8/2/1100, Henry I crowned King of England.
1118, The Battle of Maies Maen Cymro ended with 2 major chieftains of Wales, east of Gwynedd, being killed. Owain and his older brother Cadwallon took control of the associated territories.
1123, Cadwallon and Owain invaded the cantref of Meirionydd in Powys, which they occupied.
[––Owain & Gwladys––]
~1128, Owain married Gwladys.
1132, Owain’s older brother, Cadwallon, killed in battle against forces of Powys leaving Owain as heir.
1135, Owain Gwunedd and Cadwalader, brothers, and a large number of Welshmen attacked and destroyed the Norman castle of Ystradpeithill near Aberystwith. [Soon after, Cadwalader married Alice, d/o Richard, earl of Clare, and rebuilt the castle as his primary residence.]
12/2/1135, King Henry I of England died; providing an opportunity for a Welsh uprising while there was internal strife in England.
12/22/1135, Stephen crowned king of England.
1/1/1136, In a sea battle, with the forces of the earl of Warwick, the Welsh were victorius, killing over 500 Anglo-Normans.
4/15/1136, Richard, Earl of Hertford, and Lord of Ceredigion in Wales, the most powerful magnate in Wales, slain in an ambush at Abergavenny by men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain. This encouraged Owain to invade his territories.
10/1136, Owain and Gruffydd ap Rhys, with and army of 6000 infantry and 2000 calvary, defeated Anglo-Norman forces at the battle of Crug Mawr near Ceredigion. Owain was able to seize the castle of Mold, but not Cardigan castle.
1137, Owain succeeded his father; but shared the kingdom with his younger brother Cadwaladr as was the custom in Wales.
1137, Owain and Cadwaladr invaded Ceredigion again, destroying the castles of Ystrad, Meurig, Castell Hywel, and Lampeter. They then captured Carmathen, taking possession of the whole of the valley of Towy.
1138, Owain enlisted the help of a Danish fleet of 15 ships to lay siege to Cardigan castle, which still held out. Owain left his brother in charge of Ceredigion and returned to Gwynedd. A truce was declared until November.
~1140, Christina born in Wales, d/o §§Grono ab Owain ab Edwyn. [Owain’s 1st cousin.]
1140, Owain opposed the election of Meurug, a clerk, as bishop in North Wales because he swore fealty to the King of England.
11/1140, Owain met with Anarawd ap Gruffudd and Bernard of St. David’s at Aberdyfi.
2/2/1141, Owain’s brother Cadwaladr led a contingent of Welsh men at the battle of Lincoln and the capture of King Stephen.
1143, Owain stripped his brother Cadwaladr of his lands after Cadwaladr was implicated in a murder over land boundaries.
1144, Owain Gwynedd destroyed the castle of Mold. (S) Annals and Antiquities, V1, Nicholas, 1872, P436.
1144, Owains’ brother, using hired mercenaries, compelled Owain to restore his lands.
1144, Many Welsh pilgrims, mainly from Dyfed and Ceredigion, drowned on their way to Jerusalem.
1144, Ranulf of Chester reconciled with Cadwaladr, brother of Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd.
1145, Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd attacked the lands of Ranulf, earl of Chester, who had reconciled with Owain’s brother Cadwaladr.
1146, Cooperating with Deheubarth, Owain captured the castle of Mold from Robert Montault, steward of Chester.
1147, Owain and Cadwaladr’s peace agreement, lasting 3 years, ended with attack by Owain’s forces on Meirionydd.
1148, Owain Gwynedd built a castle at Yale, close to the English border. Both Randulf, earl of Chester, and Madog ap Maredudd opposed the construction of the castle.
1148, Cynan and Howel, sons of Owain Gwynedd, by force snatched Meironit from Cadwalader, brother of Owain.
1149, Madog ap Maredudd built a castle at Oswestry, part of the lands of Englishman William fitz Alan. [The English were involved in a civil war.] About the same time Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd built a castle at Buddugre, in the cwmwd of Ial, commanding the pass from Dyffryn Clwyd.
1150, Ranulph, Earl of Chester, allied himself with Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and marched against Owain. Owain, by ambush, defeated the combined forces near Colehil.
1150, Owain captured the castle of Ruhddlan on the border with the Powys of south Wales. Owain imprisoned his son Cynan.
1152, Owain’s brother Cadwaladr was driven from Aglesey by southern Welshmen and took refuge in England.
1152, Owain blinded and castrated his nephew Cunedda son of his older brother Cadwallon, to prevent an issue of succession.
1153, Ranulf of Chester died. Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth reduced the Cantref of Penwedig, attacked the castle of Tenby, which they gave to William fitz Gerald, lord of Pembroke, and destroyed the castle of Ystrad Cyngen.
10/25/1154, King Stephen died.
12/19/1154, Henry II crowned king of England. [King Henry’s interests were focused in England and Normandy for the 1st few years.]
1155, Owain’s son Maredudd ap Gruffudd died. Three princes dominated Wales: Owain Gwynedd, Madog of Powys, and Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth.
1156, Owain started a campaign to recover Ceredigion, lost in 1153. Rhys ap Gruffudd of Deheubarth led an army opposing Owain. Owain declined to do battle, and Rhys built a castle at Aberdyfi, and then returned to south Wales.
1156-7, Gwladys died.
[––Owain & Christina––]
By 1157, Owain married Christina; his 1st cousin.
7/17/1157, At the Council of Northampton, King Henry decided to invade Wales against Owain. (S) Henry II, Warren, 1977, P69. [Owain’s brother Cadwalar was a supplicant at Henry’s court claiming that he had been deprived of his inheritance. Henry also wanted to assert his control over an area that had been regarded as reserved to the earls of Chester.]
1157, King Henry concentrated his forces in the plains of Chester. Owain entrenched himself at Basingwerk.
1157, King Henry II invaded Gwynedd with support of Cadwaladr; where his was nearly killed by the forces of Owain at the battle of Ewloe. Owain still faced a formidable army, and retreated to St. Asaph. King Henry gathered his forces at Rhuddlan. At the same time, King Henry’s invasion fleet was defeated at the isle of Mon.
7/1157, After the intial battles of King Henry and Owain Gwynedd ap Gruffydd, Madog ap Maredudd positioned his forces between the opposing groups. In the peace agreement, Madog arranged for Owain’s castle built in Ial to be burned. Owain’s peace agreement included his brother’s lands being restored, and resignation all claim to Tegeingl, which included Rhuddlan castle. Owain also had to provide 22 hostages, including two of his sons.
1158, Iowerth ab Owain appointed to govern Uch Coed in north Wales by his father Owain.
1159, Eonion Clyd captured his brother Cadwallawn and delivered him to Owain Gwynedd, who delivered him to King Henry.
1160, With the death of Madog ap Maredudd and his son, supporters of King Henry II, Owain was able to seize Arwystli. The Council of Woodstock attempted to convince the Welsh lords to accept being vassals to the English crown.
1161, Maurice, bishop of Bangor died. Owain kept the See of Bangor vacant; despite the protests of Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, and Pope Alexander III.
1161-2, Owain was involved in the selection of a new bishop for Bangor.
1162, Owain’s mother died; Owain took possession of Cyfeiliog and its castle of Tafolwern. In battle against the invading forces of Howel ab Ieuaf of Arwystli at Llandinam, Owain’s forces killed over 200 of Howel’s 300 men.
1162, Owain repulsed and attack by Hywel ab Ieuaf.
1163, King Henry invaded Wales.
1164, Owain Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gurffudd made an agreement to oppose King Henry. Owain attacked the Norman lands on the north Welsh frontier.
1165, Owain wrote to Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury [now in exile], arguing that the Bishop of Bangor should be allowed to be consecrated other than at Canterbury.
8/1165, King Henry II invaded Gwynedd again. The battle of Crogen was a defeat for King Henry against much smaller Welsh forces. The weather finally drove Henry’s forces back to England. Back in England, King Henry II ordered the 22 Welsh hostages, including 2 of Owain’s sons [Cadwallon and Cynfrig], blinded and mutilated. In south Powys, Rhys ap Gruffydd retaliated by killing all Normans in his territory.
1166, Owain acknowledged himself a vassal of King Louis of France, and promised to harrass King Henry in England if King Louis would do so in Normandy.
1166, Owain took the castle of Basingwerk in Tegeingl.
11/1167, After a siege of 3 months, Owain, with the help of Rhys ap Gruffydd of Powys, again captured and destroyed Rhuddlan castle. Owain then destroyed the castle of Prestatyn.
1168, Owain captured Basingwerk castle from the English.
1168, Owain, styling himself “Princeps Wallensium” – “the Prince of the Welsh”, began negotiations with King Louis VII of France to gain French recognition and support.
(S) A History of Wales from the Earliest Times, V2, Lloyd, 1912. (S) The Age of Owain Gwynedd, Barbier, 1908. (S) Normal Outline of Welsh History, Davies, 1905. (S) History of Wales, Caradoc of Llancarvan, 1832, Translated by Powell.
Child of Owain and Gwladys:
i. Iorwerth Drwyndwn ap Owain Gwynedd (39979460), born ~1130 in Wales.
ii. Gwenlian verch Owain-Gwynedd (243394001), born ~1140 in Wales.
Child of Owain and Christina:
iii. Anghard ap Owen Gwynedd (121696905), born ~1158 in Wales.