arthur of Brittany. (S) Antiquities of Shropshire, V2, Eyton, 1855, P212. [It is said that a drunken King John took Arthur out on the river, killed him with a sword, and dumped his body in the river where it was later found. It may have been done by a committee of those with King John at the time: Peter de Mauley (973530160), William de Briouze (189118344), William Longsword (19989838), Reginald de Cornhill, and Geoffrey fitz Peter.]
1203, Isabel principally resided in Caen and Bonneville.
4/1203, John was King of England, master of South Wales, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, and Duke of Aquitaine. King John controlled vast lands from the southern Scotland border to the northern Spanish border, including the western half of the lands of France.
5/5/1203 at Porchester, King John specified the details of Queen Isabel’s dower lands in England and Normandy.
5/1203, King Philip attacked John’s castle at Saumur, while other of vassals attacked castles on the north-south border between Normandy and France, intent on splitting off Normandy from the southern lands.
7/1203, King John responded with little success to recover lost castles.
8/1203, King Philip laid siege to Chateau-Gaillard at Les Andelys on the Seine river, the largest English stronghold, and the nearest to Paris. [Built by King Richard I, it block the French from using the Seine going to the west, and the English considered it untakeable.]
9/1203, King John sent William Marshall over land against the besieging forces, while sending the main force up the Seine to support the land force. However, the current was too strong and the force on the river did not arrive before a counter-attack forced William Marshall to retreat. King John then attempted to draw King Philip away by attacking Brittany which had been in rebellion.
9/1203, Leaving forces to continue the siege, King Philip attacked and captured Radepont castle, 15 miles from John’s capital at Rouen.
11/1203, King John returned to Rouen with little success against King Philip.
12/5/1203, From Barfleur, a port in Cherbourg, France, King John returned to England looking for military support from his barons.
4/1204, King John’s mother died.
1204, Isabella received her mother-in-law’s dower rights.
1204, King John requested a truce with King Philip Augustus, who responded with a request for him to produce Authur of Brittany.
1204, Under King John, deforestion began which would lead to the coal trade of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
11/9/2004, Due to inflation caused by the use of degraded money and several years of food shortages King John ordered the use of degraded coinage to end by 1/13/2005. [Some “quality” coins were allowed to remain in circulation.]
12/14/1204, King John ordered a distraint against Ranulph, Earl of Chester who was aligned with Gwenwynwyn of Powys in Wales, who was engaged in war against William de Broase.
6/16/1205, Having a few days earlier set sail to reclaim French lands, King John returned to port at Sudland Bay in Dorset.
7/13/1205, King John’s nemesis Hubert Walter died. John supposedly said “Now for the first time I am king and lord of England.” [Hubert had been King Richard’s archbishop and chief justiciar.]
1205, King John opposed Pope Innocent III’s choice of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury, asserting his right to tax the church.
1205, King John made a peace arrangement with Ranulph, Earl of Chester and Lincoln, and a powerful Marcher lord.
12/25/1205, King John celebrated at Oxford with William Marshall, Earl William of Salisbury (19989838) [John’s half brother], and the earls of Chester, Sussex and Surrey.
5/1206 at Chester, King John gave his daughter Joan in marriage to Llywelyn Fawr, prince of Wales.
5/20/1206, King John mustered his forces at Portsmouth for a return to France. [He had built 8 new transport ships in London, siege engines in Sussex, and had conscripted ships near Portsmought, totalling about 200 ships.]
6/8/1206, John landed at La Rochelle to recapture Angiers after it was taken over by his brother-in-law Alfonso VIII, married to his sister Eleanor. [Except for Bordeaux, which had not fallen to Alfonso. Most of Alfonso’s forces had already returned to Spain.]
1206, King John captured Montauban after a two-week siege.
10/26/1206, King John and King Philip agreed to a 2-year truce. The French held Anjou, Brittany, Maine and Normandy, leaving Aquitain in southern France to John. [The primary goal of King John.]
11/1206, Isabella formerly recognized as Ctss d’Angoulême [her father having died in 1202, but her mother administering her lands and holding dower lands].
12/12/1206, King John arrived back at Portsmouth with his forces.
2/1207 at Oxford, King John got approved at 7.5% tax on the goods and income of every man.
7/15/1207, John drove 64 Cantebury monks into exile because of their election of Stephen Langton as archbishop, who had been consecrated by the Pope. [John wanted a different person.]
12/1207, John held his Christmas feast at Windsor. [One archbishop attending spent £492 1s 11d was expended to buy 641 lengths of scarlet and dyes to make robes for the feast.] (S) English Historical Review, V110, 1995, P286. [Records of the time indicate that both his wives were living together Winchester castle.]
3/24/1208, Pope Innocent III got the bishops of London, Ely, and Worcester to impose an interdict on England, suspending ecclesiastical rites.
1209, King John appointed his brother William, earl of Salisbury, as royal custodian of the march of Wales.
7/1209, King John, with 800 knights, 45 of them household knights, made a short-lived invasion into Scotland. (S) English Historical Review, V110, 1995, P284.
11/1209, John excommunicated by Pope Innocent III when overing refusing the Pope’s appointment in 1207 of Stephen Langton to Archbishop of Cantebury. [King John had seized the churches and his revenue from the churches increased from £400 to £3,700 in 1 year, then to £24,000 in 2 years.]
6/6/1210, King John launched successful attacks in Ireland [which he split Ireland into shires ruled by the crown from Dublin]. King John launched 700 ships in the attack. [King John used 10 knights as personal bodyguards in this campaign.]
1210 in Wales, King John captured Walter de Lacy at Carrickfergus and forced Walter and his brother Hugh into exile.
9/1210, King John ordered the arrest of all Jews, male and female, and took all of their financial records. He held them for a payment of £44,000. Any Jew that could not contribute at least 40 shillings had to leave the country. [There was also a large levy on churches, especially the Cistercians.]
1211, King John began to use the debts of his barons as rationale for letters of distraint against their properties.
6/1211, King John made an unsuccessful foray into Wales from Chester.
8/11/1211 in Wales, King John having defeated Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (19989730), reduced his holdings to Gwynedd and Meirionydd, and imposed a very large tribute.
8/30/1211, The legate Pandulf excommunicated King John in front of an assembly of barons at Northampton. The King’s subjects were obsolved of their oath of allegiance.
5/4/1212 in England, King John signed the Treaty of Lambeth with Renauld of Dammartin, count of Bologne, whose lands had also been siezed by King Philip. Renauld also brought in the count of Flanders. For his support Renauld was given fiefs in England.
6/4/1212, King John led a mercenary army towards Scotland in support of King William.
6/15/1212, King John gave the first order for towns to provide men for military service. [He ordered 39 towns to provide 820 men.]
6/28/1212, returning to England, at Durham, King John learned of renewed rebellion in Wales. [Llywely ap Iorwerth had recovered the lands lost to King John.]
7/10/1212, A great fire swept through London, on the south side of the river, killing about 3000.
8/2/1212, Robert de Vipont (19989640), besieged by the Welsh at Mathravel castle, was rescued by King John.
8/14/1212 at Nottingham, King John hanged 28 Welsh hostages. [Robert de Vipont had already hung a 7-year-old boy. John also received messages telling him that he was in danger from his own barons. Robert fitz Walter (60849196) was considered one of the prime suspects, and the threat seemed to be centered in the north of England.]
1212, King John began to make monetary concesions throughout England. [Likely he believed this was a primary source of the threats.]
1213, Queen Isabella accompanied King John to Aquitaine when their daughter Joanna was pledged in marriage to Hugh de Lusignan.
1213, King John rewarded sailors from Seaford who had captured messengers with letters sent to England by Philip II about his invasion plans. John forged replies to mislead the French.
4/1213, King John ordered his fleet to raid the northern French coast.
5/15/1213, John absolved of his excommunication when he recanted and agreed to a peace agreement proposed by the Pope. John had to compensate the church as well as reinstate exiled clergy, promised to pay a tribute of 1000 marks annually to the Pope, and pledged England as a vassal state to the Pope. [King Philip was ordered by the Pope stop his invasion plans.]
5/24/1213, From: Geoffrey son of Peter, earl of Essex, justiciar; Reginald, count of Boulogne; Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of Chester; William, earl of Warenne; William the marshall, earl of Pembroke. To: William d'Aubigny, earl of Arundel; William, earl of Ferrers; William Bruwere; Robert de Ros; Gilbert son of Renfed; Roger de Mortuo Mari; Peter son of Herbert. They will ensure that King John will observe the terms of the settlement made between him and the Church in England. (S) UKNA.
5/28/1213, The English fleet, commanded by Earl William of Salisbuy (19989838), set sail in support of Flanders with 700 knights, which was in rebellion against King Philip.
5/30/1213, The English fleet encountered the French fleet at Damme, taking the treasures of over 300 ships and destroying 100 more.]
6/2/1213, King John recalled Walter de Lacy from exile in France. [Walter’s brother Hugh refused to return.]
11/15/1213, King John held an assembly of barons at Oxford, requesting they come unarmed. [John had told his sheriffs to attend and to be armed.] None of the opposing barons showed up.
2/9/1214, King John and 12 of his barons sailed for Poitou. [Queen Isabella and son Richard also accompanied the king.]
2/15/1214, Landing at La Rochelle, John invaded France trying to recover his lands. John initially had success in the south.
5/25/1214, King John made peace with the Lusignan family and again had their allegiance.
6/1214, King John attacked Peter de Dreux (19989754) at Nantes in Brittany. After capturing Peter’s brother, John withdrew upon making a peace agreement.
7/1/1214, At a great council at St. Paul’s in London, it was announced that King John had paid or arranged to pay all the money owed to the church, and the interdict in England was lifted.
7/27/1214, a Sunday, An alliance of England, the Holy Roman Empire and rebellious French principalities supporting Otto IV of Germany against King Philip, at the battle of Bouvines, near Tournai in Flanders. King Philip’s forces defeated the alliance, which had a much larger force, in 3 hours. [King John’s brother Earl William of Salisbury was captured.]
8/6/1214, King John received new of the loss at Bouvines.
9/18/1214, Philip and King John agreed to a 5-year truce at Chinon.
10/13/1214, John returned to England, landing at Dartmouth in Devon, then reaching London on the 29th.
11/1214, At a council at the Temple in London, King John gave large concessions to the churches and its members, including that all elections would be free of royal interference. [Many of the earls and barons present wanted the coronation charter of King Henry I reissued – which included the promise “to abolish all the evil by which the kingdom of England has been unjustly oppressed”.]
12/6/1214, Alexander II succeeded King William I of Scotland.
12/1214, Opposition barons assembled at Bury St. Edmunds and pledged to make war if King John did not reissue the charter of Henry I. [The barons were from the north and the east.]
3/4/1215, John took the vow of a Crusader, further obligating him to the Pope.
4/1215, The barons, learning that King John had posted Poitevins in Ireland, prepared for war.
4/26/1215, After agreeing to meet with the barons at Northampton, King John did not show, sending representatives instead
5/5/1215, The revolting Barons of England formally renounced their allegiance to John and invited the King of France to invade England. [This was prevented by the Pope.]
5/12/1215, King John ordered his sheriffs to begin seizing the lands of his “enemies.”
5/17/1215, Revolting barons, after giving up a siege of Northampton castle, arrived in London, having arranged for the gates to be opened. The city capitulated except for a small garrison in the Tower. Quickly many barons joined the rebellion. [King John had lost access to his treasury by which he would have paid his mercenary forces.]
6/10/1215 at Runnymede near Windsor, King John met with “a multitude of famous knights, well armed in every respect,” who presented a list of demands.
6/19/1215 at Runnymede near Windsor, King John forced to agree to the 49 articles of the Magna Carta. [The barons in revolt together held more castles and knights fees than John did as King.] Principally it required “judgement by equals” and protected the rights of the church. A clause provided for the election of 25 barons to monitor compliance and enforce its terms – the “security clause”. For non-compliance the barons were authorized to seize the King’s lands and possessions. [John then arranged for all of the opposing barons to be excommunicated – starting a war.]
7/1215, The two sides reconvened at Oxford. Some agreements were made, but not all. After the meeting, both sides began preparing for war.
8/1215, King John secured the ports on the south coast, and added new ships to his fleet.
9/5/1215, The Baronial leasders and the citizens of London were excommunicated. The barons appealed to King Philip for help, and decided to make a stand at Rochester castle in Kent to protect London.
9/20/2015, King John moved from Dover to Canterbury, where he fortified the cathedral. [From there at attempt was made to burn the bridge at Rochester, but failed.]
9/26/2015, A storm at sea destroyed several ships carrying Flemish mercenaries to England for King John. [Many knights did make it to England.]
10/13/1215, John began a siege of Rochester castle.
11/30/1215, John captured Rochester castle after mining under walls and tower causing a partial collapse.
12/1215, King John took half his forces and marched north, capturing many castles and towns, including York.
1/11/1216, Yorkshire barons, having retreated to Scotland, did homage to King Alexander at Melrose abbey.
1/1216, King John captured Berwick. [The Scots had previously burned Newcastle-upon-Tyne.]
1/1216, Saer de Quincy returned from France with 41 ships of French soldier. [140 knights of France had arrived earlier.]
3/1216, After King John left for the south, King Alexander attacked Carlisle and the northern barons laid siege to York.
3/1216, In the south, King John began attacking castles in the east.
3/31/1216, King John, 12 miles north of London, sent some troops closer to London. They were met with a surprise attack which cost them their mercenary commander. Ships sent to London on the Thames were captured or destroyed. King John then withdrew to Reading.
5/18/1216, A storm destroyed many of King John’s ships along the south coast. Prince Louis heard of this and immediately set sail for England.
5/21/1216, Prince Louis [future VIII] of France, made a successful landing at Stonar near Sandwich, separated from much of his fleet by a storm. King John saw the approach, but unltimately decided to retreat rather than fight on the beaches. [John left in secret, and many of his mercernies changed sides.]
5/31/1216, Prince Louis retook Rochester.
6/2/1216, Prince Louis arrived in London.
6/14/1216, Prince Louis neared Winchester, which John had left fleeing westward. [After a 10-day siege both castles surrendered. Many English barons joined Louis at the siege, including John’s brother William.]
7/1216, Prince Louis captured important castles in southeast England, fortifying his position in London.
9/1216, From the Welsh border, where he had recruited more forces, King John went on the offensive, eventually reaching Lincoln, which was under siege. John broke the siege and burned the surrounding areas.
10/9/1216, King John arrived at Norfolk where he fell ill. [John decided to return to Lincolnshire and lost many of his treasures on the way to a storm near the seacoast.]
10/18/1216, King John died at Newark of dysentery; buried at Worchester Cathedral, near the remains of St. Oswald; his son, lord Henry, became King Henry III.
[–––Isabel of Angouleme–––]
1200, Hugh de Luzignan, identified as the only son, consented to a charter in Lusignan of his father to St Hilaire of Poitiers.
1213, 3 sons of Hugh de Luzignan: Hugh son of Count de la Marche; Raoul, count of Eu; and Geoffrey, made a peace treat with King John. (S) Lives of the Queen of England, Strickland, 1840, P57.
11/1/1216, Queen Isabel given the city of Exeter and its fair as part of her dower. (S) Gaz. of Markets and Fairs.
6/27/1218, ‘Hugo Bruni dominus Lezigniaci et comes Marchie’, on leaving on crusade, and ‘Hugo de Lezigniaco filius suus’ donated half ‘molendino de Pooillet’ to Saint-Maixent.
1218-9, Isabel, in a letter requesting funds for the defense of her lands against the French: “To her dearest son Henry, by the grace of God illustrious king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, I Y[sabel] by that same grace his humble mother, queen of England, greetings and prosperous outcome always to his wishes.”
1219, Hugh X’s father died, Hugh X succeeding as Lord of Lusignan, and Count of March.
1219, A letter to the Bishop elect of Norwich: “…Y[sabel] by that same grace queen of England, lady of Ireland, duchess of Normandy and Aquitaine, and countess of Anjou …”
5/1219, Geoffrey de Neville, seneschal of Poitou and Gascony, informed King Henry III of incursions by Hugh de Lusignan, specifically against the town of Niort, in order to force the King to grant him the properties of Ralph de Lusignan, his uncle, the Count of Eu, who had died. (S) The Minority of Henry III, Carpenter, 1990, P154.
11/5/1219, Hugh succeeded his father as Lord of Lusignan and Count of La Marche.
[–––Hugh X & Isabel of Angouleme–––]
5/22/1220, Isabella, without permission of her son the King Henry, married 2nd Hugh X de Lusignan. [While bethrothed to Hugh IX she was wed to John; now she marries Hugh X who is bethrothed to her daughter Joanna.] The English government started to withhold Isabel’s dower payments.
1220, Isabel wrote King Henry explaining why she married Hugh: “We make known to you that when the counts of La Marche and Angoulême died, lord Hugh of Lusignan remained alone and without heir in the region of Poitou, and his friends did not permit our daughter to be married to him, because she is so young; but they counseled him to take a wife from whom he might quickly have heirs, and it was suggested that he take a wife in France. If he had done so, all your land in Poitou and Gascony and ours would have been lost.”
1220, Hugh and Isabel’s forces captured her son King Henry’s castle of Congnac and took his seneschal captive. Pope Honorius III threatened them with excommunication for their actions, and ordered them to send her daughter Joanna back to England. [Isabela agreed to send Joanna back to England in exchange for her continued income from her dowered English lands.]
9/29/1221, The king [Henry] has committed to Richard de Redvers in custody all land that H. count de la Marche and I., his wife, mother of the king, had in England in the name of dower of I., mother of the king. (S) FRsHIII.
6/25/1222, Pope Honorius III threatened excommunication of Isabel unless her daughter Joanna’s dowery as wife of Hugh was enforced and the castles taken from King Henry restored. (S) Papal Government, Sayers, 1984, P231.
1222, Hugh attacked and took Merpins from Reginald de Pons.
1222, Hugh came to a peace agreement with Pandulf, envoy of King Henry III.
7/14/1223, King Philip Augustus of France died; Louis VIII succeeded as king of France.
1223, De treuga Pictavie. Rex … H. de Leziniaco, comite Marchie et Engolisme, … (S) CPRs.
8/1223, Geoffrey de Neville, envoy of King Henry, sent to Hugh de Lusignan to negotiate a new peace agreement. [Hugh did not accept the terms.]
3/27/1224, a letter from King Henry III granting Hugh and Isabel certain properties during a 4 year truce [included Saintes and the Isle of Oleron] and promising payment for them within those 4 years, during which Henry expects Hugh to defend his land if it is attacked by the French king.
1224, ‘Ugo de Leziniaco comes Marchiæ et Engolismæ et Ysabella uxor eius … regina Angliæ’, confirmed rights granted by ‘bonæ memoriæ Ademaro comite Engolismæ patre eiusdem dominæ Ysabellæ’ to Vindelle. (S) FMG.
7/1224, Pope Honorius III sends a letter to his bishops in Orange and Limoges and to the deacon of Bordeaux to have them compel Hugh and Isabel to return Joanna’s dowered lands, and return the city of Orange, the island of Oleron, and other lands to King Henry.
1224-25, Poitou overun by the house of Lusignan supported by King Louis VIII of France. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000, P24.
11/8/1226, Louis IX succeeded as king of France.
12/18/1226, Pro comite Marchie et Engolisme. – Rex … H. de Leziniaco, comite Marchie et Engolisme, viro Ysabelle, regine, matris nostre, … (S) CPRs. [King Henry grants his mother Isabel 3,500 marks left her by her husband, his father, king John in his will. He also granted of Saintonge and Angouleme to Hugh de Lusignan, Count of La Marche. (S) UKNA.]
11/4/1228, Faculty to R[omarius,] cardinal of St. Angelo, papal legate, to compel the count of La Marche to remit the oath by which the king and B. queen of France, his mother, are bound not to make peace or truce with the king of England without his consent. (S) Cal. of papal Reg’s, V1, 1893, Regesta 14.
1230, Hugh, compte de la Marche, surrendered to Queen Blanch of Castile in France’s barons’ civil war.
12/6/1234, Bond to pay H. count of La Marche and of Angouleme, £800 Tournois a year for the island of Oleron, which the king has in his hand, during the truce with France. [The like letters of £400 for the count.] (S) CPRs.
10/9/1235, Bond to Hugh de Lizagniaco, count of La Marche and Angouleme, to pay him £800 … [states dates of payments.] (S) CPRs.
1/20/1241, Earl Richard, brother of King Henry, returned from the Holy Land to London … asked leave … that he might pass over into Gascoigne, to aid the Count de la Marche against the King of France. (S) Chron’s of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London, 1863.
6/24/1241 in Saumur, Anjou, Hugh de la Marche and his wife Queen Isabella attended the ceremony to make Alphonse, s/o Queen Blanche, Count of Poitou. [Hugh was the acknowledge leader of the local barons.] Queen Isabella was outraged at her treatment, and by the fact that she was expected to kneel to a count.
12/11/1241, Notification … by order of the king [Henry III] have delivered to H. count of La Marche and Angouleme, the king’s father, and I. the queen, the king’s mother, his wife, and Hugh de Lezinan, their son, certain writings and covenants between the king and them, … (S) CPRs.
12/1241 at Poitiers, Hugh, compte de la Marche, and Isabella openly denied allegiance to the newly appointed Count of Poitou; effectively a declaration of war. They were supported by King Henry III, Emperor Frederick II, Raymond VII of Toulouse, and the barons of Gascony.
1/8/1242 at Bordeaux, To the emperor. The king [Henry] made a treaty with the count of Toulouse against all men except the emperor, … the count, … has joined the king of France. … begs the emperor … through the count of La Marche … to given him counsel …. (S) CPRs.
2/28/1242, Mandate to … touching 3,000 marks which they have … to do what H. count of La Marche and Angouleme and I. Queen of England, his wife, and … will say to them on the king’s [Henry’s] behalf. (S) CPRs.
3/1242, Hugh provided for the partition of his lands after his death.
5/20/1242, Hugh de Luzignan and his step-son King Henry III arrived at Royen, France with a small contingent; but with 30 tons of gold. They were soon joined by French nobles with Hugh as their leader.
6/17/1242, Bond of the king [Henry] to his mother Isabel, queen of England, countess of La Marche and Angouleme, in 500 [marks] … (S) CPRs.
6/30/1242, Promise to R. count of Toulouse and marquess of Provence, the king’s [Henry] kinsman, that the king will labour for him to marry Margaret, the king’s sister, daughter of the count of La Marche and Angouleme … (S) CPRs.
7/3/1242, Mandate to Ralph de la Haye and Guy de Rocheford, in garrison in the castle of Partenay, by the counsel of William Lungespeye, or of H. count of La Marche, or of earl Richard, or of Hugh de Lezinan, to grieve the king’s [Henry III] enemies in the said lands as far as they can. (S) CPRs.
7/1242, the 2 armies met at the battles of Taillebourgh [21st] and Saintes, with the superior sized French force winning. In the same month, King Henry returned to England; and Hugh surrendered at Saintes agreeing to pay an annual fine and with the loss of some lands. [Note: Famous painting by Eugene Delacroix.]
11/20/1242, Presentation that … has delivered the 3,000 marks … to H. le Lezinan, count of La Marche and Angouleme, … (S) CPRs, Henry III.
1244, Isabella accused in an attempt to poison the King of France.
12/1244, Lord Hugh le Brun, and his son Hugh, took the cross with King Louis IX. (S) Chronicles of the Cursades, Joinville, 2010, P128.
Isabella became Sister Felice at Fontevrault Abbey in France.
8/25/1248, Hugh and his son Hugh set sail from Aigures-Mortes near Marsailles on crusade with King Louis IX.
6/1249, Hugh died on crusade at Damietta, Egypt.
(S) Epistolæ. (S) The Lives of the Princesses of England, V1-2, Green, 1850. (S) The Houses of Lusignan and Chatellerault, Medieval Academy of America, Painter, 1955. (S) King John, the Braoses, and the Celtic Fringe, Holden. (S) The Reign of King John, Painter, 1949. (S) Annales Cestrienses Chronicle of the Abbey of S. Werburg, At Chester. (S) King John, Morris, 2015.
Child of John and mistress Clementina:
i. Joan of Wales (19989623), born ~1190 in England.
4/1212, At the request of Llywelyn, Joan traveled to England to arrange a peace with her father. [In which she was apparently successful. Joan would have been a mature lady by this time, with understanding of the issues.]
Child of John and mistress Adelade de Warrenne:
ii. Richard Fitz Roy (9994834), born ~1193 in England.
6/24/1214, William Briwere ordered to deliver to Richard, the King's son, all the land which fell to Rose [de Dover], his wife, by heredity.
Children of John and Isabella of Angouleme:
i. Joanna Plantagenet, born 1203 in Normandy.
1214, Joanna betrothed to Hugh X de Lusignan, [Hugh IX formerly betrothed to her mother]. Joanna was sent to Provence where she resided in a March family castle.
1220, Joanna’s mother married Hugh X after he succeeded his father.
1221, Joanna arrived back in England [from Poitou] after multiple requests of her brother King Henry. William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, was named her guardian.
6/18/1221 at York, Joanna married King Alexander II of Scotland.
8/4/1221, Alexander and Joanna arrived at Roxburgh in Scotland.
2/11/1236, Order to the sheriff of Cambridgeshire to place in respite, … the manor of Fenstanton , which is in the hand of J. queen of Scotland, the king’s sister. (S) FRsHIII.
1237, Joanna was visited by her sister-in-law Queen Eleanor in Scotland, and then returned to England with Eleanor where they visited the shrine of St. Thomas.
1/23/1238, King Henry allotted £26 for Joanna, in failing health, to return to Scotland. [It was winter, and soon after departing the group turned back.]
3/12/1238, Joanna died in Essex; buried at the nunnery of Tarente, Dorsetshire. [No children.].
ii. King Henry III (11819392), born 10/10/1206 in England.
iii. King Richard of Cornwall (23640580), born 1/5/1209 in Winchester castle.
iv. Isabella Plantagenet, born 1213-14 in England.
7/20/1235 at Worms, Isabella, age 21, married to Emperor Frederick II and crowned Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. 4 Kings, 11 Dukes, and 30 Earls and Marquesses were at the ceremony.
12/1/1241, Isabella died in Foggio [near Naples] in childbirth; buried in Andria, Holy Roman Empire. [Her daughter Margaret survived.]
v. Eleanor Plantagenet, born 1215 in England.
1224, Eleanor married 1st to Earl William Marshall, s/o William, the Regent.
10/18/1229, Eleanor and William were formally married, and 9 manors were settled on her.
4/15/1231, William died.
1/6/1238, widow Eleanor married 2nd Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester.
1239, Simon exiled.
1241, Simon visited Jerusalem.
5/14/1264, King Henry, Richard, and Prince Edward, and Henry of Almain were captured by Simon de Montfort at the battle of Lewes, “at the Mill of the Hide”.
8/4/1265, Prince Edward defeated Simon de Montfort at the battle of Evesham, where Simon was killed.
1265, Eleanor was banished by her brother the King. Eleanor took refuge in the convent of Montargis in Orleannois, founded by Amicia de Montfort.
6/1267, Eleanor was at the French court.
[1272 in Italy, Eleanor’s sons Simon and Guy murdered Henry of Germany in revenge for their father’s mutilation at Evesham. Henry had not even been at the battle – he was a prisoner at Kenilworth at the time.]
By 3/1275, Eleanor died in France.
Children of Hugh X and Isabella of Angouleme:
[4 daughters, 5 sons: Hugh, Geoffrey, Guy, Aymer]
i. Hugh XI de Lusignan (9994876), born 1221 in France.
ii. William de Valence (11820102), born ~1223 in France.
iii. Amyer de Lusignan, born ~1226 in France.
1/29/1247, Presentation of Aymer, son of the count of La Marche, to the church of Kirkeheym. (S) CPRs.
iv. Alice de Lusignan (23639781), born ~1235 in France.