1176, Pedro born in Aragon, Spain, s/o 94555144. King Alfonso II of Aragon & 94555145. Sanchia of Castile.
1182, Marie born in Montpellier, France, d/o 94555178.William VIII of Montpellier & 94555179. Eudocia of Constantinople.
1194, Marie’s stepmother, Agnes of Castile, arranged her marriage to Barral, vicomte de Marseille [who soon died.]
4/25/1196, Pedro succeeded his father.
1196, On the death of their father, Alfonso (47277572) inherited Provence and some smaller territories under the feudal suzerainty of his brother Pedro.
1197, Pedro II put in law that heretics were to burned at the stake [specifically addressed at the Waldenses].
8/1197, Pedro visited Huerta and took the monastery under his protection.
[––Marie & Bernard––]
12/1197, Marie was married to elderly Bernard, comte de Comminges; her dowery 200 marks of silver; Marie receiving the chateau of Murel.
2/1198, Archbishop Berenguer [Peter’s half-uncle] and Count Bernard brought Peter and Raymond of Toulouse together to reaffirm the peace agreement of 1190.
5/20/1198, Pedro II of Aragon allied with Alfonso VIII by the Treaty of Calatayud.
1198, King Pedro and King Alfonso attacked Sancho VII of Navarre. In suing for peace, Sancho offered the hand of his sister to Pedro.
2/11/1199, Pedro’s marriage to Sancho’s sister was forbidden by Pope Innocent III. [Alfonso VII being the common grandfather of the bride and groom.]
9/1200, Pedro held court at Ariza.
9/1201, at Bagneres-de-Luchon, Count Bernard did homage to Peter for Comminges, in return for cession of Val d’Aran.
1201, Bernard died. Bernard’s vassals did homage to Marie and her 2 daughters: Mathilde and Pertonilla.
1201, Pedro fortified the town of Tiermas. (S) Pilgrimage Road to Santiago, Gititz, 2000, P31. [Which Pedro later gave to the king of Navarre.]
1202, Pedro promulgated constitutions relative to the Peace and Truce of God; extending his peace and protection to public assemblies, courts, markets, churches, … violators were subject to fines.
1204, Marie’s father died; Marie by consent of the inhabitants of Montpellier becoming their soverign [to the exclusion of her half-brothers.]
4/1204 at Millau, Pedro II, Alfonso of Provence [Pedro’s brother], and Raymond VI signed a pact of mutual assistance in case of war.
5/1204, Alfonso’s brother Pedro II mediated a dispute between Alfonso and William II of Forcalquier over rights in Forcalquier.
[––Pedro & Marie––]
6/15/1204, Pedro married Maria, Comtesse de Comminges.
11/1204, King Pedro went to Rome to receive the crown [made of unleavened bread] of Aragon by Pope Innocent III. [Pedro’s ancestor Sancho I had placed Aragon under special protection of the pope, for which they rendered 500 mancuses yearly.] At this coronation, the Pope authorized the Queens of Aragon to be crowned at Zaragoza.
1/1205, Pedro ransomed his brother Alfonso who had been captured by William II of Forcalquier.
6/1205, Pedro of Aragon offered all lands that he could acquire from heretics [and a year later all their goods.] Pedro seized the castle of Escure, which had been occupied by Cathars.
1205, Pedro instituted a tribute tax to help pay for defending the kingdom.
7/1206, Pedro II, aiding his brother Alfonso in renewed hostilities with the count of Forcalquier, received a loan of 100,000 sous from the consulate of Montpellier, pledging the castle of the same town.
1207, Pedro entered into a support pact with the lords of the Languedoc against heretics and mercenaries.
1208, Countess Elvira donated the county of Urgell to Pedro, saving the rights of her daughter who was betrothed to Pedro’s infant son.
1208, Pope Innocent III launched the Albigensian crusade against the Cathars [heretics at Lunguedoc – which were vassals of Pedro.]
1/1209, Raymond-Roger became a vassal of Pedro for castles in Cerdanya, Conflent and Barida.
1209, Pedro began proceedings to repudiate Queen Marie; addressing her previous marriage and a distant relationship. Marie pointed out that her previous marriage had been compelled, not a marriage of choice. Marie appealed the decision to the Pope and went to Rome to give her personal defense.
6/4/1209, By the Treaty of Mallen, Pedro II named his brother Alfonso as his heir. [Alfonso died the same year.]
12/1210 at Narbonne, Pedro of Aragon and Simon de Montfort met with Raymond of Toulouse.
1211, In an agreement with Simon de Montfort, leading French crusaders, Pedro arranged for his son Jaime to marry the daughter of the Count of Toulouse, with Simon de Montfort retaining custody of the child prince.
7/16/1212, Alfonso VIII of Castile lead a coalition of Castillian forces as crusaders defeating the Almohads at the battle of Navas de Tolosa; the beginning of the restoration of the Iberian peninsula to Christanity. The coalition included King Sancho VII, “the Strong”, of Navarre, and Pedro II of Aragon [Alfonso’s grandson]. Alfonso, in a letter to the Pope, estimated 100,000 Moors were killed, while he lost 25,000. Pedro, by common consent of the nobles presenty, was the greatest knight at the battle. (S) The Spanish People, Hume, 1917, P149.
1/1213, The Pope denied the divorce request of Pedro’s son James.
2/1213, Pedro sent a letter to the Council of Lavaur denying that his vassals were supporting heretics and requested land taken from them be returned [concerned specifically the city of Toulouse which had been excommunicated].
1213, Maria died in Rome, buried in St. Peters, having never returned to Aragon. Pedro gave her half-brother Guillaume the land of Montpellier.
1213, Pedro joined the Count of Toulouse in the city; then the two marched their forces on Muret.
9/12/1213, Pedro, “el Catolico”, killed at the Battle of Muret in the Albigensian crusade. Pedro of Aragon had brought 800 to 1000 Aragonese cavalry, with a militia of 2000 to 4000 infantry from Toulouse; opposing the forces of Simon IV de Montfort of mostly French crusaders, of 260 knights and 900 calvary. [According to one chronicle Pedro spent the night before the battle in amorous pursuits and did not make it to morning mass before the battle. During the battle, Pedro disguised himself in a borrowed suit of armor in the 2nd of 3 lines.] (S) Queer Iberia, Blackmore, 1999, P125.
(S) History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, V1, Lea, 1922. (S) Queens of Aragon, Miron, 1913. (S) Cantar de Mio Cid, Duggan, 2008. (S) History of Medieval Spain, O’Callaghan, 1983. (S) Rise of the Spanish Empire, V1, Merriman, 1918. (S) Innocent III and the Crown of Aragon, Smith, 2004. (S) Crusade, Heresy and Inquisition, Smith, 2010.
· Pedro was well known as a troubadour and poet.
· James wrote of his mother: “As regards the Queen, our mother, suffice it to say that, if ever there was a good woman in the world, it was she. … within and without Rome, she merited to be called the Sainted Queen.”
Children of Pedro and Marie:
i. James I of Aragon (23638794), born 2/1/1208 in Aragon.