Friday, May 29, 2020

Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV Hohenstaufen & Empress Bertha of Savoy

1512882334. Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV Hohenstaufen & 1512882334. Empress Bertha of Savoy

11/11/1050, Henry born in Gostar, Saxony, s/o 3025764668. Holy Roman Emperor Henry III & 3025764669. Empress Agnes of Poitou.

~1052, Bertha born in Savoy [NW Italy], d/o §§Count Otto of Savoy (b.~1015, m.1046, d.1060) & Margravine Adelaide of Turin.

7/17/1054, Henry crowned King of Germany.

[––Henry & Bertha––]

1055, Henry bethrothed to Bertha.

10/5/1056, Henry’s father died; Henry’s wardship given to his mother, who acted as Regent. Henry became King of Italy and Burgundy on the death of his father.

1057, Empress Agnes took full control of her son on the departure of Pope Victor II, who had come when Henry IV became seriously ill.

1060, Agnes, acting for Henry, sent troops to Hungary in support of Andrew I. [Andrew was defeated and fled to Germany.]

4/1062, The Archbishop of Cologne kidnapped Henry and became the Regent.

1065, Henry came of age to make policy decisions.

5/1065, Henry’s mother Agnes returned to her homeland of Poitou. [She would make trips back on various occasions.]

[––Henry & Bertha––]

1066, Henry married Bertha of Savoy.

1069, Henry suppressed a riot in Saxony. [Henry’s policy of appointing commoners to high offices was not well received.]

1071, Henry suppressed the rebellion of Otto of Nordheim, who he imprisoned [released 5/1072].

1073, Many of Henry’s advisors excommunicated by Pope Alexander II, who believed they were giving him bad advice.

6/9/1074, Henry captured Homburg castle in Saxony.

10/1075, Henry forced the rebelling nobility in submission.

1075, Pope Gregory published ‘Dictatus Papae’, which had 27 axioms about papal supremacy, including the infallibility of the pope. This started a long dispute with Henry IV.

1/24/1076, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry for selling ecclesiastical offices (absolved 1/1077 after doing penance.)

3/14/1077, Some of the unhappy leaders elected Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia, as an anti-King to Henry. [Soon after, Bishops loyal to Henry elected an anti-Pope, Clement III.]

12/14/1077, Henry’s mother died.

4/1079, Frederick von Buren (756473200) created Duke of Swabia by Henrich IV, King of Germany; and betrothed to Henry’s daughter Agnes.

10/15/1080, Duke Rudolf mortally wounded in battle against Henry’s forces at the Battle of Elster.

4/1/1084, Henry crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by Pope Clement III.

By 1089, Bertha died.

[––Henry––]

1089, Henry married 2nd Eupraxia of Kiev.

1089, Henry invaded Tuscany, a stronghold of Italian resistance.

11/1095, Pope Urban II called for the 1st crusade.

1096, Henry gaves orders to protect Jewish communities in his doman which came under attack by cursaders traveling through his territory.

5/1098, The German nobility deposed Henry’s son Conrad, but elected his 12-year-old son Henry V as co-ruler, who pledged to submit to his father’s authority.

9/8/1100, Antipope Clement III died.

5/1101, Henry suppressed a rebellion at Limburg.

10/1102, Henry rescued Cambrai from a Franconian siege.

1103, Henry proclaimed peace in Germany.

12/31/1105, Henry forced to abdicate by his younger son Henry V.

8/7/1106, Henry died of an illness at Leige in the Lower Lorraine, buried in Speyer cathedral [still under excommunication].

Children of Henry and Bertha:

i. Agnes Hohenstaufen (756441167), born 1072-73 in France.


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