1/24/1327, Edward III, age 14, succeeded Edward II as King of England.
~1340, William Gascoyne born in Gawthorp, Yorkshire, England, eldest s/o 2954256. William Gascoigne & 2954257. Agnes Frank.
~1345, Elizabeth born in York, England, d/o 2954258. Sir Alexander de Mowbray.
6/1349, The Plague reached Dorset, and had spread across England by the end of 1349.
William educated at the University of Cambridge.
By 1365, William married Elizabeth.
William transferred to the Inns of Court. William attended for 7 years, then was appointed an “utter barrister.”
1/1374, William argued a case at Grey’s Inn.
6/21/1377, Richard II, age 10, succeeded Edward III as King of England.
1378, William heir to his father.
4/4/1379, Debtor: Ralph de Standish, of Lancs. Creditor: Robert de Dynley, and William Gascoigne. Amount: £120. (S) UKNA.
3/14/1380, … of the keeping of the manor of Bradewell by Coggeshale, co. Essex … The king wills nevertheless that in the meantime … John Bataill, Thomas Bataill, William Gascoigne and …, may concern themselves with the manor, and with the lands, rents and all other things belonging thereto … (S) CFRs.
Aft. 5/26/1380, Elizabeth, heir of her brother Robert. (S) CPRs.
10/6/1384, William Gascoygne and John, his brother, and John Gayteford', chaplain, querents ... The manor of Queldale and Sutton' ... William, John and John have given them 100 pounds sterling. (S) Feet of Fines, Yorkshire.
2/16/1386, Commission of the peace and oyer and terminer ... John, duke of Lancaster, Henry de Percy, earl of Northumberland, ... William Gascoyne, ... in the West Riding of county York. (S) CPRs.
7/14/1388, Appointment of William Gascoigne, one of the king’s justices of the peace in the county of York, to arrest … John Cresacre the elder, … (S) CPRs.
5/16/1389, William Moubray and Margaret, his wife, querents and John Bysshopton', deforciant ... manors of [Colton' and Stokton'] sup[er] Moram ... county of York ... William de Neuwesum and Joan, his wife, held for the life of Joan of the inheritance of John ... after the decease of Joan shall remain to William Moubray and Margaret ... In default of such heirs, successive remainders (1) to William [Gascoigne and] Elizabeth, his wife, and the heirs of the body of Elizabeth ... (S) Feet of Fines, Yorkshire.
12/2/1389, William Gascoigne and others appointed guardians etc. in the city and suburbs of York. (S) CCRs.
William married 2nd Joan, d/o William Pickering, and widow of Sir Ralph Greystock. [1 son, James Gascoigne of Cardington, Bedfordshire.]
7/11/1390, Commission to William Gascoigne, … touching the petition … (S) CPRs.
7/10/1393, … and William Gascoigne, appointed justices for taking assizes, juries and certificates in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, Huntingdon and Bedford. (S) CPRs.
1396, William Gascoigne a justice of gaol-delivery … (S) CPRs.
1397, Richard II appointed William as a King’s Serjeant.
9/1398, William named attorney for Henry of Bolingbroke who was about to “engage in single combat” with the Duke of Norfolk.
1399, William, as attorney for Henry Bolingbroke, now Duke of Lancaster, sued for his properties, and offered to do homage and swear allegiance in the name of the absent heir. [Henry had been exiled for 10 years.] William’s suit was denied; the crown seized the lands, and William was denied the right to represent Henry. [One of the charges used in deposing Richard II.]
9/30/1399, Henry IV succeeded Richard II as King of England.
1399, Henry returned from exile, deposed Richard II, and was elected King Henry IV. One of King Henry’s 1st acts was to name William Chief Justice of the Court of the King’s Bench, and conferred upon him the honor of knighthood. [Some records circumstantially indicated a later appointment, but yearbooks of the 1st year of Henry’s reign confirm the appointment.]
8/30/1401 at Lancaster before William Gascoigne and John Cokayne justices. Between John, son of Nicholas de Baumford, and Katherine, his wife, plaintiffs, and Nicholas de Baumford and Cecily, his wife, deforciants of tenements in Mamecestre. (S) Lancashire Fines.
4/13/1402, To William Gascoigne and his fellows, justices appointed to hold pleas before the king. (S) CCRs.
7/26/1404, It was determined by William Gascoigne the chief justice that William Serle, at York, was before him convicted of divers treasons. (S) CCRs.
6/4/1405, William refused King Henry’s request to sit in judgement and sentence to death Thomas Mowbray, son of the deceased banished Duke of Norfolk, and Richard le Scrope, the Archbishop of York, s/o Henry le Scrope (624684). William told the King he could not be given jurisdiction over the Archbishop, and that Thomas was a peer of the realm and had a right to be tried by his peers.
1406, Petition … Nicholas Watyes sued a writ of error before William Gascoigne, and his companions, justices of King's Bench. (S) UKNA.
2/6/1408, Commission by King Henry IV. to William Gascoigne and Thomas Tildeslegh and others to hold a plea of land between Robert de Eland v. Isabell, who was the wife of John Sayvill, concerning land in Gretelande, Stainlande, Barkeslande, Bothomley, Northlande, Ryssheworthe, Heptonstall, Elande, Lynley and Ourom. (S) UKNA.
3/5/1408, Commission of oyer and terminer to William Gascoigne, ... Henry Wyman [William’s son married Henry’s daughter], ... county of York ... concerning the erection of wiers, mills, stanks, pales and Kiddles. (S) CPRs.
12/19/1410 at York, Court session by William Gascoigne and his fellow justices of the peace. (S) UKNA.
1411-13, William had Prince Henry [future King Henry V] arrested for attempting to remove a prisoner from the court. [No documents exist to this event, but Sir Robert Catlyne, Chief Justice, and Sir John Widden, a Puisne judge, both cited the case, also described in Shakespeare’s play ‘Henry IV’.]
3/20/1413, King Henry IV died; King Henry V succeeding.
3/22/1413, “Sir William Gascoigne, Knight, Chief Justice of our Lord the King, assigned to hold pleas before our Lord the King before the King himself.”
1413, William retired from the bench.
11/28/1414, grant to “Willaim Gascoigne, Knt., and allowance, during the term of his natural life, of 4 bucks and 4 does every year out of out Forest of Pontifract.”
4/22/1418, Lease by William Gascoigne to Robert Best of Bridgwater, Somerset, … of all his tenements (specified) in Bridgwater, for an annual rent of 10s., paid quarterly. (S) UKNA.
12/15/1419, a Friday, William wrote his will. “... Ego Willielmus Gascoigne ... Johannae uxori meae ... mei praefati Willielmi infra regnum Angliae ... junioribus Domini Willielmi filii mei et heredis ... tribus annis celebraturis, pro anima mea et animabus Elizabeth uxoris meae et parentum meorum, ...” (S) Publ. of the Sureties Soc., V41, P394.
12/17/1419, William died; buried in the parish church of Harwood, near Gawthorp, Yorkshire.. (S) Will probated on 12/23, and he died on a Sunday.
5/1/1426, Joan wrote her will. “I dame Jhon Gascoigne, sumtyme the wife of William Gascoigne, that was Chief Justice of England, ... to Robert Constable, and to my doghter his wife ... my son Sr Christopher ... my son James ... my son Robert ... my son Richard ... ” (S) Publ. of the Sureties Soc., V41, P403.
(S) Publications of the Thoresby Society, V17, P131. (S) Some Historic Mansions of Yorkshire, V1, Wheater, 1888, P99. (S) Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, V6, 1881, P372. (S) The Lives of the Chief Justices of England, V1, Campbell, 1849, PP124-142.
· “A pedigree of the family, engrossed on 16 sheets of parchment, was in the possession of John Gascoigne, of Parlington, 200 years ago …” (S) Publications of the Thoresby Society, V17, P131.
· The tomb of William and Elizabeth exists at Harewood House All Saints church, Yorkshire, in the care of the Redundant Churches Fund. William Gascoigne is depicted in his gown of office, with buttoned sleeves and a hoop framed purse. Paint traces suggest a scarelt robe lined with green. Elizabeth wears a full wide sleeved gown with a high girdle, and is depicted in an elaborate headdress. Roses and leaves form a chaplet which passes over 2 side templar nets an a veil. Centred on the front of the chaplet is a pelican badge showing traces of gilding. Her feet rest on a little dog. (S) English Historic Churches. [Fuller fixed William’s death at 12/17/1412 by an inscription on the tomb, later found to be incorrect.]
· William, as Chief Justice, framed a statute where attorneys that had been convicted of any fraud were not allowed to make suit in the Court of the King.
Child of William and Elizabeth:
i. William Gascoigne (738564), born 1366 in England.