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Monday, August 10, 2020

King Philip IV Capet & Queen Jeanne of Navarre

 5909698. King Philip IV Capet & 5909699. Queen Jeanne of Navarre

5/1268, Philip born in Fontainebleau, France, s/o 23640666. King Philip III & 11819396. Queen Isabella of Aragon.

7/2/1270, Philip’s parents and grandfather left on crusade.

8/25/1270, Philip’s grandfather, King Louis IX, died on crusade.                 

1/28/1271, Philip’s mother Isabella died while returning from crusade.

8/12/1271, Philip’s father crowned King of France.

11/16/1272, Edward I ascended to the throne of England while on crusade when his father Henry III died.

1/14/1273, Jeanne born in Navarre, France, d/o 11819398. King Henry III of Navare  & 11819893. Blanche of Artois.

11/30/1273, Jeanne as an infant pledged to marry King Edward I’s 2nd son Henry, then age 5.

1273, Jeanne’s older brother Thibaut killed in a fall from a tower. Jeanne became the heir.

7/1274, Jeanne became Queen of Navarre on the death of her father, as well as Countess of Champagne, Brie, and Bigorre.

8/21/1274 at Chateau de Vincennes, Philip’s father married Marie of Brabant.

10/1274, Henry of England died at age 6.

5/1275, Jeanne, pledged in marriage to a son of King Philip III, was taken to the royal court to be raised. [Jeanne would receive an excellent education from Philip’s stepmother Queen Marie.]

5/1276, King Philip III’s oldest son Louis died leaving Jeanne pledged to younger son Philip.

5/17/1284, Jeanne declared to be of age.

8/16/1284 in Paris, Philip knighted and married to Jeanne, becoming King of Navarre in her name. Jeanne herself governed her county of Champagne.

1284, King Philip III ordered an inquest to prove that Jeanne could inherit the county of Champagne at age 11.

1284, King Philip III and his sons, including Philip IV, entered Roussillon at the head of a large army on what is called the Aragonese Crusade. [The kingdom of Aragon was at war with King Charles of Naples.]

1285, Philip, age 17, commanded a Papal sanctioned army with Charles, Count of Valois, and attacked the cities and towns of the county of Roussillon in Basque Spain, killing thousands in the cities of Elne and Girona.

9/30/1285, Philip III’s retreating forces defeated at the battle of the Col de Panissars. After the previous defeat of his naval forces at the battle of Les Formigues, and sickness spreading in his land forces, Philip arranged with King James II of Majorca for himself and the royal family to retreat to France.

10/5/1285, Philip IV became King on the death of his father in Perpignan; Jeanne became Queen.

1/6/1286, Philip crowned King of France at Rheims; but at his wish Jeanne retained control of Navarre as Queen, and also let her retain control of Champagne, which was no longer independent.

9/1287, Philip to Babban Cauma, ambassador of Argoun, King of the Tartars: “If the Mongolians, who are not Christians, fight to capture Jerusalem, we have much more reason to fight; if it be God’s will, we will go with an army.”

1288, Philip, impressed with Jeanne’s governing abilities, added territory to her control in Brie and Champagne. Philip also deferred until after her death collection of money owed for the defense of Navarre.

1289, Philip added Quercy to his demesne by treaty in return for a yearly sum.

Bef. 8/25/1290, in Paris, Philip, king of France, agreed to the marriage settlement of Thomas, eldest son of Edmund, brother of King Edward I of England, and Beatrice, daughter of Hugh, son of the duke of Burgundy. (S) CPRs.

1291, Philip purchased Beaugency.

1293, Philip purchased Maguellone and the eastern part of town of Montpellier.

1294, Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, “tricked” into allowing Philip “temporary” possession of Gascony. [Once Philip had his knights in place, he kept possession.] Edward I had renounced his homage requirement of 1286. Philip IV was trying to make ties with the Scots, and Edward I was creating allies on the continent.

1294-95, Philip captured many English-held lands in Guienne [southwest France.]

10/1294, Philip named Jeanne regent of France in case he died before his sons came of age.

1295, King Philip began building a large fleet of ships to fight England on the seas.

1295, King Philip ordered the 1st general taxation in France [to support the invasion of England.]

8/1295, 600 French ships and 30 galleys attacked Dover. From England, 80 ships and 5 galleys attacked the coast of Normandy. In the same month, there was a small engagement of English and French ships near Winchelsea, England.

12/21/1295, Philip arranged and attended funeral of his grandmother Queen Marguerite.

1296, Philip excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII. Philip had forbade the export of any money from France, which affected the papal coffers.

1296, Philip invaded and took possession of Gascony from the English.

1297, Philip arrested the papal legate over the Clericis Laicos written in response to Philip’s taxation of clerics.

1297, Queen Jeanne at the head of her forces repelled an invasion in Champagne of the Count of Bar; capturing the Count in battle.

1297, Philip got his grandfather King Louis IX canonized.

1297, Guy of Dampierre, count of Flanders, allied himself with Edward I of England against Philip IV of France.

10/9/1297 at Ghent, King Edward and King Philip agreed to make a truce.

1298, Scot William Wallace [Braveheart], after the battle of Falkirk, come to France to get the support of King Philip against Edward I.

6/19/1298, Treaty of Montreuil, which provided for Isabella's future betrothal to Edward of Caernarvon. Philip was to give Isabella a dowry of £18,000, and once she became Queen of England, she was to have in dower all the lands formerly held by Eleanor of Castile, which were in the interim to be settled by Edward I on his sister Marguerite; who was to marry King Edward I, these amounted to £4,500 per annum. Should Edward I default on the treaties, he would forfeit Gascony; if Philip defaulted, he would pay Edward a fine of £100,000.

10/1299, Philip IV finally ratified the Treaty of Montreuil.

1/1300,Philip, with the help of the Leliaerts, overran Flanders and imprisoned Guy of Dampierre, count of Flanders. Jeanne accompanying her husband on his expedition.

1301, Philip’s authrority over the county of Burgundy was recognized.

1302, Enguerran de Marigny the officer in charge of Jeanne’s pantry. [Enguerran went on to become Philip’s guardian of the treasury and confidant.]

1302, Pope Boniface, again in conflict with Philip over papal rights, issued a proclamation that it was necessary for salvation for every human being to be subject to the Roman pontiff. Philip responded by instigating rumors about the pope, such as, that he had a private demon as a counselor.

1302, Philip assembled the 3 orders of the nation to gain their support. [Thus founding the Estates General.]

5/2/1302, Joan’s mother Blanche died; Joan, queen of France, named her executrix. (S) CPRs, 2/20/1303.

7/11/1302, Philip’s forces defeated by Flemings at Courtrai [aka Battle of the Golden Spurs], West Flanders.

3/22/1303, Power [by King Edward of England]  to … and Henry de lacy, the king’s kinsmen, … to make a treaty of confederacy with the envoys and proctors of Philip, king of France, against all men except the Pope. (S) CPRs.

4/13/1303, Pope Boniface VIII excommunicated Philip IV because he did not agree to the Pope’s arbitration of the war with England.

8/23/1303, Philip ratified the 2nd Treaty of Paris, restoring Gascony to its status before 1294. [With only a few execptions, lands occupied by the French were slowly restored to England.] Edward was to aid France against the Flemish, and Philip was to expel all Scots from France.

9/7/1303, Philip ordered the arrest of Pope Boniface VIII, charging him with heresy and immorality. His men sacked the papal palace at Anagni. The pope fled to Rome [where he died October 12th.]

1303-04, Philip and Jeanne toured the Midi, visiting Toulouse and Carcassonne.

4/9/1304, [King Edward  of England] … to collect … 20 ships in all the towns of the Cinque Ports … furnished with 40 defensible men and other things necessary for acts of war. … granted to Philip, king of France … for 4 months … as an aid to that king’s expedition into Flanders … ready to sail for Flanders by Midsummer … (S) CPRs.

1304, Jeanne founded the College de Navarre in Paris.

1304, Philip sent another army north to Flanders to quell rebelling barons.

8/18/1304, at the battle of Mons-en-Pevele, the mailed French knights broke the ranks of the Flemish pikemen. 6,000 Flemings fell to French swords.

3/1305, Jeanne died at the Chateau of Vincennes; buried at Couvent des Cordeliers, Paris. [Destroyed by fire in 1580.] Jeanne left 40,000 livres parisis to endow a hospital at Chateau-Thierry and the College de Navarre in Paris.


1305, In a treaty with Flanders, which was to remain independent, Philip acquired several French-speaking towns including Lille and Douai.

11/14/1305, Philip attended the coronation at Lyon of Pope Clement V [Bertrand de Got of Bordeaux, neither an Italian nor a Cardinal.]

1306, Philip expelled the Jews from France.

1306, King Philip reinstated the judical duel [which he had banned in 1296] to appease his barons.

1306, King Philip confiscated the assets of the Lombards, Italian bankers.

1307, By ordinance King Philip defined the Parliament, which met in the royal palace in Paris, as an assembly with judicial and financial powers, but not legislative.

1307, Philip added the county of Bigorre to the realm by treaty and paying a yearly sum.

7/7/1307, King Edward I of England died.

10/13/1307, a Friday, King Philip, with an official Papal bull, was responsible for the killing of the Templar knights in France. [The source of paraskavedekatriaphobia, triscadecaphobia is fear of the number 13]. [The trials of the Templars lasted from that date through until 3/18/1314 when Jacques de Molay the last (known) Grand Master of the order was burned at the stake.]

1/25/1308 in Boulogne, France, Philip present when Prince Edward married his daughter Isabella. All of Philip’s children were present. Others present: Charles II, King of Naples; Albert of Hapsburg, King of the Romans; Arch-Duke Leopold I of Austria; Marie, Dowager Queen of France; Marguerite, Dowager Queen of England; Duke Jan II of Brabant and his wife Margaret [sister of Prince Edward.]

2/25/1308, Edward II crowned king of England.

6/9/1308, Philip wrote to Henry of Carinthia, King of Bohemia, to propose Charles of Valois as a candidate for the crown of Germany. [Charles was not chosen.]

1308, King Philip called a general assembly to discuss issues assoicated with the Knights Templars.

3/1309, The Papal court was removed from Rome to France where the Pope was provided with a refurbished palace and fortified castle at Avignon by Philip. [Avignon was then in the imperial fief of the King of Sicily.]

1311, At the Council of Vienne, Cardinal Clement V accepted the suppression of the Knights Templar by Philip in the grounds of heresey and immorality.

3/1312, Philip IV held a general assembly of his kingdom at Lyons. [Members came from the 1st Estate – the church, the 2nd Estate – nobility, the 3rd Estate – the peasantry.]

6/2/1313, King Edward II arrived in Paris where he participated with his father-in-law King Philip IV in knighting 200 plus.

1313, King Philip confiscated Montagne and Tournai.

1314, Philip presided over the trial and execution of 2 knights charged with adultery with his daughters-in-law Marguerite, Joan and Blanche. [Marguerite and Blanche were convicted, Joan was cleared.]

11/29/1314, Philip, “the fair”, died while hunting; buried at Basilica Sainte-Denis, Paris.

(S) Memoires of the Queens of France, V1, Bush, 1843. (S) Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. (S) Catholic Encyclopedia. (S) King Edward II: Edward of Caernarfon, Haines, 2003. (S) Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry, 2000. (S) The Capetians, Bradbury, 2007. (S) The Lives of the Kings and Queens of France, Cuc de Castries, 1979.

Family notes:

·         The appearance of legists in the Government of France is one of the leading events of the reign of Philip IV. Renan explains its significance in these words: "An entirely new class of politicians, owing their fortune entirely to their own merit and personal efforts, unreservedly devoted to the king who had made them, and rivals of the Church, whose place they hoped to fill in many matters, thus appeared in the history of France, and were destined to work a profound change in the conduct of public affairs.” Legists were called the chevaliers de l'hôtel, the chevaliers ès lois, the milites regis; they were not nobles, neither did they bear arms, but they ranked as knights.

·         Queen Jeanne, in her final years, had Jean, sire de Joinville, produce his great work Le Livre des Saintes Paroles et des Bons Faiz de Notre Roy Saint Looys, published 1305-06.

·         Note: 6 French kings died in the span of 68 years.

Children of Philip and Jeanne:

i. King Louis X, born 10/1289 in France.

Louis married Marguerite, d/o the Duke of Burgundy.

King Louis readmitted the Jews to France.

6/5/1316, King Louis “the Quarreler” died. [Louis posthumous son died an infant].

ii. King Philip V, born 1292 in France.

1307, Philip married Joan, eldest d/o Otto IV, Count of Burgundy.

1/3/1322, King Philip “the Tall” died without a male heir.

iii. King Charles IV, born 6/1294 in France.

1308, Charles married Blanche, d/o Otto IV, Count of Burgundy. [Annulled]

Charles married Marie, d/o Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor.

1325, Charles married Jeanne d’Evreux, his cousin.

2/1/1328, Charles died without a male heir; the end of the Capet line.

iv. Queen Isabella (2954849), born 1295 in France.

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