1001, Duncan born in Scotland, s/o §§Crinan Mormaer of Atholl. Crinan s/o §§Duncan of Atholl, 3rd s/o §§King Malcolm I of Scotland. [This is not Crinan “the Thane”, who was a lay-abbot of Dunkeld. He married Bethoc, d/o Malcolm II. Malcolm II had no surviving sons.]
1005, Mael Coluim mac Cinaeda [Malcolm II] succeeded as King of Scotland.
~1010, Sybilla born in northern England, d/o §§Earl Siward of Denmark.
10/18/1016, King Edmund of England, defeated at the battle of Ashingdon, gave Danish King Cnut all of England except for Wessex [which would be included on the death of Edmund.]
11/30/1016, Cnut became King of Denmark and all of England.
1018, The battle of Carham established the Scottish claim to [Northumbria] land south of the Tweed. [Battle between ‘Huctredum filium Waldef comitem Northymbrorum’ and ‘Malcolmum filium Cyneth regem Scottorum.’]
1018, By appointment of his uncle King Malcolm II, Duncan succeeded as King of Strathclyde [SW Scotland]; succeeding Owen-the-Bald, the British King.
[––Duncan & Sybilla––]
By 1030, Duncan married Sybilla.
1031, King Canute of Denmark and England visited Scotland and received homage from its leaders. [After visiting Rome.]
11/25/1034, Ducan ursuped to the crown of Scotland. Duncan started immediately to eliminate anyone with a claim to the crown. [Duncan the next heir of Malcolm I: his paternal grandfather.]
1035, Mac Beath [Shakespears’ Macbeth], Mormaor of Moray [northeast coast of the middle of Scotland], and his 1st cousin, was poisoned, likely by Duncan; but recovered due to a local priest identifying the poison as meiklewort.
1035, Ducan raised an army of 3000 to invade Caithness [northeaster tip of Scotland] by sea. Earl Thorfinn Sigurdson of Orkney [half-brother of Mac Beath, Orkney the islands off the coast of Caithness] found out about the attack and countered with a fleet from Kirk Cuthert in Galloway [in southern Scotland on the boarder of Northumbria, England], landing an army of 2000 men. Duncan’s forces [he was not the commander] had split up and were defeated by the locals and the forces of Thorfinn, who took no prisoners.
7/1035, Duncan, with 11 ships borrowed from his father-in-law, sent 2600 soldiers with 200 horses against Thorfinn’s lands of Galloway. The ‘Orkneyingasaga’ gives a graphic account of the sea fight in which the heavily outnumbered Thorfinn captured or sank 6 of the war galleys, during which sea battle, Thorfinn grappled and boarded King Duncan’s ship. Duncan fled to another ship lying alongside and ordered his 5 surviving ships to retreat homewards.
11/12/1035, King Canute of Denmark and England died, naming his son Hardicanute as his heir. Hardicanute remained in Denmark, and England split, the south loyal to Hardicanute, the north loyal to Harold, Hardicanute’s half brother.
1035-38, Thorfinn assembled a fleet and manned it with 3000 Orcadians and Shetlanders to invade the East coast of Scotland and exact his revenge and punish the Mormaors who had supported Duncan with men and money. There was great destruction and loss of life before Thorfinn laden with plunder returned to Orkney.
1038, Duncan made a series of attacks into Northumbria.
1039, Duncan decided to embark on a major military expedition to annex Northumbria [home of his father-in-law] and Durham to the Scottish crown. Duncan besieged Durham for 2 weeks. Earl Siward landed his army on the banks of the Wear river and attacked the Scots from behind. Almost all of the Scottish army was wiped out; only a few mounted soldiers escaping, including Duncan.
1039-40, Duncan returned to a revolt of the Mormaors and Thanes who wanted to replace him with Mac Beath.
1040, Hardicanute became king of both Denmark and England.
1040, Duncan with an army of about 5000, from Dublin, Saxony and Northumbria, invaded Moray. The main goal was to kill Mac Beath and all members of his family. Duncan again made the mistake of dividing his forces.
8/14/1040, Duncan commanding the non-Irish forces attacked Torfness and were met by the forces of Thorfinn, both sides suffering heavy casualties; but Thorfinn’s forces gaining the victory. Duncan fled with about 500 men.
8/1040, Mac Beath, hearing news of the victory, took 300 mounted men and caught up with Duncan near Spynie. The forces engaged in an all-out battle in which the wounded Mac Beath was able to severly wound Duncan and knock him off his mount.
8/1040, Duncan “the Vicious” died during the night due to hemorrhaging from his wounds. Thorfinn had Duncan’s body taken by longship to Iona for burial; where Mac Beath was elected King.
(S) Celtic Scotland, V1, Skene, 1876. (S) Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
Bethoc of Scotland also married to Crinan, lay abbot of Dunkeld.
In 1057, Duncan’s son Malcolm would kill Mac Beath mac Findlaích [Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’] in battle. Duncan and Mac Beath were cousins.
Children of Duncan and Sybilla:
i. Malcolm III Caenmore of Scotland (378220550), born 1031 in Scotland.
ii. Donald III Bane of Scotland (378251846), born ~1039 in Scotland.