1038-40, Alfonso ‘El Bravo’ born in Castile, 2nd s/o 1512882500. Fernando I of Castile & Leon & 1512882501. Sancha de León.
Bef. 1045, Constance born in Burgundy, France, d/o 1512882502. Robert I of Burgundy & 1512882503. Elie of Samur.
8/31/1050, Ferdinand I King of Castile confirmed the union of the monastery of San Martín del Río with San Pedro de Cardeñas subscribed by ‘Adefonsus filius regis, Garsea filio regis, Urraca filia regis, Tegridia filia regis.’
~1060, Jimena born in Spain, d/o §§Unio Muñoz & Velasquita ?.
3/10/1065, ‘Fredernandus … Legionensis rex … cum coniuge mea regina dna Sancia et filiis meis’ confirmed the privileges of Santiago de Compostela, subscribed by ‘Adefonsus filius regis, Garsea filius regis, Urraca filia regis, Geloira filia regis.’
Constance 1st married to Hugo II, comte de Chalons, prince of Burgundy.
1064, In the partition of his father’s lands as approved by a council Alfonso received León and the parias from the Taifa state of Toledo.
12/27/1065, Alfonso’s father died.
1065, Alfonso, King of Leon.
1067, Pedro Ansurez [not yet a count] subscribed a charter of King Alfonso VI. [Pedro in 114 documents of Alfonso VI and his sisters.] (S) Cross, Crescent and Conversion, Barton, 2008, P115.
7/19/1068, Alfonso fought against his brother Sancho II of Castille at the battle of Llantada. [Not a decisive victory. Sancho’s standar-bearer was Rodrigo Diaz de Viviar – also known as ‘El Cid’.]
11/22/1068, Count Pedro Ansurez subscribed a charter of King Alfonso VI. (S) Cross, Crescent and Conversion, Barton, 2008, P114.
By 1069, Alfonso bethrowed by proxy to Agathe of Normandy, d/o William I of England. [Agathe died enroute, her body buried at Bayeux.]
1071, Alfonso with Sancho II, by battle, took control of the lands of their younger brother Garcia, who they captured. Garcia was sent into exile in Seville.
10/15/1071, ‘Adefonsus rex’ donated ‘hereditates quos ganabit pater meus de comite Flagino Fredenandiz …’ to ‘soror mea domina Urracca prolis Fredenandiz.’
1/1072, Alfonso, defeated in battle at Golpejera, and then dispossed by his brother Sancho II, went into exile in Toledo; seeking refuge with the Dhul-Nunid King. [Alfonso’s oldest sister Urraca rebelled against Sancho after the exile.]
10/7/1072, Alfonso’s brother Sancho assasinated at Zamora; Alfonso the heir of the reconstituted kingdom of their father.
11/10/1072, Alfonso arrived back in Leon.
11-12/1072, Alfonso accepted as King of Castille.
12/8/1072, Alfonso generated a charter witnessed by abbot Fuentes de Castilla III.
1/16/1073, Alfonso generated a charter witnessed by abbot Silos.
2/13/1073, Meeting with his brother Alfonso, Garcia, having returned from Seville, again captured. Garcia imprisoned at the castle of Luna [for the remainder of his life.]
4/22/1073, Pope Gregory VII succeeded Pope Alexander II.
5/29/1073, Alfonso granted the order of Cluny its first monastic house in Castile at San Isidro de Dueñas.
3/1074, Pope Gregory wrote to Alfonso stating that the ‘Mozarabic liturgy’ [used in Toledo] was tainted and not orthodox. [Even though their books had been approved by Rome in 1065.]
1074, Aflonso married Agnes [‘Inez’ in Castile], d/o Guillaume VIII, duke of Aquitaine.
1074-5, Alfonso submitted the liturgical question to ‘trial by combat.’ The Roman champion was defeated.
3/14/1075, Alfonso generated a charter witnessed by an abbot.
1/1075 at Compostela, Alfonso a patron of a new cathedral at Santiago assembled a council of magnates and 8 bishops. (S) Art of Medieval Spain, Metro. Mus. of Art, 1993, P175.
3/21/1076, Contance’s father died.
1/1076, Alfonso’s cousin, Sancho Garcia IV, king of Navarre, assassinated.
1076, Alfonso invaded Navarre, annexing La Rioja, Álava, Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa to Castile. [Alfonso partitioned Navarre with his cousin Sancho Ramirez I, King of Aragon.]
1076, The Roman liturgy was adopted in Castile and León.
1/28/1077, Pope Gregory VII asserted papal suzerainty over Spain.
1077, Alfonso repudiated Agnes.
5/22/1077, Alfonso made a donation to the abbey of Cluny in San Isidro, doubling the annual census payment. ‘Agnes regina’ confirmed the donation.
[–––Alfonso & Jimena–––]
1077, Alfonso took Jimena as a mistress. [2 daughters: Teresa and Elvira.]
10/17/1077, Alfonso, ‘imperator totius hispaniae.’
1078, Alfonso appealed to Pope Gregory to send a papal legate to convince his people of the need to change the liturgy.
1078, Alfonso asked Hugh, abbot of Cluny [in Burgundy], to send a monk to become the abbot of Sahagun.
1078, Pope Gregory threatened Alfonso with excommunication if he did not put aside his mistress.
1079, Alfonso sent El Cid to the court of al-Mutamid to collect the parias owed to Leon-Castile.
11/1079, Constance’s husband Hughes died in Spain.
[–––Alfonso & Constance–––]
12/1079, Alfonso married Constance of Burgundy.
12/25/1079 at Duenas, Constance subscribed a charter of Alfonso.
1080, Pope Gregory convened a council at Burgos, headed by a papal legate, to adopt the Roman liturgy throughout Leon and Castile.
5/8/1080, El Cid subscribed a charter of King Alfonso at this court.
6/27/1080, Pope Gregory VII wrote a letter objecting to King Alfonso’s marriage on the grounds of consanguinity.
1080, Al-Qadir fled Toledo and appealed to Alfonso to aid him.
1080-81, Alfonso siezed Coria in the Targus, and promised to restore Al-Qadir to power on the condition that he surrender Toledo and move to Valencia.
4/1081, Alfonso took [temporarily] Toledo. [Alfonso wrote a letter to Pope Gregory about appointing a future archbishop for the city.]
1081, ‘El Cid’, exiled by Alfonso, with a band of followers left Leon for Barcelona, then on to Zaragoza. [El Cid had waged an independent war against the king of Grenada.]
1082-3, The embassy sent by Alfonso to get the tribute of the King of Seville was given with some of the money in debased coinage, which was refused. The Jewish head of the delegation was nailed to a post. This caused Alfonso to mount an offensive against Seville. (S) Almoravids and the Meanings of Jihad, Messier, 2010, P73.
1083, Alfonso ravaged the kingdom of Seville, and continued south until he proclaimed: ‘This is the very end of Spain and I have set foot upon it.’ (S) History of Spain, Chapman, 1918, P72.
1083, Alfonso received Mayrit [Madrid] from the ruler of Toledo in return for help in capturing Valencia. (S) Madrid 6, Ham, 2010, P23.
7/1084, Alfonso began a siege of Toledo; religious center of the Visigoths in Spain.
5/25/1085, Alfonso completed the conquest of the Taifa [al-Mu’tamid] of Toledo. [Without opposition from El Cid, who had opposed other Christian attackers.]
5/25/1085, Pope Victor III succeeded Pope Gregory VII.
1085, Alfonso and Constanca issued a charter creating the abbatial lordship of Sahagun. (S) Crisis of the 12th Century, Bisson, 2009, P251.
10/1/1085, ‘Monnio Moniz, uxor sua Velasquita, Xemena Moniz’ subscribed the charter by which ‘Gelvira Petriz’ donated property in Priaranza to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes. [–––Jimena–––]
1086, Alfonso besieged Zaragoza.
1086, Alfonso imposed his Government on the kingdom of Valencia, where he installed as ruler the deposed al-Qadir ex-taifa King of Toledo.
6/1086, The Murabit from north Africa [Almoravids] landed at Algeciras [and then advanced on Seville.]
10/23/1086, The Murabit from north Africa, supporting al-Mu'tamid King of Seville, defeated Alfonso at the Zallaqah near Badajoz. [The end could have been much worse; but the Murabit quickly returned to Africa because of a royal death.]
1086, Raymond [of Galacia] participated in the expedition of his brother-in-law Eudes I, duke of Burgundy, to reconqueror Muslim held territories. They arrived too late to help Alfonso. (S) Calixtus II, Stroll, 2004, P232.
4/25/1087, Count Raimundo [of Galacia] a witness to a grant of Alfonso VI to the clergy of Astorga cathedral.
7/1087, El Cid back in the court of King Alfonso.
8/5/1087, ‘Ducem Burgundiæ Oddonem’ recalls a donation to Tournus abbey by ‘comitissa Cabillonensis filia Rotberti ducis’, after the death of ‘mariti sui Hugonis comitis’ [adding that she subsequently became ‘Regina Galliciæ et Hispaniarum.’]
9/16/1087, Pope Urban II succeeded Pope Victor III.
1088, The See of Santiago de Compostela became vacant and the revenues were confiscated by Alfonso.
1088, Pope Urban II created former Cluniac monk Bernard as archbishop of Toledo. [Alfonso and Bernard would create new sees with French Cluniac monks.]
6/1089, Alfonso ended the siege of Aledo by Yusuf ibn Tashufin [of Morocco.]
1/28/1090, ‘Adefonsus rex Legionis et totius Hispanie imperator atque Fredenandi filius regis’ granted privileges to Santiago de Compostela, with the advice of ‘generis mei comitis domini Raimundi’.
3/22/1090, Alfonso’s imprisoned brother Garcia died in prison at Luna.
1090, Raymond of Galacia married Alfonso’s daughter Urraca; was designated the heir of Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon; and installed in Santiago as Count and Countess of Galacia.
3/1091, Yusuf ibn Tashufin captured Cordoba and besieged Seville.
1091, Alfonso recaptured Cordoba.
5/1/1092, ‘Raymondus gener regis’ confirmed the donation by ‘Adefonsus … Hispaniarum rex … cum coniuge mea Constantia regina’ of property to the monastery of San Salvador de Oña. (S) FMG.
4/1093, Alfonso persuaded Al-Mutawakkil of Badajoz to cede him Lisbon, Santarem and Sintra.
5/1093, Alfonso transferred the cities of Lisbon, Santarem and Cintra to his son-in-law, Raymond, Conde de Galicia y Coimbra.
7-10/1093, Constance died; buried at in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo at Sahagun, Leon. (S) Calixtus II, Stroll, 2004, P233.
1093, Alfonso had a son, Sancho, by his mistress Zaida, a Moorish princess.
2/1094, Alfonso VI named Raymond of Galacia as ‘Count of Coimbra and all Galicia.’
1094, Alfonso combined the fiefs of Coimbra and Oporto, south of the Minho river, into one county and gave it to Henri of Burgundy, who was married to his illegitimate daughter Tarasia. [Future Portugal.]
1094, Badajoz captured by the Almoravids; and Rodrigo Díaz, ‘el Cid’ [previously an enemy of Alfonso], re-captured Valencia, establishing himself as an autonomous prince.
1094-5, Alfonso VI combined the fiefs of Coimbra and Oporto, south of the Minho river, into one county and gave it to Henri of Burgundy, who was married to his illegitimate daughter Tarasia. [Future Portugal. This likely ended the pact between Raymond and Henri.]
By 4/1095, Alfonso married Berta, repudiated wife of Henry IV, Emperor of Germany.
9/26/1095, ‘Xemeno Monniuz’ sold ‘mea porcione quam habui inter fratres meos.’ [–––Jimena–––]
1096, ‘Comite Dono Henrico ... cum uxore mea Infante Dona Taraxea’ granted privileges to ‘Villa Constantin de Panonias’, by charter.
12/17/1096, ‘Vellite Ferrudiz ‘ sold property in Salas de los Barrios to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, names ‘Xemena Munniz in Ulver.’ [–––Jimena–––]
5/19/1097, ‘Adefonsus … totius Hispanie imperator’ granted rights to the abbey of Silos, with the consent of ‘uxoris mee Berte regine.’
1097, El Cid’s son Diego Rodriguez died fighting in the service of Alfonso at the battle of Consuegra.
4/7/1098, A charter of Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon names both of his sons-in-laws. (S) Curia and Cortes in Leon and Castile, Procter, 1980, P15.
5/28/1098, Alfonso VI issued a charter to the monastery of San Payo de Antealtares. (S) The Kingdom of Leon-Castilla Under King Alfonso VII, Reilly, 1998, P325.
8/13/1099, Pope Paschal II succeeded Urban II.
3/14/1099, A charter under which Alfonso VI, King of Castile, donated the monastery of Santa María de Algadefe to the monastery of Eslonza.
6/10/1099, El Cid died in Valencia; buried at San Pedro de Cardena [then moved to Burgos Cathedral.]
1099, Alfonso sent emissaries to ask Urban II for permission to hold an election at Santiago.
1/1100, Berta died.
1/25/1100, ‘Adefonsus … Toletani imperii rex’ donated the churches of ‘Sancti Facundi et Sancti Primitivi … in vita sua dederam uxori mee Berte regine’, to Cluny, confirmed by ‘Raimundus totius Gallecie comes et gener regis, Urraca soror regis, Urraca regis filia et Raimundi comitis uxor, Enricus Portugalensis comes, uxor ipsius Tarasia filia regis.’
Bef. 5/14/1100, Alfonso married Isabel ? [likely of Burgundy.]
1100, ‘Adefonsus Rex Imperator Ispanie et Regina Elisabeth’ protected the grazing rights of Valladolid Santa María.
1100, Toledo besieged by the Murabit.
9/16/1100, Count Henri of Burgundy led an expedition in the service of Alfonso VI, and was defeated at Malagon near Ciudad Real.
4/26/1101, ‘Xemena Munniz’ donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes. [–––Jimena–––]
5/5/1102, Alfonso had to evacuate Valencia, falling to the Murabit. Alfonso burned the town as he left. [This began many emigrations of Mozarabs into Castile.]
3/23/1103, A charter under which ‘Adefonsus totius Ispanie imperator’ donated property to the monastery of San Salvador de Oña with the consent of ‘uxoris mee Helisabet regine’.
6/22/1103, Count Pedro Ansurez subscribed a charter of King Alfonso VI. (S) Cross, Crescent and Conversion, Barton, 2008, P116.
1104, Alfonso captured the fortress town of Medinaceli.
4/19/1104, ‘Xemena Monnuz imperante terra de Ulver’ named in a charter to San Pedro de Montes. [–––Jimena–––]
1105, Alfonso VI authorized a mint at Santiago. (S) Calixtus the Second, Stroll, 2004, P237.
1105, Alfonso VI set up an informal translation center in Toledo, where the most widely spoken language was Arabic. The purpose was to make the Arab language texts systematically available to Western Christendom. (S) Sociological Exploration, Flannery, 2007, P117.
Bef. 3/1106, Isabel died.
1106, Alfonso married Zaida, mother of his son Sancho, and widow of Abu Nasir al Fatah al Ma'Mun, Emir of Córdoba [separated by papal decree.]
1106, Alfonso led raiding parties into Muslim territories.
9/1106, Yusuf, the Muslim leader, died; succeeded by his son ‘Ali ibn Yusuf’.
1/19/1107, ‘Xemena Monnuz imperante terra de Ulver’ named in a charter to San Pedro de Montes. [–––Jimena–––]
9/13/1107, Zaida died.
12/1107 at Leon, Alfonso VI called a council of Galician magnates to review his succession in Galacia. Since Count Raymond had died, Alfonso wanted his son to succeed rather than the son of his daughter Urraca; who could rule as regent unless she remarried.
5/29/1108, ‘Ali ibn Yusuf marched on Toledo; but was intercepted at Ucles. Alfonso’s son and heir, Sancho, died in the battle along with 7 other counts.
1108, Alfonso declared his daughter Urraca the hier to Castile. (S) FMG.
7/1/1109, Alfonso died.
4/18/1127, ‘Ximena Munniz’ donated property to ‘nepotis mei … Garcie Fernandiz’.
1128, Jimena died; buried at San Andres de Espinareda.
(S) Medieval Iberia, Gerli, 2003. (S) Queens of Aragon, Miron, 1913. (S) New Cambridge Medieval History, 1995, P188. (S) Curia and Cortes in Leon and Castile, Procter, 1980. (S) Calixtus II, Stroll, 2004. (S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Constance styled in France as the “Christian, first Christian Queen of Toledo.” Constance converted the Toledo mosque back into a Christian cathedral.
Child of Alfonso and Jimena:
i. Tarasia of Bierzo (189110309), born 1078-9 in Castile.
Child of Alfonso and Constance:
ii. Urraca of Castile (378220625), born 1081 in Castile.