~1440, Humphrey Bourgchier born in England, s/o 950716. Lord John Bourchier & 950717. Marjorie Berners.
1442, Elizabeth born in England, d/o 184694. Sir Frederick Tilney & 184695. Elizabeth Cheney.
1443, Thomas born in Stoke Neyland, Suffolk, England, s/o 184692. John Howard & 184693. Catherine de Moleyns.
2/21/1447, John Say given wardship and marriage of his step-daughter Elizabeth.
[––Elizabeth & Humphrey––]
4/11/1451, “Indenture, marriage settlement. 1) John Bourgchier, kt. 2) John Say esqs. Laurence Cheyne esqs. Humfrey, s. of (1) to espouse Eliz., d. of Frederyk Tylney, esq., "that is to God passed", she being ward of J.S., before next All Saints. … If Humfrey die before Eliz. 14 yrs., she is to marry next son, or in default to be returned unmarried with any property. …” (S) UKNA.
8/1453, King Henry VI had a mental breakdown. [Richard, Duke of York, appointed Protector of the Realm. This event soon led to the War of the Roses.]
1460, Schedule of recognizances made by John Neville, of Middleham, knight, and his mainpernors ...; Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England; ...; Humphrey Bourghchier of Cheshunt [Hertfordshire], esquire; ...; Richard Fenys of Herstmonceux, knight; ... (S) UKNA.
7/10/1460, Battle of Northampton, a Yorkist victory. [King Henry VI captured.]
10/19/1460, Grant by Alice Blogwyn, ..., to Humphrey Bourgchier, William Husee, ..., esquires, ..., of all the lands, etc. in Upton [Northamptonshire.] (S) UKNA.
2/12/1461, Humphrey left London with the Earl of Warwick and 8000 men and the king as Warwick’s prisoner.
2/17/1461, Humphrey at the 2nd battle of St. Albans, Hertfordshire. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Neillads, 1993, P102.
2/17/1461, 2nd battle of St. Albans, Hertfordshire – a Lancastrian victory. King Henry VI was rescued at the battle. The Earl of Warwick led the Yorkists who reached St. Albans first and fortified the city, but spread his forces too thin. In an unusual maneuver the Lancastrians flanked the Yorkist forces giving them superior numbers against the defenders in the early parts of the battle. The battle lasted most of the day as the Lancastrians advanced through the town. Warwick withdrew with a force of about 4000 and nightfall.
3/29/1461, The battle of Towton in Yorkshire, a Yorkist victory. This battle was the largest and bloodiest fought on British soil. As many as 28,000 died at the battle between Towton and Saxton in Yorkshire. Yorkist forces, with a wind at their back in a blinding snow storm giving their archers and spearmen a significant advantage. [King Henry and Queen Margaret fled to Scotland. King Henry had another breakdown, and Queen Margaret led the Lancastrian resistance.]
6/28/1461, Edward IV crowned at Westminster, beginning the House of York.
Aft. 1466, Elizabeth the Lady of the Bedchamber of the Queen’s daughter, Princess Elizabeth.
10/1470, Thomas, Treasurer of the household of Edward IV, fled to Colchester when Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Weir, 1995, P376.
10/2/1470, Will of Dame Jane Neville, widow ... to my brother Sir Humphrey Bourgchier, Kt., a ring of gold with a floure de lis of rubies. ... (S) Warwick Castles and its Earls, 1903, P833.
10/3/1470, Henry VI regained the throne of England.
10/16/1470, Lady Margerie Berners proved the will of her daughter Jane.
4/14/1471, Humphrey Bourchier, a Yorkist, slain at Barnet Field, a battle lasting about 3 hours, in which about 1500 were killed. Humphrey buried at Wesminster Abbey. Thomas Howard was “sore hurt” fighting on the Yorkist side for Edward IV. (S) The Wars of the Roses, Weir, 1995, P398. [Humphrey buried in the Chapel of St. Edmund, Westminster Abbey, dying before his father.]
5/11/1471, Edward IV regained the crown after the Battle of Tewkesbury. [King Henry’s son and heir was killed.]
1471, Thomas went to France in support of Charles, Duke of Burgundy. [Thomas returned to England in 1472.]
2/28/1472, Elizabeth wrote a will: “I Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Frederick Tilney, son and heir of Philip Tylney, sometime Canon and Residentiary of Lincoln, late wife of Humphrey Bourgchier, Knt. son and heir of John Bourgchier, Lord Berners, Knight, in pure widowhood ... All my manors ... Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Lincoln, York and Stafford, to my use to perform my will. ... reversion of the feoffs ... to Margaret and Anne, my daughters, £100 each.” (S) Testamenta Vetusta, Nicolas, 1826, P483. [Since son John is not mentioned, she must have been pregnant – which would justify writing her will.]
4/1472, Thomas, Esquire of the Body of Edward IV.
4/1472, Elizabeth, joint godmother to Princess Margaret Tudor. [Died an infant.]
[––Elizabeth & Thomas––]
4/30/1472, Thomas married Elizabeth.
5/8/1472, Elizabeth wrote another will: “Dame Elizabeth Howard, daughter and heir of Frederick Tilney, and now wife of Thomas Howard, son and heir of John, Lord Howard, … I will that John Bourghchier, my son, die without issue during my and my husband’s life, then Margaret and Anne to have none of the £100 given in my other will”. [There is a 3rd will of 1506 attributed to her, but this was actually the will of Elizabeth Talbot, widow of Duke of Norfolk.]
6/1475, Thomas led 6 men-at-arms and 200 archers to join the king's army in France.
1476, Thomas made Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk.
4/26/1477, Thomas Falstolf esquire, … of Nacton co. Suffolk, …, to John lord Howard, Thomas Howard esquire, … Release and quitclaim of all his rights in the manor of Oulton … (S) CCRs.
1/18/1478, Thomas knighted by King Edward IV at the marriage of the king’s son, the Duke of York to Lady Anne Mowbray.
5/13/1481, Thomas Howard, sheriff of Norfolk. (S) CCRs.
1/20/1483, Thomas Howard and William Knyvet represented Norfolk at parliament. (S) Parliament Rolls, 2005.
4/9/1483, King Edward IV died; succeded by his 12 year old son Edward V.
5/24/1483, Henry Chycheley the younger, to … Thomas Howard knight, … Release and quitclaim … of a manor called 'Codenham halle' [Suffolk] … (S) CCRs.
By 6/1483, Edward V and his younger brother were “put to silence in the Tower of London.” (S) Entry by Robert Ricart, Recorder of Bristol.
7/6/1483, Richard III [brother of Edward IV] became King of England, deposing Edward V. Thomas carried the Sword of State at the coronation.
1483, Thomas created Earl of Surrey, invested as a Knight of the Garter, and appointed Lord Steward of the Household.
8/22/1485, Thomas fought [with his father] on the losing side at Bosworth against Henry VII. [His father was killed, he was take prisoner, attained, and taken to the Tower in London.]
10/30/1485, King Henry VII crowned King of England.
12/6/1485, Giovanni de Giglis, Collector of Peter's Pence in England, to Pope Innocent VIII. … ‘The Earl of Northumberland (Henry Percy), who was captured and imprisoned, has been set at liberty, but on security … The Earl of Surrey (Thomas Howard), is still under arrest, but De Giglis hears he will be released. (S) Cal. of State Papers of Venice, V1, 1864.
6/1487, Thomas refused a chance to escape from the Tower, which was noted by King Henry VII.
1/1488, Thomas released from the Tower when he agreed to command against the Scots. He was restored as Earl of Surrey.
5/1488, Thomas was sent to put down a taxation rebellion in Yorkshire. [They had slain Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland – Thomas had the leader executed.]
11/1489, Elizabeth, joint godmother to Princess Margaret Tudor.
1490, Thomas’ Knight of the Garter status restored.
1492, Thomas suppressed a rebellion at Acworth in Wales.
10/1495 at Parliament at Westminster. … by an indenture made with the assent of our sovereign lord the king, between the excellent princess Elizabeth, queen of England and France, and Thomas, earl of Surrey, that a marriage be made and solemnised between Thomas, Lord Howard, son and heir apparent of the said earl, and Anne, sister of the said queen, which marriage is now made and solemnised; and that the said earl, … should have for term of his life £120 yearly … with a proviso … that if Elizabeth, now duchess of Norfolk, or the said Anne, now wife to the same Thomas, Lord Howard, dies, that thenceforth the said annuity should cease. (S) Parliament Rolls, 2005.
4/4/1497, Elizabeth died; buried at the Minoresses Convent, Aldgate, London.
1497, Thomas invaded Scotland after James IV had laid siege to Norham castle. Thomas challenged the Scot king to battle, but eventually had to retreat due to weather.
6/25/1501, Thomas confirmed as Lord Treasurer and made a member of the Privy Council.
1501, Thomas sent to arrange the marriage terms of Henry VII’s daughter Margaret to James IV of Scotland.
Thomas married 2nd Agnes Tilney, cousin of Elizabeth, gd/o Hugh Tilney of Boston, brother of Elizabeth’s father Frederick.
1503, Thomas escorted Princess Margaret to Edinburgh, Scotland.
10/1508, Thomas sent to Antwerp to negotiate the marriage of Henry VII’s daughter Mary with the Prince of Castile.
3/1509, Thomas on a commission to conclude a treaty with France.
4/1509, Thomas an executor of King Henry VII’s will.
6/24/1509, Henry VIII crowned King of England.
7/10/1510, Grant. Thomas Howard earl of Surrey, Treasurer of England. To be, for life, Earl Marshal of England, …, and bear a golden staff (described); also grant of £20 a year from the Hanape … by the King's special command. (S) L&Ps, F&D, Henry VIII, V1, 1920.
7/3/1511 at Valladolid, Aragon. Treaty made by Lewis Carroz, commissioner for Ferdinand king of Aragon, and Johanna queen of Castile, Thomas [Howard] Earl of Surrey, treasurer and marshal of England, and George [Talbot] Earl of Shrewsbury, steward to the Household, on part of Hen. VIII. … The two kings to attack France in Acquitaine … Both kings to keep the sea from "le Trade" to the mouth of the Thames. … All lands in Acquitaine to be delivered to the King of England. … [Signed by King Henry on 11/17/1511.]
9/1512, Thomas, at odds with [future Cardinal] Thomas Wosley, left the Court of Henry VIII.
9/9/1513, Henry VIII went to France about his claim to the French throne. While he was gone King James of Scotland invaded with 30,000 men. At the battle of Flodden Field, Northumberland, English longbow versus Scottish spear, Thomas, as Lieutenant General of the North, repulsed the attack with 20,000, killing over 10,000 Scots and the king. [The last great battle won by the longbow.]
2/1/1514, Thomas, 70 years old, reacquired his father’s title of Duke of Norfolk, and restored as Earl Marshall.
11/16/1515, Thomas one of the escorts of Thomas Wosley as he was inducted as a Cardinal at Westminster.
2/1516, Elizabeth was godmother to Princess Mary [future Queen “Bloody Mary”.]
5/1517, Thomas suppressed a riot in London known as “Evil May Day”.
1520-21, Thomas served as Guardian of the Realm while King Henry returned to France.
5/2/1521, Surrender by Thomas Howard, knt., Earl of Surrey, to Hen. VIII., of the manor of Evyndon, which the King by letters patent dated at Westminster, 22 Nov., 2 Henry VIII., granted to the Earl's late wife Anne, one of the daughters of Edward IV., and her children; on account of the decease of whom and of her issue the said manor has descended to the Earl for his life with reversion to the King.
5/1521, While acting as Lord High Steward, Thomas was compelled to put his friend Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, to death on charges of treason.
5/1522, Thomas sent as an ambassador to Holy Roman Emperor, Carlos V.
4/1523, Thomas attended parliament [but he had resigned as Treasurer.]
5/21/1524, Thomas died at Castle Framlingham, Norfolk.
6/26/1524, Thomas buried at Thetford Priory, Norfolk.
(S) Fifty Ancestors of Henry Lincoln Clapp, 1902, P73. (S) UKNA, East Susses Record Office, DAN. (S) The Hist. of Long Melford, Parker, 1873, P68. (S) Visitation of Norfolk.
· (S) Westminster Abbey inscription [Latin] for Sir Humphrey Bourchier: “Behold lying here the warrior at Barnet, ... Humphrey Bourgchier, sprung from the glorious line of King Edward, called the Third, the son and heir of John, Lord Berners. And lo, Edward the Fourth has the triumph in the battle, in which Humphrey dies a true servant of the king. He was an attendant at the table of the king's wife Elizabeth; ...". [The coats of arms include those of Bourgchier, Louvain, Berners, Tilney and Thorpe.]
· Humphrey Bourgchier, knight, Lord Cromewell [1456–59, Chamberlain to the King], and his wife Johanna, heiress & d/o Ralph Cromwell, a cousin of this Humphrey, buried in the same chapel, who also died at the Battle of Barnet [no heirs.]
Children of Humphrey and Elizabeth:
i. Anne Bouchier (237679), born 1470 in England.
ii. Sir John Bouchier, born 1472 in England.
6/27/1476, Grant to the king’s kinsman Thomas, cardinal archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas Bourgchier, esquire [uncle of John] of the custody of all manors ... late of John Bourgchier of Berners, knight, and Majory his wife, ... and marriage of John son and heir of Humphrey Bourgchier, knight, their [grand]son and heir ... (S) CPRs.
John married Katherine Howard, half-sister of Thomas, his step-father.
6/1520, John attended the famous “Field of Cloth of Gold” in France.
John Bouchier knight, lorde Berner, first “Translated lute of Frenche into oure maternall Englysshe tongue” the interesting Chronicl of Syr John Froyssart. (S) A Dictionary of Printers and Printing, Timperely, 1839, P298.
Children of Thomas and Elizabeth:
i. Thomas Howard, born 1473 in England.
2/4/1495, Thomas married Lady Anne, 3rd daughter of King Edward IV.
11/23/1511, Anne died of consumption.
1513, Thomas married Elizabeth, d/o Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham & Elinor Percy.
2/1/1514, Thomas created 2nd Earl of Surrey.
5/2/1521, Surrender by Thomas Howard, knt., Earl of Surrey, to Hen. VIII., of the manor of Evyndon, which the King … granted to the Earl's late wife Anne, one of the daughters of Edward IV., and her children; on account of the decease of whom and of her issue the said manor has descended to the Earl for his life. (S) Ancient Deeds, V1, 1890, A.1402.
5/21/1524, Thomas became 3rd Duke of Norfolk on his father’s death.
8/25/1554, Thomas died at Kenninghall, Norfolk.
ii. Elizabeth Howard, born ? in England.
Elizabeth married Sir Thomas Boleyn.
Children: Anne Boleyn. Anne 2nd wife of King Henry VIII. Anne mother of Queen Elizabeth I.
iii. Muriel Howard (46173), born 1486 in England.