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Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain & Empress Berenguela of Barcelona & Empress Richeza of Poland

 189110312. Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain & 189110313. Empress Berenguela of Barcelona & 189110291. Empress Richeza of Poland

3/1/1105, Alfonso Raimundez born in Spain, d/o 378220624. Count Raymond of Galicia & 378220625. Urraca of Castile.

1107, Alfonso’s father died.

12/1107 at Leon, Alfonso VI [maternal grandfather of Alfonso] called a council of Galician magnates to review his succession in Galacia. Since Count Raymond had died, Alfonso wanted his son Sancho to succeed rather than the son of his daughter Urraca; who could rule as regent unless she remarried. [At the council Guy of Burgundy and Diego Gelmirez named as Urraca’s son’s guardians.]

5/1108, Alfonso VI’s son Sancho died in battle leaving Urraca, mother of Alfonso, as the heir.

7/1/1109, Alfonso’s maternal grandfather died; Alfonso’s mother Uracca succeeding to Leon.

12/1109, Alfonso’s mother married Alfonso I of Aragon, who seized most of her lands causing a civil war. [Many wanted her to marry Count Gomez Gonzalez.]

1111, Pedro Arias lead a Galacian effort to crown Alfonso I of Aragon. His family came under siege at Costrelo do Mino. Bishop Diego Gelmirez effected a comprise between the factions.

9/17/1111, Alfonso became King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. (S) Chronicle of San Juan de la Pena, Nelson, 1991, P114.

1112, Proclaimed: ALFONSO VII el Emperador King of Castile, León and Toledo. (S) FMG.

6/1113 at Burgos, A sermon by Diego Gelmirez, archbishop of Compostela, recalled the glories of Spain under Alfonso VI; and said that since his death, under Queen Urraca and her son ecclesiastical rights had been violated, magnates of Spain reduced to impotence … the rest of Spain dominated by a few.

1114, Alfonso’s step-father accepted a papal nullification of his marriage to his mother Urraca.

12/25/1115, Alfonso with his mother at her Christmas court at Leon.

1116, Urraca toured her territories with her son Alfonso; proclaiming Alfonsa as her co-ruler.

1116, Berenguela born in Barcelona, d/o §§Ramon Berenguer III & Dolça de Gévaudaun. [Berenguela sister of Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona.]

11/27/1116, ‘Hildefonsus Raymundi … rex’ donated property to the abbey of Silos. (S) FMG.

1117, By the truce of the Council of Burgos, war between Castile and Aragon ended. Urraca granted her son Alfonso Toledo and the trans-Duero.

12/9/1117, Alfonso 1st styled himself ‘imperator.’ (S) FMG.

1/24/1118, Pope Gelasius II succeeded Paschal II.

11/20/1118, Alfonso issued a charter to the Cathedral of Toledo.

2/1/1119, Pope Calixtus II succeeded Gelasius II. [Calixtus the brother (Guy) of Raymond of Galicia and paternal uncle of Alfonso.]

3/26/1119, ‘Urracha … Ispanie regina, regis Aldefonsi regineque Constantie filia’ donated property to the abbey of Silos … confirmed by ‘Adefonsus rex, filius … regine’. (S) FMG.

3/20/1120, Pope Calixtus wrote a letter to the bishops, princes, counts, and knights of Spain in support of the rule of Alfonso, and against his mother Urraca.

1120, Urraca arrested Archbishop Gelmirez, but released him when riots forced her to take refuge in the cathedral. [Alfonso appealed to the Pope to not have her excommunicated.]

9/1/1121, Alfonso issued a charter to the monastery of San Pedro de las Duenas.

12/1121, Alfonso, at the urging of Pope Calixtus, mustered forces against his mother, who had imprisoned Archbishop Gelmirez. Queen Urraca ceded to the Pope’s demands.

3/22/1122, Alfonso issued a charter to the monasterio of San Martin de Pinario.

11/29/1123, Alfonso issued a charter to the Cathedral of Toledo.

3/16/1124, Archbishop Gelmirez called a council to announce his selection as a papal legate. Alfonso was in attendance.

4/8/1124, Alfonso VI issued a confirmation charter to the monastery of San Payo de Antealtares. [Comfirmation of Alfonso VI’s grant in 1098.]

5/25/1124, Alfonso knighted as a Christian warrior by Archbishop Gelmirez at Santiago de Compostela. (S) Birth of the Chess Queen, Yalom, 2005, P51.

12/21/1124, Pope Honorius II succeeded Calixtus II.

4/2/1125, On the death of Archbishop Bernard of Toledo, Alfonso and Queen Urraca wrote to Archbishop Gelmirez to warn him against taking advantage of Bernard’s death.

9/11/1125, Alfonso issued a charter to the monastery of San Pedro de las Duenas.

3/10/1126, Alfonso’s mother died; Alfonso formally crowned in Leon as Emperor of Aragon and Pamplona [Navarre] by the court of Barcelona.

3/11/1126, Alfonso arrived at Leon to find that the city was refusing to recognize him; preferring rule by brothers Count Pedro of Lara and Count Rodrigo Gonzalez. Alfonso stormed the fortress of the city, but the brothers escaped.

4/1/1126, Alfonso comfirmed his mother’s grant to the monastery of Silos the previous year.

[––Alfonso & Berenguela––]

1127, Alfonso married to Berenguela.

7/1127, Alfonso and his army intercepted Aragonese forces on their way to Castrojeriz. Count Pedro of Lara initiated an agreement of terms for Alfonso, avoiding a battle.

1127, Alfonso’s claims recognized by his step-father.

1/5/1128 at Tardajos, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to the Cathedral of Leon.

5/22/1128 at Maqueda, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to the Cathedral chapter of Toledo.

1129, Alfonso lands on the frontier again under attack by Alfonso the Battler of Aragon. [The Lara family did not support Alfonso’s defense of the lands.]

1130, Alfonso imprisoned Count Pedro of Lara [and Pedro’s son-in-law] because they were ‘disturbing the kingdom.’

By 1131, Alfonso had regained most of the territories lost to Aragon.

9/7/1132 at Oviedo, Charter of ‘Aldefonsus Hyspanie imperator … cum uxore mea regina Berengaria et Santia mea germana’ to the Cathedral of Zamora.

9/18/1133, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to the Cathedral of Orense.

1134, Alfonso became King of Zaragoza.

9/7/1134, Alfonso’s step-father died without descendents; Alfonso accepted the throne of Aragon while the Count of Mozon accepted Navarre. The barons of Aragon chose instead the brother of Alfonso I, which caused Alfonso to occupy La Rioja  and conquer Zaragoza. [Alfonso did received the homage of Garcia Ramirez and his brother Ramiro of Navarre.]

~1135, Richeza born in Poland, d/o 378220582. King Wladyslaw II & 378220583. Agnes of Babengerg.

5/26/1135 at the church of Santa Maria in Leon, Alfonso crowned Emperor of all of Spain. [In actuality, control much of his eastern territory had been lost during the reign of his mother as regent.] (S) Alfonso 10, The Learned, Marta-Nez, 2010, P123. [Alfonso awarded Garces Ramior the village of Varea for holding his shield during the coronation. Garcia’s daughter Blanca would marry Alfonso’s eldest son.]

5/20/1135 in Najera, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to Fortun Garcia.

1136, Alfonso captured Aragon’s capital of Zaragoza; putting monk Ramiro II as ruler. [In 1150, Ramiro’s daughter married Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona who became ruler.]

7/17/1137 at Compostela, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to Cathedral of Santiago.

12/11/1138 at Compostela, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to monastery of Tojos Outos.

1139, Alfonso could not prevent the creation of Portugal as an independent kingdom.

1140, Alfonso allied with Garcia Ramirez to partition Navarre. Alfonso invaded Navarre, and his ally Garcia invaded Aragon. (S) Spain and Portugal, Williams, 1908, P616.

1140, Alfonso granted lands for the first Cistercian monastery, at Fitero. (S) History of the Church in the Middle Ages, Logan, 2012, P252.

9/24/1141 at Compostela, Charter of Alfonso VII and Berengaria to monastery of San Payo de Antealtares.

7/29/1142 at Burgos, Charter of ‘Adefonsus Hispanie imperator … cum uxore mea Berengaria’

8/1142, ‘Adefonsus Hispanie imperator … cum uxore mea Berengaria’ confirmed a donation to the Cathedral of Coria.

1143, Alfonso Henriques, King of Portugal, recognized as a vassal of Alfonso VII.

10/29/1143, ‘Adefonsus Hispanie imperator … cum uxore mea Berengaria’ donated ‘ecclesiam sancti Vincentii de Salamantica’ to Cluny. (S) FMG.

4/25/1144 at Salamanca, Charter of Alfonso VII, Berengaria, and son Sancho to the Cathedral Salmanca.

1144, Alfonso captured Cordoba from the Muslims [but lost it soon afterwards].

1145, Alfonso granted the Charter of Oviedo: in Toledo, no Jewish convert, or any offspring of such convert, might at any time have the right to public office in Toledo and its territory. (S) The Civil Law in Spain, Walton, P9. [This is the oldest known authentic official document written in Spanish.]

5/1146, Alfonso captured Cordorba. [The invasion of southern Spain by the Almohads would keep Alfonso in military conflicts his whole career.]

1/1147, Alfonso captured Calatrava, a key fortress linking Toledo and Andalusia.

1147, Alfonso, with the help of English, French, German, and Flemish crusaders, captured Santarem and Lisbon.

11/1147, Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain captured Almeria from the Moors, a rich port city. [Lost again in 1157]. King Garcia Ramirez VII (189110314) of Navarre supported Alfonso in the campaign.

11/1147, Alfonso awared Garcia Perez, a Leonese, 2 villages in Tierra de Campos for his conquest of Baiza and Almeria. (S) Aristocracy in 12th Century Leon and Castile, Barton, 2002, P106.

1148, Alfonso’s crusade against Jaen failed.

1148, Alfonso captured Tortosa. (S) FMG.

12/15/1149, Charter of Alfonso VII and Sancho, king, to the inhabitants of Toledo.

Aft. 1149, Berengaria died.


1150, Alfonso’s crusade against Cordoba failed.

1/1151, Alfonso VII and Ramon Berenguer IV by the Treaty of Tudejen partioned the conquering of the kingdom of Navarre. (S) Spain, 1157-1300, Linehan, 2011.

1151, Alfonso sent emissaries to Germany to arrange for a marriage. [Richeza was a prime candidate as the neice of King Conrad III.]

1152, Alfonso’s crusade against Gaudix failed.

[––Alfonso & Richeza––]

Bef. 11/25/1152, Alfonso married Richeza.

10/12/1153 at Sahagun, Alfonso VII, Rica, and Sancho and Fernando, sons, issued a charter to the monastery of Sahagun.

10/1154, Because of rumors that Alfonso’s daughter Constance was not legitimate, King Louis VII traveled to Castile under the pretext of a pilgrimage to Saint Jacques, Gallicia. Alfonso met Louis at Burgos and established the legitimacy of his daughter.(S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007, P165.

1/28/1155, ‘Adefonsus Imperator Hispaniæ . ..cum uxore mea Imperatrice Domina Rica et cum filiis meis Sancio et Ferrando Regibus’ donated property to the bishop of Segovia. (S) FMG.

1155, Alfonso confirmed the Charter of Aviles.

12/28/1155 at Palencia, Alfonso VII, Rica, and Sancho and Fernando, kings, issued a charter to the monastery of Stant Maria de Varzana.

6/1156, Alfonso became severly ill. (S) Social Origins of Medieval Institutions, O’Callaghan, 1998, P100.

1156, Alfonso VII, Rica, and Sancho and Fernando, kings, issued a charter to Pedro Garcia, alcalde de Baeza.

1157, Alfonso captured Jaen. (S) FMG.

8/21/1157, Alfonso VII, Emperor of all of Spain, died while returning from an expedition against Almeria.


1159, Richeza moved to the kingdom of Aragon.

1161, Richeza married Count Ramon Berenguer II of Provence, g/so Ramon Berenguer III & Dolça de Gévaudaun.

1166, Count Ramon Berenguer II died at the siege of Nice.

By 1167, Richeza married Albert III of Everstein and moved to Germany.

6/16/1185, Richeza died in Germany.

(S) The Kingdom of Leon-Castilla Under King Alfonso VII, Reilly, 1998. (S) Crisis of the 12th Century, Bisson, 2009. (S) History of Medieval Spain, O’Callaghan, 1975. (S) The Lara Family, Doubleday, 2001. (S) Calixtus II, Stroll, 2004.

Children of Alfonso and Berenguela:

i. Sancho III of Castile (94555156) born 1134 in Spain.

ii. Sancha of Castile (94555187), born ~1136 in Spain.

iii. Ferdinand II of Leon (47277576), born 1137 in Spain.

iv. Constance of Castile (94555167), born 1141 in Spain.

Child of Alfonso and Richeza:

i. Sanchia of Castile (94555145) born 9/21/1154 in Spain.

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